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Opsin 5
Symbols OPN5 ; GPR136; GRP136; PGR12; TMEM13
External IDs OMIM609042 MGI2662912 HomoloGene72341 IUPHAR: 161 GeneCards: OPN5 Gene
Species Human Mouse
Entrez 221391 353344
Ensembl ENSG00000124818 ENSMUSG00000043972
UniProt Q6U736 Q6VZZ7
RefSeq (mRNA) NM_001030051 NM_181753
RefSeq (protein) NP_859528 NP_861418
Location (UCSC) Chr 6:
47.78 – 47.83 Mb
Chr 17:
42.56 – 42.61 Mb
PubMed search [1] [2]

Opsin-5 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the OPN5 gene.[1][2][3] It is a photoreceptor protein sensitive to ultraviolet (UV) light. The OPN5 gene was discovered in mouse and human genomes and its mRNA expression was also discovered in neural tissues. Opsin-5 activates a UV-sensitive, heterotrimeric G protein Gi-mediated pathway in mammalian tissues.[4]


Opsins are members of the G protein-coupled receptor superfamily. OPN5 is expressed in the eye, brain, testes, and spinal cord. This gene belongs to the seven-exon subfamily of mammalian opsin genes that includes peropsin (RRH) and retinal G protein coupled receptor (RGR). Like these other seven-exon opsin genes, this gene encodes a protein with photoisomerase activity. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms.[3]


Upon reconstitution with 11-cis-retinal, mouse Opn5 shows an absorption maximum of 380 nm. This causes the conversion of OPN5 into a blue-absorbing photoproduct (470 nm), which is stable in the dark. Orange illumination then causes its re-conversion back into the UV- absorbing state.[4]


  1. ^ Tarttelin EE, Bellingham J, Hankins MW, Foster RG, Lucas RJ (2003). "Neuropsin (Opn5): a novel opsin identified in mammalian neural tissue". FEBS Lett. 554 (3): 410–6. doi:10.1016/S0014-5793(03)01212-2. PMID 14623103. 
  2. ^ Fredriksson R, Höglund PJ, Gloriam DE, Lagerström MC, Schiöth HB (2003). "Seven evolutionarily conserved human rhodopsin G protein-coupled receptors lacking close relatives". FEBS Lett. 554 (3): 381–8. doi:10.1016/S0014-5793(03)01196-7. PMID 14623098. 
  3. ^ a b "Entrez Gene: OPN5 opsin 5". 
  4. ^ a b Kojima D, Mori S, Torii M, Wada A, Morishita R, Fukada Y (2011). "UV-sensitive photoreceptor protein OPN5 in humans and mice". PLoS ONE 6 (10): e26388. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0026388. PMC 3197025. PMID 22043319. 

Further reading[edit]

This article incorporates text from the United States National Library of Medicine, which is in the public domain.