O Estado de S. Paulo
|Founder(s)||José Maria Lisboa|
Francisco Rangel Pestana
Américo de Campos
|Opinion editor||Ricardo Gandour|
|Founded||January 4, 1875|
|Headquarters||Av. Eng. Caetano Álvares, 55|
São Paulo, SP 02598-900
|Circulation||250,045 (average circulation in the first quarter of 2015)|
O Estado de S. Paulo (Portuguese pronunciation: [u isˈtadu dʒi sɐ̃w̃ ˈpawlu], The State of São Paulo), also known as O Estadão (Portuguese pronunciation: [u isˈtadɐ̃w̃], The Big State), or simply Estadão, is a daily newspaper published in the Metropolitan region of São Paulo, Brazil, and distributed mainly nationally. It is owned by Grupo Estado, a holding company which publishes the Jornal da Tarde and owns the radios Rádio Eldorado AM and FM and the Agência Estado, largest news agency in Brazil.
It has the second largest circulation in the City of São Paulo, only behind Folha de S. Paulo, and the fourth largest overall in Brazil. It is nicknamed the Estadão (lit. "Big State"). The journal was founded relying on republican ideals on January 4, 1875, and was firstly called A Província de São Paulo ("The Province of São Paulo").
The current publisher is "O Estado de S. Paulo S.A."
The term Província ("Province") was preserved until January 1890, one month after the fall of the monarchy and the regime change to the republican institution in Brazil. Although the newspaper supported the change, it showed that it was completely independent, refusing even to serve its interests to the ascendant Republican Party of São Paulo.
When the then editor in chief Francisco Rangel Pestana left to work in a project of the Constitution, in Petrópolis, the young editor Julio de Mesquita effectively took on the direction of Estado and initiated a series of innovations. One of the innovations was the engagement of the agency Havas, back then the largest in the world.
The Estadão pioneered the newspaper selling system in 1875, when it was sold on the streets, instead of the subscription-only system adopted by all other newspapers in Brazil before. As first, this new way of selling motivated many jokes and mockery, but ultimately all rivals adopted the same system. Today, newspapers in Brazil are sold in small street newspapers/magazines shops, and by single sellers located in main avenues of the biggest cities. Back in the 19th century, the Estadão was sold by only one man, a French immigrant, who carried his newspapers in a bag, while riding a horse, and announcing himself with a cornet.
In the end of the 19th century, the Estado was already the largest newspaper in São Paulo, overcoming the Correio Paulistano. Property of the Mesquita family since 1902, the Estado supported the Allied cause in World War I, suffering reprisal from the German community in the city, which removed all advertising announcements pertaining to them from the newspaper. Despite this, the Mesquitas maintained their editorial position. During the war, the afternoon edition of the newspaper began to circulate around the country. It was known as Estadinho (lit. "Little Estado"), directed by the then young Júlio de Mesquita Filho.
In 1924, the newspaper Estado was banned from circulating for the first time, after the defeat of the tenants' rebellion that shook the entire city. Julio Mesquita, who tried to mediate a dialogue between the rebels and the government, was imprisoned and taken to Rio de Janeiro, being freed shortly later.
With the death of the old director of 1927, his son Julio de Mesquita Filho assumed the directory along with his brother Franscisco, the latter taking care of the financial parts of the newspaper.
In 1930 the Estado, connected to the Democratic Party, supported the candidature of Getúlio Vargas for the Liberal Alliance. With the victory of Vargas, the newspaper saw the Brazilian Revolution of 1930 as a mark of the end of the oligarchy system.
The so-called Grupo Estado assumed in 1932 the leadership of the constitutionalist revolution. With its defeat, many people from the directory were exiled, including Júlio de Mesquita Filho and Francisco Mesquita One year later, in the month of August, Getúlio Vargas invited Armando de Salles Oliveira to be the governor in São Paulo. Armando Salles, son-in-law of Júlio Mesquita (already deceased by then), imposed as a condition to accept the job the amnesty of the rebels of 1932 and a convocation of a constituent assembly. Vargas agreed and Júlio de Mesquita Filho and Francisco Mesquita, as well as other exiled people returned to Brazil.
Years later, with the appearance of the "Estado Novo", the newspaper maintained the opposition to the regime and, in March 1940, it was invaded by DOPS (part of the government that controlled and restrained people and movements that were against the regime in the Estado Novo) and the paper was altered by them to state that, with absurdity and mockery, "guns were arrested" in the redaction. The newspaper was initially closed and afterwards was confiscated by the dictatorship, being administrated by DIP (Department of the Press [Port."Imprense"] and Propaganda) until 1945, when the Estado was given back by the Supreme Federal Court to its legitimate owners. The numbers published during this governmental intervention are not considered part of the actual history of the paper.
Shortly after World War II the Estado enjoyed great advances, with the increase in editing and of its good reputation. In the 1950s, the Major Quedinho Street headquarters were built, adjacent to the Hotel Jaraguá. That was the phase when the section Internacional ("International") of the newspaper, directed by the journalist Giannino Carta and by Ruy Mesquita, became known as the most complete in any national newspaper. From that time until the 1970s, O Estado showed almost exclusively international news on its first page. Đ
During the República Nova ("New Republic") (1946–1964) the Estado profiled itself to the National Democratic Union of Carlos Lacerda and opposed all the other governments, especially João Goulart. In 1954, O Estado de S. Paulo led a national campaign against the elected democratic President, Getúlio Vargas, forcing him unto suicide. In 1962, the director Julio de Mesquita Filho even wrote a Roteiro da Revolução ("Guide to Revolution"), trying to unify the opposition of civilians to the army, the then called "boasting party", that from the beginning of the Republic used to intervene in Brazilian politics. In 1964, the Estado supported the military coup and the indirect election of Castelo Branco. Shortly after the Institutional Act n° 2, that dissolved the other political parties, the journal broke from the regime.
On November 13, 1968, the Estado editor was arrested because of Mesquita Filho's refusal to eliminate from the section Notas e Informações ("Notes and Information") the editorial Instituições em Frangalhos ("Institutions in Frazzles"). where he denounced the end of any normal and simple democratic appearance. From then on, the newspaper began disputing censored editions of its news by the Brazilian Federal Police, unlike other national newspapers that accepted to be censored.
With the death of Mesquita Filho, the Estado was directed by Julio de Mesquita Neto. Then, the newspaper gained worldwide visibility when it denounced the preemptive censorship of articles by replacing them with verses of the Portuguese classic The Lusiads, by Luís de Camões. In 1974, it received the Golden Pen of Freedom Award, bestowed by the International Federation of Editions and Newspapers.
In the 1970s, the newspaper ran into debt because of the construction of its new headquarters by the Tietê river and went through a financial crisis, competing with a new standard of journalism represented by Folha de S. Paulo.
In 1986, the Estado hired the renowned journalist Augusto Nunes to be its chief editor. He updated the news bulletin of Estado and endeavored a series of reformed graphics, that would result in the adoption, in 1991, of colored printing in daily editions. Before that, Estado was not issued on Monday and holidays.
In 1996, Julio de Mesquita Neto died and Ruy Mesquita, his brother, became the new director. Previously, Ruy directed Jornal da Tarde, owned by the Estado network.
After an unsuccessful experience in the area of telecommunications, the Estado network passed by a restructuring in 2003 and most of the Mesquita family lost their directing roles. Massive layoffs also occurred.
After balancing its budget, the Estado endeavored new graphic reformulation in October 2004. It also created new notebooks and received many prizes for excellence in graphic display.
Other than the newspaper O Estado de S. Paulo, the Estado network has control over the OESP Mídia (1984), company that runs advertisements. Owned by Grupo Estado are the radios Rádio Eldorado AM and FM (1972) and the Estado Agency (1970), largest news agency in Brazil. Jornal da Tarde (1966) was discontinued in 2012.
In 2013, another big reorganization followed. Employees were laid off, the paper reduced its numbers of pages by canceling some sections and mixing an others.
The oldest of all the sections, known as Notas e Informações ("Notes and Information"), always seen on page 3, presents a republican institutionalist view, emphasizing liberty of expression, economic liberalism and Rechtsstaat, being one of flagship columns of O Estado de S. Paulo. It was, initially, a supporter of the 1964 military coup d'état in Brazil and of the dictatorship then installed. Up to this day, the newspaper is said to hold "right-wing" or "conservative" positions in the Brazilian political spectrum.
- Sacchitiello, Barbara (26 May 2015). "Circulação dos cinco grandes jornais cresce". Meio&Mensagem (in Portuguese). Retrieved 26 May 2015.
- (in Portuguese) History of Estado de S. Paulo
- http://www.compolitica.org/home/wp-content/uploads/2013/05/GT08-Jornalismo-politico-EleonoraDeMagalhaesCarvalho.pdf Eleonora de Magalhães Carvalho (2013). «Imprensa e poder: politização ou partidarização dos jornais brasileiros» (PDF). Universidade Federal Fluminense. ISSN 2236-6490.
- "Espaço Aberto", O Estado de S. Paulo, 17/2/2008, page A2.
- (in Portuguese) History of Estado de S. Paulo (Cont.3)
- (in Portuguese) History of Estado de S. Paulo (Cont.4)
- (in Portuguese) History of Estado de S. Paulo (Cont.5)
- (in Portuguese) History of Estado de S. Paulo (Cont.6)
- "Jornal da Tarde deixará de circular após 46 anos; Grupo Estado fala em reduzir custos - Notícias - Cotidiano". Cotidiano (in Portuguese). Retrieved 23 February 2017.
- "Jornal O Estado de S. Paulo anuncia reestruturação e cortes | EXAME.com - Negócios, economia, tecnologia e carreira". exame.abril.com.br (in Portuguese). 8 April 2013. Retrieved 23 February 2017.
- http://www.revistaforum.com.br/mariafro/2014/03/31/a-midia-monopolizada-o-globo-jb-estado-de-s-paulo-folha-de-s-paulo-etc-apoiou-o-golpe-de-1964-que-depos-o-presidente-joao-goulart/ Revista Forum
- Merrill, John C. and Harold A. Fisher. The world's great dailies: profiles of fifty newspapers (1980) pp 117–23