|Observation data (Epoch J2000)|
|Right ascension||08h 54m 48.9s|
|Declination||+20° 06′ 31″|
|Distance||3.5 Gly (1.073 Gpc)|
|Apparent magnitude (V)||15.43|
|EGO 0851+202, 3EG J0853+1941, RGB J0854+201|
|See also: Quasar, List of quasars|
OJ 287 is a BL Lac object 5 billion light-years from Earth that has produced quasi-periodic optical outbursts going back approximately 120 years, as first apparent on photographic plates from 1891. Seen on photographic plates since at least 1887, it was first detected at radio wavelengths during the course of the Ohio Sky Survey. It is a supermassive black hole binary (SMBHB). The intrinsic brightness of the flashes corresponds to over a trillion times the Sun's luminosity, greater than the entire Milky Way galaxy's light output.
Given the variability in the SMBHB's bursts and properties, multiple models have been proposed to account for these flashes. The first model proposed gives the mass of the primary black hole to be approximately 18.35 billion solar masses and the secondary black hole around 150 million. Other more recent models have proposed that the central supermassive black hole was calculated to have a mass of 100 million solar masses, much less than previous estimations. This would make its Schwarzschild radius about 1.97 AU, which would swallow up part of the asteroid belt between Mars and Jupiter if it replaced the sun.
The optical light curve shows that OJ 287 has a periodic variation of 11–12 years with a narrow double peak at maximum brightness. This kind of variation suggests that it is a binary supermassive black hole. The double-burst variability is thought to result from the smaller black hole punching through the accretion disc of the larger black hole twice in every 12 years.
A secondary orbits the larger one with an observed orbital period of ~12 years and a calculated eccentricity of ~0.65. The maximum brightness is obtained when the minor component moves through the accretion disk of the supermassive component at perinigricon. The perinigricon and aponigricon of its orbit are ~3,250 and ~17,500 AU, the latter is also ~0.275 light-year and ~0.085 parsec. In recent models, the mass of the secondary supermassive black hole has been estimated to be approximately 125 million solar masses, although this has been debated through multiple studies. [CN]
An international research group, lead by Stefanie Komossa, calculated the mass of the primary black hole. "The results show that an exceptionally massive black hole exceeding 10 billion solar masses is no longer needed...the results favor models with a smaller mass of 100 million solar masses for the primary black hole".
- "NED results for object OJ +287". NASA/IPAC Extragalactic Database. Retrieved 2008-07-10.
- "QSO J0854+2006". SIMBAD. Centre de données astronomiques de Strasbourg. Retrieved 15 March 2018.
- Camille M. Carlisle (13 January 2015). "Black Hole Binary En Route to Merger?". Sky & Telescope.
- Laine, S.; Dey, L.; Valtonen, M.; Gopakumar, A.; Zola, S.; Komossa, S.; Kidger, M.; Pihajoki, P.; Gómez, J.L.; Caton, D.; Ciprini, S.; Drozdz, M.; Gazeas, K.; Godunova, V.; Haque, S.; Hildebrandt, F.; Hudec, R.; Jermak, H.; Kong, A.K.H.; Lehto, H.; Liakos, A.; Matsumoto, K.; Mugrauer, M.; Pursimo, T.; Reichart, D.E.; Simon, A.; Siwak, M.; Sonbas, E. (2020). "Spitzer Observations of the Predicted Eddington Flare from Blazar OJ 287" (PDF). The Astrophysical Journal. 894 (1): L1. arXiv:2004.13392. Bibcode:2020ApJ...894L...1L. doi:10.3847/2041-8213/ab79a4. S2CID 216562421.
- "Spitzer Telescope Reveals the Precise Timing of a Black Hole Dance". JPL.NASA.gov. Jet Propulsion Laboratory. 28 April 2020. Retrieved 2020-05-03.
- "Weighing OJ 287 and the project MOMO". www.mpifr-bonn.mpg.de. Retrieved 2023-02-27.
- Fish, Vincent; Akiyama, Kazunori; Bouman, Katherine; Chael, Andrew; Johnson, Michael; Doeleman, Sheperd; Blackburn, Lindy; Wardle, John; Freeman, William; the Event Horizon Telescope Collaboration (2016-10-27). "Observing—and Imaging—Active Galactic Nuclei with the Event Horizon Telescope". Galaxies. 4 (4): 54. arXiv:1607.03034. Bibcode:2016Galax...4...54F. doi:10.3390/galaxies4040054. ISSN 2075-4434.
- Shi, Weizhao; Liu, Xiang; Song, Huagang (2007). "A new model for the periodic outbursts of the BL Lac object OJ287". Astrophysics and Space Science. 310 (1–2): 59–63. Bibcode:2007Ap&SS.310...59S. doi:10.1007/s10509-007-9413-z. S2CID 121149840.
- Valtonen, M. J.; Nilsson, K.; Sillanpää, A.; et al. (2006). "The 2005 November Outburst in OJ 287 and the Binary Black Hole Model". The Astrophysical Journal. 643 (1): L9–L12. Bibcode:2006ApJ...643L...9V. doi:10.1086/505039.
- Valtonen, M. J.; Mikkola, S.; Merritt, D.; et al. (February 2010). "Measuring the Spin of the Primary Black Hole in OJ287". The Astrophysical Journal. 709 (1): 725–732. arXiv:0912.1209. Bibcode:2010ApJ...709..725V. doi:10.1088/0004-637X/709/2/725. S2CID 119276181.
- Shiga, David (10 January 2008). "Biggest black hole in the cosmos discovered". NewScientist.com news service.
- Valtonen, M. J.; Lehto, H. J.; Sillanpaa, A.; et al. (2006). "Predicting the Next Outbursts of OJ 287 in 2006–2010". The Astrophysical Journal. 646 (1): 36–48. Bibcode:2006ApJ...646...36V. doi:10.1086/504884..
- Dey, L.; Gopakumar, A.; Valtonen, M.; Zola, S.; Susobhanan, A.; Hudec, R.; Pihajoki, P.; Pursimo, T.; Berdyugin, A.; Piirola, V.; Ciprini, S.; Nilsson, K.; Jermak, H.; Kidger, M.; Komossa, S. (2019). "The Unique Blazar OJ 287 and Its Massive Binary Black Hole Central Engine". Universe. 5 (5): 108. arXiv:1905.02689. Bibcode:2019Univ....5..108D. doi:10.3390/universe5050108. S2CID 146808185.
- OJ 287 on WikiSky: DSS2, SDSS, GALEX, IRAS, Hydrogen α, X-Ray, Astrophoto, Sky Map, Articles and images
- 18 Billions of Suns Support Einstein (Calar Alto Observatory)
- Historical lightcurve of OJ 287
- Object: OJ 287 Archived 2006-09-25 at the Wayback Machine (SAO Observers)
- OJ 287 2005-2008 Project (Tuorla Observatory)
- A Supermassive Black Hole Pairing (Centauri Dreams)
- Spitzer Telescope Reveals the Precise Timing of a Black Hole Dance
- Refining the OJ 287 2022 impact flare arrival epoch
- OJ 287: A new BH mass estimate of the secondary