Oakton High School

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Coordinates: 38°52′38″N 77°16′58″W / 38.87722°N 77.28278°W / 38.87722; -77.28278

Oakton High School
Oakton High Seal.jpg
Oakton High School is located in Northern Virginia
Oakton High School
Oakton High School
Oakton High School is located in Virginia
Oakton High School
Oakton High School
Oakton High School is located in the US
Oakton High School
Oakton High School
2900 Sutton Road

Northern Virginia

, ,

School typeTaxpayer Funded, Public High School
School boardFairfax County School Board
School districtFairfax County Public Schools
SuperintendentScott Brabrand
PrincipalJamie Lane
Teaching staff~220
Enrollment2,307[1] (2014-15)
 • Grade 9574
 • Grade 10587
 • Grade 11594
 • Grade 12552
Hours in school day6 Hours and 45 Minutes
Campus typeSuburban
School colour(s)Burgundy and Gold
Athletics conferenceConcorde District
Northern Region
Westfield High School
Madison High School
Robinson Secondary School
South Lakes High School, Woodson High School
USNWR ranking
  1. 111
NewspaperOakton Outlook
Feeder schoolsCarson Middle School
Franklin Middle School
Jackson Middle School
Thoreau Middle School

Oakton High School is a public high school in unincorporated Fairfax County, Virginia, which is in proximity to the town of Vienna, in the United States. Oakton High School is not located in the town of Oakton as the name might suggest. It is part of Fairfax County Public Schools.

Oakton operates on a block schedule five days a week, alternating between "Burgundy" and "Gold" days. It is currently led by Principal Jamie Lane and several assistant principals.


Oakton High School was founded in 1967 in Vienna, Virginia. The original Oakton High School was located in the facility which is now used by Oakton Elementary School. When it opened, Oakton was the host facility for an IBM 1401 which was Fairfax County's first computer. A computer curriculum, one of the first offered at the high school level, was available to full-time Oakton students and to students from several other county high schools on a part-time basis. This system was retired in the early seventies when Fairfax County installed an IBM 360 mainframe at the Annandale campus of Northern Virginia Community College.

In 1973, after a tornado struck W. T. Woodson High School, their students attended the remainder of the school year in a split shift at Oakton High School.[2]

The school achieved international notoriety in 2009 when it suspended, and threatened to expel, a student for taking a birth control pill while on school premises.[3] The incident was referenced during the August 3, 2009 episode of The Colbert Report, with the show satirically portraying the student as a "druggie".[4]


Like most Fairfax County schools, the building is of considerable size, consisting of two stories in order to accommodate its large population of students. The school is divided into separate hallways for individual subjects, with English and History predominantly on the second floor, and Science residing on the first. Ever since the renovations have begun, all Math classes are now being taught in trailers where the tennis courts used to be.


In the 2014-2015 school year, Oakton High School's student body was 55.91% White, 24.63% Asian, 9.30% Hispanic, 4.96% Black, and 5.18% Other.[5]

Standardized testing[edit]

Oakton High School is a fully accredited high school based on the Standards of Learning tests in Virginia. The average SAT score in 2006 for Oakton High School was 1,703 (568 in Critical Reading, 578 in Math, and 557 in Writing).

Feeder schools[edit]

Crossfield Elementary School, Fox Mill Elementary School, Mosby Woods Elementary School, Navy Elementary School, Oakton Elementary School, Waples Mill Elementary School, Franklin Middle School,Luther Jackson, and Rachel Carson Middle School are all in the Oakton School Pyramid.


Oakton offers an Advanced Placement (AP) Diploma Program and a large variety of AP classes.[6] Post-AP courses, such as multivariable calculus and linear algebra are available to sufficiently advanced students.

The school offers a wide variety of elective courses and allows students to participate in academy courses (courses hosted by other schools at other school sites). Elective courses include psychology, various engineering courses, journalism, video production, accounting, multivariable calculus with linear algebra and six foreign languages. In 2008, Newsweek ranked Oakton High School as the 103rd best high school in the country, based on a ratio of students taking AP (or IB) classes to the number of graduating seniors. In addition, Oakton was ranked 88th on the US News & World Report magazine's list based on an assessment of college readiness in 2007. In 2014, Oakton was given a 9 out of 10 ranking by Greatschools.org, one of the highest in the Fairfax County Public Schools system.[7]

In 2014, Oakton High School was ranked #111 Nationally in the US News and World Report Best High Schools.[8]

Performing arts[edit]

Oakton's Performing Arts Department, which includes band, choral, orchestral, and theatre arts departments, regularly earns distinction as one of the premier performing arts programs in the area.[9]

In 2008, the performing arts department won the extremely prestigious Blue Ribbon Award, a result of Superior ratings for all Band, Choral, and Orchestra groups in state festivals.

Oakton Bands[edit]

The Oakton High School marching band at the Lee-Davis Invitational competition, fall 2001

The Oakton Band program is in its 8th year and has been under the direction of Dr. James "Jamie" VanValkenburg since 2012. The program consists of a marching band, three concert bands, two jazz bands, a winter color guard, drumline program, and several guitar classes and ensembles.

Oakton has been recognized as a Virginia Honor Band (the highest award for high school band programs) twenty three times, including eleven consecutive years from 1995 to 2005. This award is given to bands that receive superior marks for marching and concert performances of the top band. The marching band has won countless other awards at competitions throughout the country, and in addition, has been featured in parades and professional football games. The concert bands have made many appearances at Fiesta-val competitions, including locales such as Orlando, Toronto, Myrtle Beach, and Chicago.

The Oakton Band program is deep-seated in tradition, with the exception of the saxophone section, who's just kind of there. Every August, the marching band will spend time in Orkney Springs, Virginia to focus on the drill, music, and isolated friend groups for the year's program and suffer in the summer weather of the Shenandoah Valley. Furthermore, Oakton hosts the Oakton Classic, a large fundraiser. The Classic has been held annually (usually in October) every year since 1984, with a gap year in 2012.[10]

Cougar Chorus[edit]

Oakton High School has four regular in-school choruses; Madrigals, Chamber Choir, Select Women's Ensemble, and Concert Choir. The department also includes two eighth period (after school, for credit) specialty groups: Jazz choir and Show choir. The department is under the direction of Tiffany Powell, and has competed in such locations as Atlanta, New York, and Orlando. In the spring of 2010, the department traveled to New York and competed in Festivals of Music: New York. At the event, Madrigals and the combined women's choir, comprising members of both Chamber and Select Women's, were awarded the best mixed and women's choirs awards. Madrigals has also had the opportunity to sing at the Kennedy Center in Washington DC along with the Washington Chorus.

Oakton Theatre[edit]

Oakton High School's drama program typically puts on a few plays in the fall or winter, and a spring musical. The department is under the direction of Vanessa Gelinas, and Robert "Skip" Bromley having retired in 2008. In recent years, the drama program has put on Arsenic and Old Lace, The Wizard of Oz, and other plays and musicals.[11] The 2007-2008 season included The Importance of Being Earnest, You're a Good Man, Charlie Brown and Into the Woods. The 2008-2009 season included The Foreigner, the lead played by Chris North,[12] and The Odd Couple (female version). The spring 2009 musical was Little Women. Performances usually take place in the Robert "Skip" Bromley Auditorium, dedicated 2008. Oakton Drama is to, for the 2009-2010 season, produce A Tisket, A Tasket, Four Dames and a Casket (a play written by Haley Herrinton, a student attending Oakton), and Rehearsal for Murder. Most recently, former student Henry Ragan starred in Oklahoma! by Rodgers and Hammerstein, for which he was nominated a Cappies award. As for the 2016-2017 season, the department put on: Once In A Lifetime (a play by Moss Hart and George S. Kaufman), Cyrano (an 1897 play written by Edmond Rostand), a One Act Night, including an original play by recent alumni Marriya Schwarz, and Les Misérables: School Edition, which made Oakton High School history, when the last night of the show, Oakton had to turn away customers, due to overcrowding. The 2017-2018 Performance Season, has Oakton making a strong impact. First, Much Ado About Nothing by William Shakespeare, Next, Almost, Maine by John Cariani, then, Orphie and the Book of Heroes by Kooman and Dimond, followed by their annual Cougar Dinner Theatre and VHSL One Act Night, and their annual spring musical, this year being Titanic (musical).

OHS Orchestras[13][14][edit]

The Oakton High School strings program consists of four orchestras, ordered in decreasing difficulty level: the Chamber Orchestra, the Philharmonic Orchestra, the Symphonic Orchestra, and the Concert Orchestra. Currently, all four orchestras are under the direction of Max Oppenheimer. The orchestras typically give four concerts a year, consisting of performances by the Chamber Orchestra, the Philharmonic Orchestra, the Symphonic Orchestra and the Concert Orchestra. The program has participated in many festivals around the world, in locations such as Hawaii, Italy, Orlando, and Chicago. In 2007, Concert Orchestra was introduced. This class meets every day during 4th period, and allows students to learn how to play a stringed instrument in a more learner-friendly environment. The other two orchestras meet on alternating days due to Oakton's block scheduling. In 2018, the newest orchestra, Philharmonic, was created. This class meets on Gold Days during 8th period, in which students continue to develop their skills—focusing on advanced level technical and ensemble skills.

The Chamber Orchestra participated in the Orchestra America National Festival in Indianapolis, part of the Music for All National Festival, in 2008. The orchestra applied and was accepted in 2007, and prepared an approximately 45-minute concert consisting of three pieces. On March 1, 2008, the Chamber Orchestra performed its selections at the Hilbert Circle Theatre, home of the Indianapolis Symphony Orchestra.[15] Later that year, the Chamber Orchestra was accepted to perform at the American String Teachers Association National Conference, which took place in March 2009 in Atlanta. The group placed 4th, which was the highest ranking of a non-magnet, non-music school.

Prior to 2018, Mr. Oppenheimer also taught AP music theory classes, available to all Oakton students that are either currently taking in band, chorus, or orchestra.

Honor Council [16][edit]

Oakton High School has a student led Honor Council. The role of the Honor Council is to promote honesty and integrity throughout Oakton High School, while enforcing the Honor Code of Oakton High School. The Oakton HS Honor Council has two processes for students suspected of breaking the honor code: the Punitive Council or Restorative Justice.

Processes for Honor Code Violations[edit]

Punitive Council[edit]

The Punitive Council is the more traditional way the Honor Code has applied to students. If a teacher suspects a student of violating the Honor Code, the teacher fills out a form and turns it into the Honor Council. The teacher also gives the suspect a form to fill out and for the suspect's parent or legal guardian to sign. Both the teacher and the student are given the opportunity to prepare written testimonies about the possible Honor Code infraction. Usually within a month, student representatives from the Honor Council and randomly selected staff members will be chosen to serve on a punitive council to determine whether or not a possible infraction occurred. The Punitive Council will read through both testimonies, and evidence if there is any to make a decision on the possible infraction. The decision of the punitive council is final.

Restorative Justice[edit]

The Restorative Justice Program is a new development at Oakton HS. Restorative Justice is meant to help repair the relationships between the victim and the offender involved with an incident. The only way for a student to be able to participate in the Oakton Honor Council Restorative Justice is to admit to the Honor Code infraction. Once both the student and teacher agree, separate initial interviews will occur. Then, a circle with a Restorative Justice trained Honor Council member, and the offender and the victim occur. They discuss their actions and feelings and work towards an amicable solution to the Honor Code infraction.


In the 2017-18 school year, President Rebecca Woodhouse, Vice President Pratik J. Kharat, and Secretary Alina Shin have spearheaded a comprehensive plan to get the spread the word about integrity and honesty at Oakton HS. With the "Don't be a Cheater-Cheater, Pumpkin-Eater" pledge in October, and the informational videos made, Woodhouse, Kharat, and Shin have had a marked impact on the Oakton High School Honor Council.


Oakton's award-winning publications provide many opportunities for students to express themselves. Its Publications Department produces a newspaper, The Outlook, a yearbook called Paragon, and a literary magazine, Opus. In October 2006, both The Outlook and Paragon received Trophy-Class honors at the Virginia High School League, with a rating of Superior. In April 2008, Paragon received a Pacemaker award, one of the highest honors in high school journalism, as well as 8th in best of show. Outlook placed 6th in best of show. The school used to have a radio club, Fat Cat Radio, and a daily television show, Cougar News.


Oakton is a member of the AAA Concorde District and the Northern Region of the Virginia High School League. Its cross country, football, baseball, lacrosse, and men's swimming teams have all claimed recent Virginia state titles. In addition, Oakton fields a number of highly-competitive teams for club sports, such as crew and ice hockey. The Oakton Ice Hockey Club plays in the Northern Virginia Scholastic Hockey League (NVSHL).


During the 2005-2006 school year, Oakton Baseball were runners-up. Oakton claimed three state titles: boys cross country, football, and girls lacrosse. The boys lacrosse team, with its loss to Robinson Secondary School ended its three-year streak as state champions.


The baseball team won regionals. Oakton's golf team placed 3rd in the district, and 1st in the region. The boys cross country team placed 1st in the district and region, and 2nd in the state. The field hockey team placed 1st in the district. The football team made the playoffs, but lost in the first round to Chantilly High School, who would end up being the state runner-up. The men's swim and dive team finished second at each districts, regionals, and states. The girls basketball team was the district champion and region runner-up, identical results to last year. The boys track and field team won districts, as well as the girls lacrosse team, who went on to win regionals and states as well.


Danny Kim won the boy's state golf tournament as an individual, and Amanda Steinhagen won the girl's state championship, with Lauren Greenlief coming in second. The boys cross country team captured the district title and were second in the region. The girls cross country team also secured the district title, were 4th in the region, and came back to take 2nd in the state meet. The men's swim team placed 2nd in districts, regionals, and finals to Robinson Secondary School. The girls lacrosse team won the region and state championship.


The boys cross country team won district, region, and state titles. The girls cross country team finished third in the district and were runners-up in the region. The football team, with a perfect 10 – 0 season, went on to win the district and regional titles, finishing with a 13-1 record losing 10-7 to Oscar Smith High School in the state semi-finals after Tiger kicker Ryan Trottman kicked a short field goal in the waning moments. The boys swim and dive team placed third in the district and won the regional title, and the girls swim and dive team placed second in the district. The girls basketball team finished with a perfect season, and went on to win the district and regional titles, and were runners-up in the state. The girls indoor track and field team won the district title. The boys outdoor track and field team won the district title.


The boys cross country team won the district title for the fifth straight year, they also won the region title for the fourth time in five years, and were runners-up in the state. The girls cross country team finished second in the district and sixth in the region. The girls indoor track and field team won the district title for the second straight year.

The boys basketball team, under first year head coach David Brooks, defeated Chantilly on a game-winning 17 footer by Senior Andrew Daniels to win its first District title since 1972.

The boys swim and dive team won the state, regional, and district championship titles. Senior Bradley Phillips won the 400 meter freestyle, setting a national record, and the 200 meter freestyle. Senior KJ Park won the 200 meter IM and the 100 meter breaststroke. The men's 400 freestyle relay also won and set a national record. The girls swim and dive team placed fourth at states. Junior Kaitlin Pawlowicz won the 100 meter butterfly and the 200 meter IM, and set a national record in the 200 meter IM.

Amanda Steinhagen became the first girl to win the Virginia High School League (VHSL) girls high school golf championship twice. She also won it in her Sophomore year at Oakton. Amanda set a state record of 138 for the tournament.

State champions and recognitions[edit]

Virginia State Championships (Team)
Year Sport/Competition
1978 AAA Boys Cross Country
1985 AAA Boys Golf
1990 AAA Boys Swimming and Diving
1991–1992 AAA Theater
1992[17] Boys Lacrosse
1993 AAA Girls Gymnastics
1996 AAA Creative Writing - Folder
1998 AAA Creative Writing - Folder
1998 AAA Boys Cross Country
1999 AAA Creative Writing - Folder
2000 AAA Baseball
2003[17] Boys Lacrosse
2004[17] Boys Lacrosse
2005 AAA Boys Cross Country
2005 AAA Football Division 6
2005[17] Boys Lacrosse
2006 Girls Lacrosse (Unclassified)
2007 Girls Lacrosse (Unclassified)
2008 Girls Lacrosse (Unclassified)
2008 AAA Boys Cross Country
2010 AAA Boys Swim and Dive
2012 AAA Girls Basketball
2012 AAA Girls Swim and Dive
2012 Girls Lacrosse (Unclassified)
2013 6A Girls Cross Country
Virginia State Runner-Up (Team)
Year Sport/Competition
1982 AAA Baseball
1983 AAA Boys Golf
1990 AAA Softball
1998 AAA Girls Gymnastics
1999 AAA Boys Soccer
2001 AAA Girls Basketball
2001 AAA Softball
2002 AAA Girls Outdoor Track
2002 AAA Football Division 6
2005 AAA Girls Cross Country
2006 AAA Baseball
2006 Boys Lacrosse (Unclassified)
2006 AAA Boys Cross Country
2007 AAA Boys Swimming and Diving
2007 AAA Girls Cross Country
2008 AAA Boys Swimming and Diving
2008 Boys Lacrosse (Unclassified)
2009 AAA Girls Basketball
2009 AAA Boys Cross Country
2012 AAA Girls Cross Country
Virginia Honor Band
Year Notes
1990 First in the history of the school
1996 First-time repeat recognition
2002 10th Year recognition
2008 15th Year recognition
Virginia State Championships (Individual)
Year Sport/Competition Name
1971 AAA Girls Tumbling (Gymnastics) Diane Friedman
1972 AAA Girls Tumbling (Gymnastics) Diane Friedman
1973 AAA Girls Original Oratory (Forensics) Carolyn Davis
1977 AAA Boys Outdoor Two Mile Run (Track) Jim Hill
1977 AAA Individual Boys Golf Tony Deluca
1978 AAA Boys Pole Vault (Track) Troy Nieves
1978 AAA Boys Outdoor Two Mile Run (Track) Jim Hill
1978 AAA Girls Prose Reading (Forensics) Jacqueline Lucid
1978 AAA Individual Boys Cross Country James Hill
1979 AAA Boys Pole Vault (Track) Troy Nieves
1979 AAA Boys Indoor 3200m Run (Track) Jim Hill
1979 AAA Boys Outdoor Two Mile Run (Track) Jim Hill
1981 AAA Boys Original Oratory (Forensics) Bob Stankey
1982 AAA 167 lb Weight Class (Wrestling) Jeff Palmucci
1984 AAA Girls Vault (Gymnastics) Angel Bursenos
1984 AAA Boys Singles (Tennis) Lee Bell
1985 AAA Individual Boys Golf Chris Turner
1986 AAA Boys High Jump (Track) David Daigler
1989 AAA Boys Doubles (Tennis) Finch/Miller
1992 AAA Girls Beam Co-champion (Gymnastics) Kristi Van Buren
1993 AAA Girls Indoor 3200m Run (Track) Keri Gray
1994 AAA 140 lb Weight Class (Wrestling) John McManus
1994 AAA Spelling (Forensics) Richard Allen
1996 AAA Spelling (Forensics) Amy Hegan
1997 AAA 215 lb Weight Class (Wrestling) Brian Welch
1997 AAA Essay (Creative Writing) George Kraus
1998 AAA Boys Outdoor 800m Run (Track) Andrew MacLeod
1998 AAA Poetry (Creative Writing) Maria Ahmad
1998 AAA Short Story (Creative Writing) Becky Olsen
1999 AAA Boys Outdoor High Jump (Track) Teddy Presley
1999 AAA Boys Outdoor 3200m Run (Track) Jacob Frey
1999 AAA Short Story (Creative Writing) Courtney Davis
2000 AAA Boys 200 Medley Relay (Swimming) Oakton[18]
2000 AAA Boys 50 Freestyle (Swimming) Mike Sihler
2000 AAA Boys 100 Freestyle (Swimming) Mike Ott
2000 AAA Boys 200 Freestyle Relay (Swimming) Oakton[18]
2000 AAA Girls Outdoor High Jump (Track) Bonnie Meekins
2000 AAA Girls Outdoor 3200m Relay (Track) Oakton[18]
2000 AAA Individual Girls Cross Country Keira Carlstrom
2001 AAA Boys 200 Individual Medley (Swimming) Mike Ott
2001 AAA Boys Doubles (Tennis) Wolfe/Tsai
2001 AAA Boys Indoor 3200m Run (Track) Matt Maline
2001 AAA Boys Outdoor 1600m Run (Track) Matt Maline
2001 AAA Girls Outdoor 1600m Run (Track) Keira Carlstrom
2001 AAA Individual Girls Cross Country Keira Carlstrom
2002 AAA Boys 200 Individual Medley (Swimming) Mike Ott
2002 AAA Boys 100 Freestyle (Swimming) Mike Ott
2002 AAA Girls Indoor High Jump (Track) Bonnie Meekins
2002 AAA Girls Indoor 1600m Run (Track) Keira Carlstrom
2002 AAA Girls Outdoor Long Jump (Track) Bonnie Meekins
2002 AAA Girls Outdoor High Jump (Track) Bonnie Meekins
2002 AAA Girls Outdoor 1600m Run (Track) Keira Carlstrom
2003 AAA Boys 100 Freestyle (Swimming) Mike Ott
2003 AAA News/Feature Photo (Newspaper) Jennifer Cubas
2003 AAA Student Life Spread (Yearbook) Henricka Hamler, Arushi Phull
2003 AAA Sports Spread (Yearbook) Megan Koster
2003 AAA People Spread (Yearbook) Melissa Leong
2004 AAA Girls Indoor 3200m Relay (Track) Oakton[18]
2005 AAA Girls Indoor 1600m Run (Track) Danielle Light
2005 AAA Boys Outdoor 3200m Run (Track) Jason Vick
2005 AAA Girls Outdoor 3200m Relay (Track) Oakton[18]
2006 AAA Poetry (Creative Writing) Christine Williams
2007 AAA Individual Boys Golf Danny Kim
2007 Individual Girls Golf (Unclassified) Amanda Steinhagen
2008 AAA Boys Indoor 1600m Run (Track) Joe LoRusso
2008 AAA Boys Outdoor 1600m Run (Track) Joe LoRusso
2008 AAA News: Straight News/News Feature/Sports News (Newspaper) Chris Weil
2008 AAA Feature: In-Depth/Informative (including Sports) (Newspaper) Matt Johnson, Erica Wohlleben
2008 AAA Concept Packaging (Yearbook) Oakton[19]
2009 VHSL State Journalist of the Year Matt Johnson
2009 AAA Boys 200 Freestyle (Swimming) Bradley Phillips
2009 AAA Classic Policy Debate Alexandra Kralick, Gabrielle Tate
2010 AAA Boys 200 Freestyle (Swimming) Bradley Phillips
2010 AAA Boys 400 Freestyle (Swimming) Bradley Phillips
2010 AAA Boys 200 IM (Swimming) KJ Park
2010 AAA Boys 100 Breaststroke (Swimming) KJ Park
2010 AAA Boys 400 Freestyle Relay (Swimming) Philip Hu, Chris Megaw, Bradley Phillips, KJ Park
2010 AAA Girls 200 IM (Swimming) Kaitlin Pawlowicz
2010 AAA Boys 100 Butterfly (Swimming) Kaitlin Pawlowicz

Notable alumni[edit]

In popular culture and film[edit]


  1. ^ https://p1pe.doe.virginia.gov/reportcard/report.do?division=29&schoolName=1333
  2. ^ Wilbert Tucker Woodson High School
  3. ^ "Birth-Control Pill Lands Fairfax Student 2-Week Suspension, Possible Expulsion". The Washington Post. 2009-04-05. Retrieved 2010-05-20.
  4. ^ Nailed-Em - War on Birth Control The Colbert Report, August 3, 2009
  5. ^ "FCPS - School Profiles - Oakton HS - Demographics". Retrieved 3 April 2017.
  6. ^ FCPS - School Profiles - Oakton HS
  7. ^ "GreatSchools - Public and Private School Ratings, Reviews and Parent Community". Retrieved 3 April 2017.
  8. ^ [1]
  9. ^ "Performing Arts". Oakton High School. Retrieved 2007-12-14.
  10. ^ "Oakton Bands". Retrieved 2007-12-14.
  11. ^ "OHS Drama". Retrieved 2007-12-14.
  12. ^ "Oakton High School The Foreigner". 10 November 2008. Retrieved 3 November 2015.
  13. ^ "Oakton High School Orchestras". www.ohsorchestras.org. Retrieved 2018-04-30.
  14. ^ "Oakton High School Course Catalog". insys.fcps.edu. Retrieved 2018-12-04.
  15. ^ "Music for All National Festival". Music for All. Archived from the original on February 22, 2008. Retrieved 2008-03-04.
  16. ^ "Honor Code | Oakton High School". oaktonhs.fcps.edu. Retrieved 2018-04-30.
  17. ^ a b c d Although Oakton was the state champion for boys lacrosse in 1992 and from 2003-2005, those titles were unofficial.
  18. ^ a b c d e Relay teams are considered individuals in this context.
  19. ^ The entire yearbook staff is considered an entity in this context.
  20. ^ Tara Bahrampour (July 24, 2010). "Terror suspect took his desire to belong to the extreme". Washington Post. Retrieved July 29, 2010.
  21. ^ "Welcome to Julie Clark.net". Retrieved 3 April 2017.
  22. ^ Thomas, Owen. "Sean Parker drops out of college, again and again and again". Retrieved 2008-11-13.
  23. ^ "Genius from Class '96". Retrieved 2011-02-20.
  24. ^ "Sean Parker". Retrieved 2011-02-20.
  25. ^ Mundy, Liza; Argetsinger, Amy; Shapira, Ian (2009-12-22). "The Party Crashers: A look at Tareq and Michaele Salahi before they were famous". The Washington Post. Retrieved 2010-05-20.
  26. ^ "Minnesota Vikings: Scott Turner". Minnesota Vikings.
  27. ^ Bryan Strickland (May 23, 2011). "Turner following father's footsteps". Carolina Panthers.
  28. ^ "Erin Brockovich". 17 March 2000. Retrieved 3 April 2017 – via IMDb.

External links[edit]