Missiles systems Tochka-U during a parade rehearsal in Kiev
|Type||Tactical ballistic missile|
|Place of origin||Soviet Union|
|In service||1976–present (Scarab A)
1989–present (Scarab B)
1990–present (Scarab C)
|Used by||See Operators|
|Weight||2,000 kg (4,400 lb) Scarab A
2,010 kg (4,430 lb) Scarab B
1,800 kg (4,000 lb) Scarab C
|Length||6.4 m (21 ft)|
|Diameter||0.65 m (2 ft 2 in)|
|Warhead||Chemical, 100 kt nuclear warhead, EMP, or fragmentation filling|
|Engine||Single-stage Solid-fuel rocket|
|70 km (43 mi) Scarab A
120 km (75 mi) Scarab B
185 km (115 mi) Scarab C
|Speed||1.8 km/s (1.1 mi/s; Mach 5.3)|
|Inertial guidance, Tochka-P added passive radar against radar installations|
|BAZ-5921 Mobile TEL|
OTR-21 Tochka (Russian: оперативно-тактический ракетный комплекс (ОТР) «Точка»; English: Tactical Operational Missile Complex "Tochka", "Point") is a Soviet tactical ballistic missile. Its GRAU designation is 9K79; its NATO reporting name is SS-21 Scarab. It is transported in a 9P129 vehicle and raised prior to launch. It uses an inertial guidance system.
The OTR-21 is a mobile missile launch system, designed to be deployed along with other land combat units on the battlefield. While the 9K52 Luna-M is large and relatively inaccurate, the OTR-21 is much smaller. The missile itself can be used for precise strikes on enemy tactical targets, such as control posts, bridges, storage facilities, troop concentrations and airfields. The fragmentation warhead can be replaced with a nuclear, biological or chemical warhead. The solid propellant makes the missile easy to maintain and deploy.
OTR-21 units are usually managed in a brigade structure. There are 18 launchers in a brigade; each launcher is provided with 2 or 3 missiles. The vehicle is completely amphibious, with a maximum road speed of 60 km/h (37 mph) and 8 km/h (5.0 mph) in water. It is NBC-protected. The system has been in development since 1968. Three variants have been created.
The initial Scarab A entered service with the Soviet Army in 1975. It carries one of three types of warhead:
- 482 kg (1,063 lb) of conventional HE
- fragmentation (lethal radius more than 200 m (660 ft)
The minimal range is about 15 km (9.3 mi), maximum range is 70 km (43 mi); its circular error probable (CEP) is estimated to be about 150 m (490 ft).
The improved Scarab B (Tochka-U) was passed state tests from 1986 to 1988, introduced in 1989. Improved propellant increased the range to 120 km (75 mi). CEP significantly improved, to less than 95 m (312 ft).
A third variant, Scarab C, was developed in the 1990s. Again, range increased (185 km (115 mi)), and CEP decreased to less than 70 m (229 ft). Scarab C weighs 1,800 kg (4,000 lb).
Use in combat
- 1994 The Yemeni government used Tochka missiles against southern forces during the 1994 Yemen civil war.
- 1999 Russia used the missiles in the Chechen Wars.
- 2008 At least 15 Tochka missiles were deployed by Russian forces from August 8–11 during the 2008 South Ossetia war.
- Multiple videos show the Ukrainian Army fired multiple Tochka missiles near Donetsk during the War in Donbass.
- 2014 The Syrian Army fired at least one Tochka against the insurgents during the battle of Wadi al-Deif (near Ma'rat al-Nu'man, in the province of Idlib) in December 2014.
- On 20 August 2015 during the Saudi Arabian-led intervention in Yemen, Yemeni Republican Guard loyal to Ali Abdullah Saleh fired an OTR-21 targeting a Saudi base.
- On 4 September 2015 Yemeni Republican Guard fired a Tochka at Safir base in Marib killing over 100 Saudi-led coalition personnel 
- On 14 December 2015 Yemeni Republican Guard fired a Tochka at Bab Al Mandab base killing over 150 of the Saudi-led coalition personnel 
- On 16 January 2016 Yemeni Republican Guard fired a Tochka at Al Bairaq base in Marib killing dozens of Saudi-led coalition personnel  
- On 31 January 2016 Yemeni Republican Guard fired a Tochka at Al Anad base in Lahj killing over 140 Saudi-led coalition personnel 
- On 26 April 2016 the Syrian Army fired a Tochka at opposition forces in the Syrian Civil Defense Center in west Aleppo
- On 14 June 2016 the Syrian Army fired a Tochka against Islamists groups Al-Rahman Legion and Jaysh Al-Fustat in Eastern Ghouta killing several fighters.
- At least 8 launchers Tochka-U
- 3 launchers Tochka-U with 4 missiles
- unknown number
- North Korea
- unknown number of variant KN-02
- 220 launchers. Missile systems have been upgraded since 2004 (replacing the onboard automated control systems) It is planned to be replaced on 9K720 Iskander.
- unknown number
- unknown number
- passed on to successor states.
- Czech Republic
- inherited from Czechoslovakia, retired.
- East Germany
- passed on to Germany.
- 4 retired in 2005, because of lack of rockets and service parts
- small number, inherited from Czechoslovakia, all retired.
- Soviet Union
- Passed on to successor states.
- Zaloga, Steven J. Scud Ballistic Missile and Launch Systems 1955-2005, page 39.
- "It Was No Spontaneous, But Planned War". Novaya Gazeta.
- Fulghum, David A.; Douglas Barrie; Robert Wall; Andy Nativi (2008-08-15). "Georgian Military Folds Under Russian Attack". Aviation Week. Retrieved 2008-11-09.
- "Ukraine denies using ballistic missiles". Deutsche Welle. 2 August 2014. Retrieved 2 October 2014.
- "NATO flip-flops over Kiev use of ballistic missiles against militants". RT. 1 August 2014. Retrieved 2 October 2014.
- Tim Lister (3 September 2014). "Wrecked tanks, deserted playgrounds: Inside the kill zone of eastern Ukraine". CNN. Retrieved 2 October 2014.
In a burned field south of Ilovaisk, on what was the frontline of combat a few days ago, we found a large green tube amid bushes and trees. Military experts have identified it as the rocket motor section of a Russian-made SS-21 "Scarab" ballistic missile. But both the Ukrainian and Russian militaries have the SS-21.
- "( + ) -". Retrieved 23 December 2014.
- Toll From Yemen Rebel Attack Rises as 10 Saudi Troops Killed
- "Tochka-U fired by regime in West Aleppo". Map of Syrian Civil war/ Global conflict in Syria - liveuamap.com. Retrieved 2016-04-27.
- "شبكة الثورة السورية on Twitter". Twitter. Retrieved 2016-04-27.
- Fadel, Leith (16 June 2016). "Islamist offensive in the East Ghouta turns disastrous". Al Masdar News. Retrieved 16 June 2016.
- Belarus Army Equipment
- Milev, Momchil (2014-04-11). "Da izkovem ot plugovete mechove". Economedia. p. 2. Retrieved 9 August 2014.
- "24.02.12 СМИ: Минобороны отказалось ремонтировать тактические ракеты «Точка-У»". militaryparitet.com. 24 February 2012. Retrieved 23 December 2014.
- The Military Balance 2010. P. 223.
- "Великий воин и защитник «Искандер»". vpk.name. Retrieved 23 December 2014.
- Денис Тельманов. "Сухопутные войска теряют тактические ракеты". Известия. Retrieved 23 December 2014.
- Ground Forces Equipment - Ukraine
- MILITARIUM - Wojsko Polskie - Uzbrojenie
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