This article needs additional citations for verification. (September 2022)
Te Oha-a-Maru (Māori)
|Territorial authority||Waitaki District|
|• Mayor||Gary Kircher|
|• Local authority||Waitaki District Council|
|• Regional council||Otago Regional Council|
|• Total||21.46 km2 (8.29 sq mi)|
|• Density||650/km2 (1,700/sq mi)|
|Time zone||UTC+12 (NZST)|
|• Summer (DST)||UTC+13 (NZDT)|
|Local iwi||Ngāi Tahu|
Oamaru (// (listen); Māori: Te Oha-a-Maru) is the largest town in North Otago, in the South Island of New Zealand, it is the main town in the Waitaki District. It is 80 kilometres (50 mi) south of Timaru and 120 kilometres (75 mi) north of Dunedin on the Pacific coast; State Highway 1 and the railway Main South Line connect it to both cities. With a population of 13,850, Oamaru is the 28th largest urban area in New Zealand, and the third largest in Otago behind Dunedin and Queenstown. The town is the seat of Waitaki District, which includes the surrounding towns of Kurow, Weston, Palmerston, and Hampden. which combined have a total population of 23,200.
Friendly Bay is a popular recreational area located at the edge of Oamaru Harbour, south to Oamaru's main centre. Just to the north of Oamaru is the substantial Alliance Abattoir at Pukeuri, at a major junction with State Highway 83, the main route into the Waitaki Valley. This provides a road link to Kurow, Omarama, Otematata and via the Lindis Pass to Queenstown and Wanaka. Oamaru serves as the eastern gateway to the Mackenzie Basin, via the Waitaki Valley.
Oamaru has been built between the rolling hills of limestone and short stretch of flat land to the sea. This limestone rock is used for the construction of local "Oamaru stone”, sometimes called "Whitestone" buildings.
Oamaru enjoys a protected location in the shelter of Cape Wanbrow. The town was laid out in 1858 by Otago's provincial surveyor John Turnbull Thomson, who named the early streets after British rivers, particularly rivers in the northwest and southeast of the country.
This section needs additional citations for verification. (October 2017)
There are some important archaeological sites around Oamaru. Those at the Waitaki River mouth and at Awamoa both date from the Archaic (Moa-hunter) phase of Māori culture, when New Zealand's human population clustered along the south-east coast from about AD 1100. The Waitaki River mouth had at least 1,200 ovens. Awamoa saw the first archaeological excavation in New Zealand when W.B.D. Mantell dug there at Christmas 1847 and in 1852. Smaller Archaic sites exist at Cape Wanbrow and at Beach Road in central Oamaru. The distinctive Archaic art of the Waitaki Valley rock shelters dates from this period — some of it presumably made by the occupants of these sites. The area also features Classic and Protohistoric sites, from after about AD 1500, at Tamahaerewhenua, Tekorotuaheka, Te Punamaru, Papakaio, and Kakanui.
Māori tradition tells of the ancient people Kahui Tipua building a canoe, Arai Te Uru, which sailed from southern New Zealand to the ancestral Polynesian homeland, Hawaiki, to obtain kumara. On its return it became waterlogged off the Waitaki River mouth, lost food baskets at Moeraki beach and ended up wrecked at Matakaea (Shag Point) where it turned into Danger Reef. After the wreck a crew member, Pahihiwitahi, seeking water, discovered the Waitaki River, but on returning south and failing to reach the wreck before dawn he was turned into a hill in the Shag Valley. Modern academics have suggested this tale is an allegorical explanation of the fact that kumara will not grow south of Banks Peninsula.
On 20 February 1770 James Cook in the Endeavour reached a position very close to the Waitaki mouth and "about 3 Miles [5 km] from the shore" according to his journal. He said the land "here is very low and flat and continues so up to the skirts of the Hills which are at least 4 or 5 Miles [6–8 km] in land. The whole face of the Country appears barren, nor did we see any signs of inhabitants." He stayed on this part of the coast four days. Sydney Parkinson, the expedition's artist, described what seems to be Cape Wanbrow, in Oamaru. On 20 February he wrote "...we were near the land, which formed an agreeable view to the naked eye. The hills were of a moderate height, having flats that extended from them a long way, bordered by a perpendicular rocky cliff next to the sea."
Some of the [local] people [had been] absent on a feasting expedition to meet a great party from Taumutu, Akaroa, Orawenua [Arowhenua]. They were returning. The [sealers'] boat passed on to the Bluff 8 miles [13 km] north of Moeraki where they landed & arranged their boat – & lay down to sleep in their boat. At night Pukuheke, father of Te More, went to the boat, found them asleep & came back to the other Natives south of the Bluff. They went with 100 [men] killing 5 Europeans & eat them. Two of the seven escaped through the darkness of the night & fled as far as Goodwood, Bobby's Head, after being 2 days and nights on the way.
Pukuheke's party killed and ate these as well. The Pākehā, a party from the Matilda (Captain Fowler), under the first mate Robert Brown with two other Europeans and five lascars or Indian seamen, made eight in all, not seven as the manuscript says. They had been sent in an open boat from Stewart Island in search of a party of absconding lascars. Brown must have had some reason for searching for them on the North Otago coast.
After Te Rauparaha's sack of the large pa (fortified settlement) at Kaiapoi near modern Christchurch in 1831, refugees came south and gained permission to settle at Kakaunui (Kakanui), and the territory between Pukeuri and Waianakarua, including the site of urban Oamaru, became their domain.
19th century onwards
Whalers sometimes visited this part of the coast in the 1830s. The Jason, for example, probably of New London in the United States, Captain Chester, was reported at "Otago Bluff" south of Kakanui, with 2,500 barrels (400 m3) of oil, on 1 December 1839.
Edward Shortland visited the area in 1844, coming overland from Waikouaiti. On 9 January he recorded "Our path to-day was sometimes along the edge of a low cliff, sometimes along the beach, till we approached Oamaru point, where it turned inland, and crossed a low range of hills, from which we looked over an extensive plain … Towards the afternoon, we ascended a range of hills called Pukeuri, separating this plain from another more extensive. The sky was so remarkably clear that, from the highest point of the pathway, Moeraki was distinctly in view..." He made a map and placed Oamaru on it. He was one of several Europeans who passed through the area on foot in the 1840s. James Saunders became the first European resident of the district some time before 1850 when he settled to trade among the Māori of the Waitaki River mouth.
More European settlers arrived in the Oamaru area in the 1850s. Hugh Robison built and lived in a sod hut by the Oamaru Creek in 1853 while establishing his sheep run. J.T. Thomson surveyed the place as a town in 1859, and the Otago Provincial government declared "hundreds" there on 30 November 1860. The town grew as a service-centre for the agricultural/pastoral hinterland between the Kakanui Mountains and the Waitaki River, and rapidly became a major port. A boost was given by public works, including harbour development, and an export trade in wool and grain from the 1860s, following the loss of a number of vessels off the coast, construction of a breakwater design by engineer John McGregor started in 1871. The building of this breakwater was influential in the development of new forms of crane.
For many years there was a commercial and fishing harbour under Cape Wanbrow at Friendly Bay. With the development of pastoralism and the associated frozen-meat industry having its historical origins in New Zealand just south of the town at Totara, Oamaru flourished. Institutions such as the Athenaeum, Chief Post Office and Waitaki Boys' and Waitaki Girls' High Schools sprang up. The locally plentiful limestone (Oamaru stone) lent itself to carving and good designers, such as John Lemon (1828–1890) Thomas Forrester (1838–1907) and his son J.M. Forrester (1865–1965), and craftsmen utilised it. By the time of the depression of the 1880s Oamaru was home to an impressive array of buildings and the "best built and most mortgaged town in Australasia".
A major factor in the near bankruptcy of Oamaru was construction of the "Borough water race",[clarification needed] an aqueduct completed after 3 years' work in 1880. This major engineering feat replaced the previous poor water supply (obtained from the local creeks) with abundant pure water (and energy for industrial machinery driven by water motors) from the Waitaki river and conducted water in an open channel for almost 50 km through hilly farmland from Kurow to the Oamaru reservoir at Ardgowan until decommissioned and abandoned in 1983.
The district went "dry" in 1906, and stayed that way until 1960 – the last South Island district to resume alcohol sales.
Development slowed apart from a few years in the 1920s, and in the 1950s, but the population continued to grow until the 1970s. With the closure of the port the local economy began to stall, New Zealand then went through radical economic restructuring in the mid 1980s – known as "Rogernomics", North Otago was then hit by two droughts from 1988 to 1989 and again from 1997 to 1999. Oamaru found itself hard hit. In response it started to re-invent itself, becoming one of the first New Zealand towns to realise its built heritage was an asset.
A public art museum, the Forrester Gallery (whose first curator in 1882 was Thomas Forrester), opened in 1983 in R.A. Lawson's neo-classical Bank of New South Wales building. Restoration of other buildings also took place. The Oamaru Whitestone Civic Trust was formed in 1987 with a vision of redeveloping the original commercial and business district of Oamaru's Harbour and Tyne Streets, and work began on restoring the historic precinct beside the port, perhaps the most atmospheric urban area in New Zealand.
By the early 21st century, "heritage" had become a conspicuous industry and today[update], the number of buildings owned by the Oamaru Whitestone Civic Trust had grown from the original eight to 17. Oamaru contains over 70 buildings registered as Category 1 or 2 Historic Places in Heritage New Zealand register.
|Climate data for Oamaru|
|Average high °C (°F)||20.7
|Daily mean °C (°F)||16
|Average low °C (°F)||11.4
|Average precipitation mm (inches)||54
|Source: Climate-Data.org (altitude: 13m)|
Oamaru is described by Statistics New Zealand as a medium urban area, which covers 21.46 km2 (8.29 sq mi) and had an estimated population of 13,850 as of June 2021, with a population density of 645 people per km2.
Oamaru had a population of 13,107 at the 2018 New Zealand census, an increase of 801 people (6.5%) since the 2013 census, and an increase of 1,077 people (9.0%) since the 2006 census. There were 5,463 households. There were 6,267 males and 6,840 females, giving a sex ratio of 0.92 males per female, with 2,328 people (17.8%) aged under 15 years, 2,016 (15.4%) aged 15 to 29, 5,439 (41.5%) aged 30 to 64, and 3,324 (25.4%) aged 65 or older.
Ethnicities were 86.9% European/Pākehā, 8.1% Māori, 6.0% Pacific peoples, 4.7% Asian, and 1.6% other ethnicities (totals add to more than 100% since people could identify with multiple ethnicities).
The proportion of people born overseas was 15.7%, compared with 27.1% nationally.
Although some people objected to giving their religion, 45.4% had no religion, 43.6% were Christian, 0.6% were Hindu, 0.4% were Muslim, 0.4% were Buddhist and 1.8% had other religions.
Of those at least 15 years old, 1,242 (11.5%) people had a bachelor or higher degree, and 3,021 (28.0%) people had no formal qualifications. 1,017 people (9.4%) earned over $70,000 compared to 17.2% nationally. The employment status of those at least 15 was that 4,668 (43.3%) people were employed full-time, 1,545 (14.3%) were part-time, and 312 (2.9%) were unemployed.
|Name||Area (km2)||Population||Density (per km2)||Households||Median age||Median income|
|Glen Warren||1.80||1,632||907||675||46.0 years||$24,500|
|Holmes Hill||2.62||1,332||508||603||54.1 years||$26,700|
|Oamaru Central||0.96||294||306||132||59.4 years||$21,500|
|Oamaru Gardens||1.42||1,179||830||522||47.3 years||$27,900|
|Oamaru North Milner Park||7.13||2,529||355||981||48.0 years||$24,400|
|Oamaru North Orana Park||2.76||2,907||1,053||1,158||42.3 years||$26,000|
|South Hill||1.45||2,184||1,506||981||46.1 years||$28,000|
|New Zealand||37.4 years||$31,800|
- Oamaru North
- Casa Nova
- Hospital Hill
- Oamaru Central
- Holmes Hill
- South Hill
- Waiareka Junction
The mayor of Waitaki District is Gary Kircher.
Recreation and leisure
The beautiful Oamaru Opera House officially opened on 7 October 1907, on Thames Street  is home of much of Oamaru performance and live entertainment. Having been restored in 2009. The refurbishment won the Public Architecture category of the 2010 Southern Architecture Awards and the 2011 NZIA Heritage award for Heritage Conservation. Oamaru Opera House is one of the most significant heritage places in Oamaru, important to the town and nationally to New Zealand.
The Waitaki District Library has branches situated in Oamaru, Palmerston, Kurow, Hampden, Omarama, and Otematata (forming the Waitaki District Libraries syndicate).
The Oamaru Public Library began its life with the Oamaru Athenaeum and Mechanics Institute in 1878, by 1973 however, library services had outgrown the building. A new library building was proposed, situated next-door to the 'old' Athenaeum library and, on 19 September 1975, the new library was officially opened by the Mayor, Mr R.D. Allen.
Oamaru Repertory Theatre is located on Itchen Street and is the home of Oamaru's live theatre productions.
Oamaru has a comprehensive range of community sporting facilities for rugby, tennis, swimming, netball, cricket, golf, hockey, and bowls. Centennial Park is Oamaru's major sporting venue, and is the home of North Otago Rugby Football Union and North Otago Cricket. The council also owns and operates the Oamaru Aquatic Centre.
Famous people associated with Oamaru
Many of the early works of Janet Frame, who grew up in the town, reflect Oamaru conditions and Oamaruvians. Other literary associations include those with Owen Marshall, Greg McGee and Fiona Farrell Poole.
Other prominent persons born and educated in Oamaru include Des Wilson, founder of the UK homelessness charity, Shelter; Australian Prime Minister Chris Watson; New Zealand politicians Arnold Nordmeyer and William Steward; Cardinal Thomas Stafford Williams; Sir Malcolm Grant, former president and Provost of University College London and subsequently Chairman of NHS England and Chancellor of the University of York; and notably former All Blacks rugby union captain Richie McCaw.
Fred Allen, an All Black of the 1940s who went on to coach the All Blacks to 14 wins from his 14 tests in the 1960s, was born in Oamaru, though not educated there. Another notable sports person is Gary Robertson, who won gold at the 1972 Olympic Games, Munich, Germany in the NZ Rowing 8. Robertson is the only Olympic gold medalist from Waitaki. He was born in Waimate but grew up in Oamaru and was educated at Waitaki Boys High School.
The world first learned of the death of Robert Scott and the members of his team on their return from the ill-fated expedition to the South Pole by way of a cable sent from Oamaru, on 10 February 1913.
From the 1920s to the 1940s Frank Milner (1875–1944) turned Waitaki Boys' High School into one of the most admired schools in the country through his old-fashioned values, inspiring leadership and broad outlook.
Notable students include Charles Brasch (1909–1973) at Waitaki (1923–1926), a poet and patron of artists; Douglas Lilburn (1915–2001), "the elder statesman of New Zealand music"; James Bertram (1910–1993), writer and academic; Denis Blundell, a future Governor-General of New Zealand; and Ian Milner (1911–1991), the Rector's son, a Czech and English scholar falsely accused of spying for Communism. His father, known as "The Man", died suddenly on 2 December 1944 while speaking at the opening of a stone gateway to Milner Park, Oamaru.
E.A. Gifford (1819–1894), an artist and Royal Academician, lived in Oamaru from 1877 to 1885 and from 1892 until his death. A genre, portrait and landscape painter he established a national reputation. The art world remembers him for works like his Auckland from the Wharf of 1887, probably the best-known image of 19th-century Auckland.
Emily Gillies, a 19th-century Oamaru artist, was the daughter of C.H. Street, maternal niece of Edward Lear (1812–1888), the famous English watercolourist and writer of humorous verse. Lear's sister had virtually brought her brother up. When he died childless before her she inherited his residuary collection. The internationally-significant group of works came to North Otago, where it remained intact until the early 1970s.
The artist Colin McCahon (1919–1987) lived in Oamaru from 1930 to 1931, attending the Middle School. The place and the North Otago landscape made an impression on him. He revisited the area several times as an adult on painting trips. Cartoonist John Kent, who authored the Varoomshka comic strip for The Guardian newspaper in England, hailed from Oamaru.
A strong community of living artists exists[update], and many dealer galleries have premises in the historic precinct. One of the town's principal living artists, Donna Demente, produces portraits and masks. At least partly through her work Oamaru hosts an annual mask festival each July, the "Midwinter Masquerade". Another annual celebration, a Victorian Heritage fête, takes place in November.
Video game designer Dean Hall grew up in Oamaru and attended Waitaki Boys' High School. His interest in mountaineering was fostered while on a geography field trip while studying there, ultimately culminating in him summiting Mount Everest in May 2013.
Points of interest
Many public buildings use as their construction material the local limestone (quarried especially near Weston) and known as Oamaru stone. The Victorian precinct in southern part of Oamaru's main commercial district ranks as one of New Zealand's most impressive streetscapes due to the many prominent 19th century buildings constructed from this material. Several key historic buildings in the area centered around Harbour Street and the lower Thames Street, Itchen Street, and Tyne Street have been preserved by the Oamaru Whitestone Civic Trust as part of a historic precinct. The great palladian St Patrick's Basilica is also a fine example in white Oamaru stone.
The Victorian theme has been embraced by local shops and galleries in this part of Oamaru in terms of shop fittings and décor. Further enhancing the "olden days" feel of the precinct are several arts and crafts shops, a transportation museum, an antique furniture shop, and traditional businesses such as book shops, antique clothing shops, and a book binder. Many of the buildings in this area close to the harbour used to serve as commercial warehouses and stores and now provide large spaces for galleries such as the Forrester Gallery, the Grainstore Gallery, The Libratory, and Steampunk HQ. Even the playgrounds in the harbour area continue the Victorian/industrial steam theme with a giant Penny Farthing structure supporting the swings, and several Steampunk-styled playground features.
In August 2016 Oamaru made it into the Guinness Book of World Records for the largest gathering of steampunks in the world, a term that was coined in the 1980s and is based on imagining inventions the Victorians might have created for the modern world.
The main retail, services and commercial areas line between Thames Street; State Highway 1 running south follows Severn Street running north, whereas the historic grand commercial buildings dominate the area around lower Thames, Tees, and Tyne Street.
A colony of little blue penguins lives in a disused quarry on the harbour not far from the historic precinct. The penguins established themselves in the early 1990s, once the rock quarry had been closed in the 1970s, and in 1992 a group of volunteers started to help make the area suitable as a breeding habitat for the penguins and provide guided tours. Apart from the success of the penguin colony, their efforts were rewarded with the colony receiving the Otago Regional Council's Environmental Award in 1995.
Over the course of the early 2000s, a visitors' centre and two grandstands were completed, and today the Oamaru Blue Penguin Colony is Oamaru's largest tourist attraction, receiving over 75,000 visitors annually. It is owned by the Waitaki District Council and carefully managed by the Waitaki Development Board, including monitoring and comparing of behaviour and numbers with a similar penguin colony nearby which is not open to visitors.
A steam train operated by the Oamaru Steam and Rail Restoration Society runs between a small railway station in the historic precinct and a terminus at the harbour close to the little blue penguin colony on Sundays and during school holidays.
Further south just outside town, a colony of yellow-eyed penguins at Bushy Beach also attracts ecotourists. Penguins sometimes live under buildings close to the beach, including the town's music club, The Penguin Club.
The North Otago Tree Planting Association, inaugurated by local Oamaru G.P. Dr. Eric Strawson Stubbs and North Otago farmer Mr. Syd Hurst in 1937, was a forerunner of the New Zealand Farm Forestry Association.
The historic Totara Estate located 8 km south Oamaru. Heritage New Zealand restored and opened these buildings to the public on 15 February 1982, exactly 100 years after the Dunedin's historic sailing – creating the New Zealand frozen meat industry. By 1902 frozen meat made up 20% of all New Zealand exports.
Tourism Waitaki is the official tourism body for the whole of Waitaki District.
The Oamaru Mail is a weekly newspaper published every Friday, by Allied Press Ltd. It has a team of reporters, who also write for the Otago Daily Times, based in Oamaru. It has served the people of the Waitaki region since 1876. The Oamaru Telegram is published every Tuesday and is produced, printed, published, and based in Oamaru.
The town is within the coverage area of Radio Dunedin and within the circulation area of the Otago Daily Times, based in Dunedin. Oamaru has its own community television station, "45 South Television", which transmits from Cape Wanbrow on UHF Digital channel 34, and an independent classic rock radio station Real Classic Rock, which has studios based in Thames Street, and transmits from Cape Wanbrow. Oamaru also has a radio station called Oamaru FM 91.2 that also broadcasts from Cape Wanbrow.
Oamaru is on State Highway 1 (SH1), the main road route down the eastern coast of the South Island. There are regular coach and minibus services to Christchurch, Dunedin, and the Mackenzie Country, leaving from Eden Street outside the Lagonda Tearooms, which provides booking facilities and other travel services.
Oamaru is the end point of the Alps to Ocean Cycle Trail from Aoraki / Mount Cook, a cycle trail constructed following approval in 2010 by the New Zealand Cycle Trail project. The trail terminates at Friendly Bay, adjacent to Oamaru's Victorian Historic Precinct.
Oamaru Airport is 20 kilometres (12 mi) north of the town at Pururi. After Air New Zealand Link ceased operations in 2010, scheduled flights between Oamaru and Christchurch resumed in 2014 with Mainland Air. However they were terminated after a few months.
The main south line of the South Island Main Trunk Railway leads through Oamaru. A short side track connects Oamaru's historic precinct and a disused quarry at the harbour, with a tourist steam train running on Sundays. The 1900 railway station has been listed NZHPT Category II since 1983. It is a standard class B station, of weatherboard and corrugated iron.
There are three secondary schools in Oamaru, each catering for students in years 9 to 13. Waitaki Boys' High School is a secondary school for boys located in the northern part of Oamaru, with day and boarding facilities. It was founded in 1883, and has a roll of 369 students. Waitaki Girls' High School is a state high school for girls. It was founded in 1887, and has a roll of 367. It also has a boarding hostel which houses approximately 50 girls, including international students and tutors. St Kevin's College, Oamaru (founded 1927) is a coeducational state-integrated Catholic day and boarding high school with a roll of 440. The school was founded in 1927.
St Joseph's School was established by the Dominican Sisters and the Christian Brothers. It is the only Catholic primary school in North Otago. It has a roll of 111 and it caters for students up to year 8. There are no longer any Sisters or Brothers on the staff and the school is run and managed by lay people.
Oamaru Intermediate provides education for years 7 and 8. It has a roll of 319. The other state primary schools in Oamaru, which cater for students up to year 6, are Fenwick School, with a roll of 301, Pembroke School, with a roll of 235, and Te Pākihi O Maru (previously called Oamaru North School), with a roll of 104,
Surrounding areas include Weston School, Ardgowan School, Totara School and Five Forks School.
Rolls are as of July 2022.
Janet Frame fictionalised the Oamaru of her childhood as "Waimaru". Some of Fiona Farrell's literary works also feature Oamaru. Peter F. Hamilton's novel The Dreaming Void (London: Macmillan, 2007; ISBN 978-1-4050-8880-0) refers to "the backwater External World of Oamaru" (page 22). The same author's science-fiction novel Great North Road mentions a remote camp called Oamaru, set up in the unexplored remote continent of Brogal on the Sirius-system planet St Libra in the year 2143.
- "Mayor and Councillors". Waitaki.govt.nz. Retrieved 3 December 2021.
- "ArcGIS Web Application". statsnz.maps.arcgis.com. Retrieved 3 December 2021.
- "Subnational population estimates (RC, SA2), by age and sex, at 30 June 1996-2021 (2021 boundaries)". Statistics New Zealand. Retrieved 22 October 2021. (regional councils); "Subnational population estimates (TA, SA2), by age and sex, at 30 June 1996-2021 (2021 boundaries)". Statistics New Zealand. Retrieved 22 October 2021. (territorial authorities); "Subnational population estimates (urban rural), by age and sex, at 30 June 1996-2021 (2021 boundaries)". Statistics New Zealand. Retrieved 22 October 2021. (urban areas)
- "Subnational population estimates (RC, SA2), by age and sex, at 30 June 1996–2020 (2020 boundaries)". nzdotstat.stats.govt.nz. Retrieved 25 April 2021.
- "1000 Māori place names". New Zealand Ministry for Culture and Heritage. 6 August 2019.
- Hamel, Jill (2001). The Archaeology of Otago. Wellington: Department of Conservation. pp. 16, 18, 22 & 82.
- Anderson, Atholl (1998). The Welcome of Strangers. Dunedin: Otago University Press. pp. 90, 107.
- Church, Ian (2002). Otago's Infant Years. Dunedin: Otago Heritage Books. p. 48.
- McLintock, A.H., ed. (1966). An Encyclopaedia of New Zealand. Vol. 2. Wellington: Government Printer. p. 705.
- "Search the List | Oamaru Chief Post Office (Former) | Heritage New Zealand". www.heritage.org.nz. Retrieved 25 April 2021.
- "A short background and history of Moa". Historical Crane Society. 2009.
- Greenaway, Richard (1983). Porter, Frances (ed.). Limestone Buildings of Oamaru. Historic Buildings of New Zealand South Island'. Auckland: Methuen. p. 143. ISBN 0-456-03120-0.
- "History of the Oamaru Whitestone Civic Trust". Oamaru Whitestone Civic Trust. Retrieved 3 April 2014.
- "Historic Places Trust New Zealand – Search the Register". New Zealand Historic Places Trust. Retrieved 3 April 2014.
- "Climate: Oamaru – Climate graph, Temperature graph, Climate table". Climate-Data.org. Retrieved 6 December 2013.
- "Statistical area 1 dataset for 2018 Census". Statistics New Zealand. March 2020. Glen Warren (344200), Holmes Hill (344300), Oamaru Central (344400), Oamaru Gardens (344100), Oamaru North Milner Park (343900), Oamaru North Orana Park (344000), South Hill (344500) and Weston (343800).
- 2018 Census place summary: Glen Warren
- 2018 Census place summary: Holmes Hill
- 2018 Census place summary: Oamaru Central
- 2018 Census place summary: Oamaru Gardens
- 2018 Census place summary: Oamaru North Milner Park
- 2018 Census place summary: Oamaru North Orana Park
- 2018 Census place summary: South Hill
- 2018 Census place summary: Weston
- "History". Oamaru Opera House. Retrieved 25 April 2021.
- "Search the List | Oamaru Town Hall and Opera House (Former) | Heritage New Zealand". www.heritage.org.nz. Retrieved 25 April 2021.
- "About | Culture Waitaki". www.culturewaitaki.org.nz. Retrieved 25 April 2021.
- "Oamaru Repertory Society". Waitaki Groups and Clubs Directory. Retrieved 25 April 2021.
- McNeilly, Hamish (15 August 2012). "Game's success dazes designer". Otago Daily Times. Retrieved 17 September 2012.
- Ryan, Rebecca (31 May 2013). "Living Everest dream". Oamaru Mail. Retrieved 16 October 2013.
- "Oamaru's Victorian Precinct". What to See and Do (NZ Regional Promotions). Archived from the original on 6 March 2014. Retrieved 21 February 2014.
- "Oamaru's Victorian Precinct – 101 Must-Do's for Kiwi". New Zealand Automobile Association. Archived from the original on 26 February 2014. Retrieved 21 February 2014.
- "Trust Buildings". The Oamaru Whitestone Civic Trust. Archived from the original on 20 June 2014. Retrieved 21 February 2014.
- "Precinct Attractions". The Oamaru Whitestone Civic Trust. Retrieved 21 February 2014.
- "Sights in Oamaru". Lonely Planet. Retrieved 21 February 2014.
- "Oamaru's New Friendly Bay Playground Officially Opened". Victorian Oamaru, Pen-y-bryn Lodge, 11 October 2013. 11 October 2013. Retrieved 21 February 2014.
- "How an ordinary New Zealand town became steampunk capital of the world". The Guardian. 30 August 2016.
- "The history of the Oamaru Blue Penguin Colony". Oamaru Blue Penguin Colony. Retrieved 21 February 2014.
- "About the Oamaru Blue Penguin Colony". Oamaru Blue Penguin Colony. Retrieved 21 February 2014.
- "Running Days – Oamaru Steam & Rail". Oamaru Steam and Rail. Retrieved 21 February 2014.
- "Totara Estate". HERITAGE NEW ZEALAND.
- "Totara Estate | NZHistory, New Zealand history online". nzhistory.govt.nz. Retrieved 25 April 2021.
- "Tourism Waitaki – Explore Oamaru & the Waitaki District". Waitaki, New Zealand. Retrieved 25 April 2021.
- David Bruce (22 August 2014). "Mainland flights to end". Otago Daily Times. Retrieved 1 June 2016.
- "Search the List – Oamaru Railway Station (Former) – Heritage New Zealand". www.heritage.org.nz.
- "Rail Heritage Trust of New Zealand – Oamaru Station". www.railheritage.org.nz.
- Education Counts: Waitaki Boys' High School
- "125th anniversary to be 'momentous' occasion". Otago Daily Times. 21 June 2008. Retrieved 7 January 2012.
- Education Counts: Waitaki Girls' High School
- "History of Waitaki Girls' High School". Waitaki Girls' High School. Archived from the original on 24 May 2010. Retrieved 6 January 2012.
- "Waitaki House Boarding Hostel". Waitaki Girls' High School. Archived from the original on 24 May 2010.
- Education Counts: St Kevin's College
- Hanrahan, M J (2019). "Redcastle History". St Kevin's College.
- "Schools". Catholic Diocese of Dunedin. Archived from the original on 1 May 2012. Retrieved 6 January 2012.
- Education Counts: St Joseph's School
- Education Counts: Oamaru Intermediate
- Education Counts: Fenwick School
- Education Counts: Pembroke School
- Education Counts: Te Pākihi O Maru
- "New Zealand Schools Directory". New Zealand Ministry of Education. Retrieved 19 August 2022.
Hamilton, Peter F. (2012). Great North Road. Tor UK. ISBN 9781743298381. Retrieved 8 June 2013.
Wukang was the first of the three projected forward camps, arranged almost like compass points, north-west, due north, and north-east from Sarvar, which was now being relegated to supply-base status. Varese, the camp due north, was already having its landing strip bulldozed; while Oamaru, away to the east, had just received its first successful Berlin landing yesterday. No more forward camps were scheduled — this was as far as the expedition was going to venture, as far as the budget would take them.
- Heyward, Ruby (27 March 2021). "Transformation in Oamaru for filming". Otago Daily Times Online News. Retrieved 25 April 2021.
- "Hollywood star Kirsten Dunst spotted filming Jane Campion movie in Oamaru". New Zealand Herald. Retrieved 25 April 2021.
- "Devizes and District Twinning Association". www.devizes-twinning.org.uk.
- Breen, Helen Marjorie (1977). Oamaru in the depression of the 1930s (PDF) (MA). Christchurch, NZ: University of Canterbury.
- Harbourne, David (2018). Penguins Under the Porch: A Yorkshireman's Ode to Oamaru. Christchurch, NZ: Wily Publications. ISBN 978-19-2716-736-6.
- McDonald, Kenneth Cornwell (1998). History of North Otago: For Centennial Period, 1840 to 1940. Christchurch, NZ: Cadsonbury. ISBN 187715122X.
- McLean, Gavin (2008). Kiwitown's Port: The Story of Oamaru Harbour. Dunedin, NZ: Otago University Press. ISBN 978-18-7737-263-6.
- Robert, W.H.S. (1890). The History of Oamaru and North Otago, New Zealand: From 1853 to the end of 1889. Oamaru, NZ: Andrew Fraser.
- Shaw, Peter; Hallett, Peter (1995). Whitestone Oamaru: A Victorian Architectural Heritage (Paperback). Nelson, NZ: Craig Potton. ISBN 0908802307.
- Sorrell, Paul; Warman, Graham (2014). Oamaru: New Zealand's Living Victorian Town (Paperback). Auckland, NZ: Penguin. ISBN 978-01-4356-968-8.
- McDonald, K.C. (2006). Oamaru 1878: A Colonial Town. Oamaru, NZ: Waitaki District Council (1878 Publication group). ISBN 0-473-11095-4.