Page semi-protected

Oath Keepers

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to navigation Jump to search

Oath Keepers
Oath Keepers logo
Motto"Not on our watch!"
FormationMarch 2009; 11 years ago (2009-03)
FounderStewart Rhodes
United States
LeaderStewart Rhodes
Stewart Rhodes, Michele Imburgia, Rex H. McTyeire, Richard Mack, John D. Shirley, Steven C. Homan, Jim Ayala, Jay Stang Edit this at Wikidata

Oath Keepers is an American far-right[1] anti-government[2][3] militia organization[4] composed of current and former military, police, and first responders who pledge to fulfill the oath that all military and police take in order to "defend the Constitution against all enemies, foreign and domestic".[5] It encourages its members to not obey orders which they believe would violate the United States Constitution. The organization claims a membership of 35,000 as of 2016, though the Anti-Defamation League (ADL) has estimated its membership at several thousand.[6][7]

The group describes itself as non-partisan, though several organizations that monitor domestic terrorism and hate groups describe it as extremist or radical. Mark Pitcavage of the ADL describes the group as "heavily armed extremists with a conspiratorial and anti-government mindset looking for potential showdowns with the government."[8][9] The Southern Poverty Law Center (SPLC) lists the group's founder as a known extremist and describes his announced plans to create localized militia units as "frightening".[10] According to the SPLC, the group espouses a number of conspiracy and legal theories associated with the sovereign citizen movement and the white supremacist posse comitatus movement.[11][12][13] SPLC senior fellow Mark Potok describes the group as a whole as "really just an anti-government group who believe in a wild set of conspiracy theories".[10]

Oath Keepers were present wearing military fatigues in Ferguson, Missouri, during the 2014[4] and 2015[1][14] unrest in the city, when members armed with semi-automatic rifles patrolled streets and rooftops.[15][16] Members of the group were indicted on conspiracy charges for allegedly staging a planned mission during the 2021 storming of the United States Capitol.[17][18]

Organizational history

Oath Keepers was founded in March 2009 by Elmer Stewart Rhodes,[19][20][21] a Yale Law School graduate, former U.S. Army paratrooper, and former staffer for Republican Congressman Ron Paul.[22] On December 8, 2015, Rhodes was disbarred by the Montana Supreme Court for conduct violating the Montana Rules of Professional Conduct after refusing to respond to two bar grievances filed against him in the federal district court in Arizona.[23]

Rhodes is reported to have taken inspiration from the notion that Adolf Hitler could have been stopped if German soldiers and police had refused to follow orders.[24] Writing in S.W.A.T. Magazine in 2008, Rhodes asserts, "'It' (a full-blown totalitarian police state) cannot happen here if the majority of police and soldiers obey their oaths to defend the Constitution and refuse to enforce the unconstitutional edicts of the 'Leader'."[25]

In an October 2020 interview, reporter Mike Giglio of The Atlantic stated that in the preceding years, the Oath Keepers regarded President Donald Trump as "someone in the White House that they fully support", in contrast to their skepticism of previous Republican administrations.[26] He also said that in recent years Rhodes's statements had become more "radical" and that because of this some members of the group with military experience, concerned by the possibility of the types of violence they had witnessed overseas occurring in the United States, left the group.[26]


According to the ADL, the Oath Keepers “aim much of their propaganda at members of military and police, reminding them that they swore an oath to defend the Constitution ‘from all enemies, foreign and domestic,’ and asking them to pledge to disobey theoretical unconstitutional orders they might get from superiors—orders that explicitly or implicitly reference militia‐related conspiracy theories.” The Oath Keepers urge military and law enforcement personnel to stop the New World Order’s plans.[27]

The organization states that full membership is open to "currently serving military, reserves, National Guard, police, fire-fighters, other first responders (i.e. State Guard, Sheriff Posse/Auxiliary, Search & Rescue, EMT, other medical 1st responders, etc.) AND veterans/former members of those services," and that others who support the organization's mission can become associate members.[5] The organization says that it has up to 30,000 members, though this figure has been questioned.[28]


Unauthorized recruitment center presence

Following the 2015 Chattanooga shootings at a strip mall military recruitment center and a naval operational support center in Tennessee, Oath Keepers and other militia groups began organizing armed gatherings outside of recruiting centers in several states, with the stated objective of providing protection to service members, who were barred from carrying weapons while on duty in civilian recruitment centers.[29] In response, the Army Command Operations Center Security Division issued a letter ordering soldiers not to interact with or acknowledge armed civilians outside of recruitment centers, and that "If questioned by these alleged concerned citizens, be polite, professional and terminate the conversation immediately and report the incident to local law enforcement," noting that the issuing officer is "sure the citizens mean well, but we cannot assume this in every case and we do not want to advocate this behavior".[29]

Ferguson protests

In late November 2014, during the unrest in Ferguson, the Oath Keepers put out a national request to its members to help in the city after the grand jury decision was released in the case of the shooting of Michael Brown. In reference to the perceived failure of the government's response to the unrest, the organization's founder, Stewart Rhodes, told the St. Louis Post-Dispatch, "We thought they were going to do it right this time, but when Monday rolled around and they didn't park the National Guard at these businesses, that's when we said we have got to do something." On December 2, 2014, volunteer security guards associated with the Oath Keepers kept armed watch on Ferguson rooftops, ignoring a police order to stop.[30]

In August 2015, four members of the group appeared again on the streets of Ferguson, following peaceful street demonstrations on the anniversary of Brown's shooting.[24][31][32][33] According to an article in The Washington Post, "The men—all of them white and heavily armed—said they were in the area to protect someone who worked for the Web site InfoWars, which is affiliated with talk-radio conspiracy theorist and self-described 'thought criminal against Big Brother' Alex Jones." The Oath Keepers claimed to be on the side of the protestors.[34] St. Louis County Police Chief Jon Belmar told the newspaper that the Oath Keepers' "presence was both unnecessary and inflammatory."[34]

One Ferguson activist, Ryan Herring, described their presence as intimidating and frightening, and criticized the Oath Keepers for their suggestion that protestors should use their legal right to openly carry firearms by saying that this would have increased the tension with the police. Sam Andrews, a member of the Oath Keepers, contended that the protestors calmed down when the Oath Keepers arrived at the protest.[35]

St. Louis County police officer Dan Page was relieved of duty in 2014 after pushing and threatening with arrest CNN journalist Don Lemon on live television in Ferguson.[36] Subsequently, an hour-long videotaped speech made by Page to an Oath Keepers meeting was found on YouTube. In the speech, Page boasted, "I'm also a killer. I've killed a lot, and if I need to I'll kill a whole bunch more."[36] Page also denounced hate crime laws, disparaged Muslims, and espoused Barack Obama citizenship conspiracy theories (Page referred to Obama as "that illegal alien claiming to be president").[36] The YouTube video contained a disclaimer stating that Page's opinions did not reflect those of the local chapter or national organization.[37]

The group's activities in Ferguson led to them being labeled "vigilantes" by some journalists.[38]

Kim Davis

On September 10, 2015, the Oath Keepers announced that they would travel to Rowan County, Kentucky, to prevent Kim Davis from being arrested and jailed should she be held in contempt a second time for violating a court order prohibiting her from interfering with marriage licensing in her office.[39] The group aimed to block enforcement of contempt of court rulings against Davis, and said, "If the sheriff, who should be interceding, is not going to do his job and the governor is not going to do the governor's job of interceding, then we'll do it." The Oath Keepers also criticized the judge in the case, David Bunning, saying "this judge needs to be put on notice that his behavior is not going to be accepted and we'll be there to stop it and intercede ourselves if we have to."[39]

The following day, members were advised that Davis's legal team, acting on her behalf, had declined their offer to provide a "security detail" to Davis. The Oath Keepers issued a statement saying that while members were still welcome to visit Rowan County, it would only be unofficial.[40]

Aftermath of Florida school shooting

In February 2018, soon after the Stoneman Douglas High School shooting in Parkland, Florida, Oath Keepers founder Rhodes publicly called upon "tens of thousands" of the group's members to form militias to protect US schools and colleges.[41] Rhodes posted on the Oath Keepers' website in what he termed a National Call to Action: "Oath Keepers, in the wake of the horrific attack … it is time to step up nationwide and defend our schools against the threat of mass murder. Enough is enough".[42]

Other activities

Charles A. Dyer was a United States Marine Corps sergeant who operated as an advocate for the Oath Keepers, maintaining a popular YouTube channel and acting as a representative at Tea Party rallies. Dyer was charged in 2010 with child rape and illegal weapons possession. Dyer evaded authorities and a manhunt ensued, followed by capture ten days later. In 2012, Dyer was convicted on his child rape charge. The Oath Keepers severed ties with Dyer after his initial forays with the law and denied a relationship with him.[43][44]

In 2014, armed Oath Keepers were present at the Bundy Ranch standoff, when agents of the Bureau of Land Management (BLM) seized cattle that a rancher was judged to be illegally grazing on federal land in Clark County, Nevada.[45][46]

In 2015, armed Oath Keepers in the Pacific Northwest attended two disputes between gold miners and federal authorities. In April they gathered in Medford, Oregon, at the request of the owners of the Sugar Pine Mine near Galice, after the owners were ordered to stop working the mine by the Bureau of Land Management.[47][48] In August, they patrolled the White Hope Mine in the Helena National Forest, about 20 miles from Lincoln, Montana; the U.S. Forest Service said the miners had engaged in illegal construction and tree-felling.[49][50]

Members of the Oath Keepers arrived at the Malheur National Wildlife Refuge in Oregon to offer to provide "perimeter security" for other militants who were illegally occupying the site. On January 15, 2016, Stewart Andrews, leader of the Oath Keepers, issued bellicose warnings on the group's website of a prospective "conflagration so great, it cannot be stopped, leading to a bloody, brutal civil war" if the Bundy-led occupation devolved into armed violence.[51]

In August 2017 a permit was issued by the NPS for the August 26th use of Crissy Field[52] to hold a rally by a group calling itself 'Patriot Prayer'.[53] The group's spokesman, Joey Gibson, announced that the Oath Keepers would be providing event security,[54] confirmed to The San Francisco Examiner on August 18 by Stewart Rhodes.[55]

In June 2019, Oregon Governor Kate Brown sent the Oregon State Police to bring 11 absent Republican state senators back to the Oregon State Capitol. The Republican state senators had gone into hiding to prevent a vote on a cap-and-trade proposal aimed at lowering greenhouse gas emissions by 2050 in order to combat climate change. The Oath Keepers reacted on June 20, 2019, by stating: "Gov. Brown, you want a civil war, because this is how you get a civil war". On June 22, 2019, a session of the Oregon Senate was canceled when the Oregon State Capitol was closed due to a warning from the state police of a "possible militia threat".[56][57][58][59]

After three people were killed in Portland, Oregon and Kenosha, Wisconsin, protests, Stewart Rhodes, the founder of Oath Keepers tweeted, “The first shot [of a civil war] has been fired brother.”[60]

National politics

An article posted to the organization's official website on April 14, 2016, opined that if Hillary Clinton won the 2016 United States presidential election, "the result would probably be outright civil war in the U.S."[61][62] Later in 2016, Stewart Rhodes called on members to visit polling places incognito to "hunt down" and document suspected voter fraud.[63]

Threats of violence in 2020

Mike Giglio of The Atlantic reported that at a July 2020 meeting at a Veterans of Foreign Wars hall in Rutherford County, Tennessee Rhodes, speaking of the events of the racial unrest in the United States that year, said that Antifa and other protesters "are insurrectionists, and we have to suppress that insurrection" and that "[e]ventually they're going to be using IEDs" and consequently "[u]s old vets and younger ones are going to end up having to kill these young kids and they're going to die believing they were fighting Nazis."[64]

Following the deaths during protests in Kenosha and the George Floyd protests in Portland, Oregon Rhodes referred to Antifa and Black Lives Matter protestors as attempting an "open Communist insurrection". Stating that they were engaged in civil war he asked President Donald Trump to declare a nationwide insurrection to be opposed by a federalised National Guard to engage with the protestors. If Trump failed to do this Rhodes said that the Oath Keepers would. Twitter responded by banning his and the Oath Keepers' accounts.[65] The weekend before the Electoral College vote confirming Joe Biden's win he called for Trump supporters to use armed force to ensure that Trump maintained his presidency.[66] Members of the group were part of the violent protests in front of and subsequent storming of the United States Capitol on 6 January 2021.[67]

2021 storming of the United States Capitol

Three alleged members of Oath Keepers were federally indicted for conspiracy for planning their activities during the 2021 storming of the United States Capitol. Eight to ten members of the group entered the Capitol wearing paramilitary gear, moving "in an organized and practiced fashion," according to the indictment. The group communicated with portable devices, with one member allegedly receiving a Facebook message, "All members are in the tunnels under capital seal them in. Turn on gas." That same individual allegedly received directions in navigating the Capitol, including "Tom all legislators are down in the Tunnels 3floors down" and "Go through back house chamber doors facing N left down hallway down steps." One alleged participant radioed to others, "We have a good group. We have about 30-40 of us. We are sticking together and sticking to the plan."[68][69]


Larry Keller wrote in the SPLC's 2009 report The Second Wave: Return of the Militias that the Oath Keepers "may be a particularly worrisome example of the Patriot revival."[70] Keller described Richard Mack, an Oath Keeper, as a "longtime militia hero"[70][71] and quoted him as having said, "The greatest threat we face today is not terrorists; it is our federal government. ... One of the best and easiest solutions is to depend on local officials, especially the sheriff, to stand against federal intervention and federal criminality."[70] Mack, a former sheriff, responded by denying the claims, saying, "I have had no contact with any militia group and have never been a member of any militia."[72][73] Mark Potok, a senior fellow at the SPLC, said in an interview that the group has no history of political violence, but that, "The core ideas of these groups relate to the fear that elites in this country and around the world are slowly and steadily and nefariously moving us towards a one-world government, the so-called New World Order."[74]

In 2009, the Anti-Defamation League (ADL) wrote in a report that, "The 'orders' the Oath Keepers refuse [to obey] reveal their extreme conspiratorial mindset, because the 'orders' are not instructions ever likely to be actually handed down by Obama or his officials; instead, they are reflective of the anti-government conspiracy theories embraced by the extreme right."[75]

Quoting the Las Vegas Review-Journal, MSNBC political commentator Pat Buchanan wrote: "Oath Keepers, depending on where one stands, are either strident defenders of liberty or dangerous peddlers of paranoia." Buchanan himself concluded that "America was once their country. They sense they are losing it. And they are right."[76][77]

Fox News Radio host Lou Dobbs spoke with founder Stewart Rhodes on his radio show in 2009 and criticized the SPLC for "perpetuating the same kind of intolerance it claims to condemn."[78] On Hardball with Chris Matthews, Matthews questioned Rhodes about his "vigilante group" and on his "strange view of the world."[78]

Protesters have accused the group of racism, especially after groups of white members armed with rifles congregated in Ferguson during demonstrations related to police brutality and racial inequality.[31] The group says its bylaws prevent potential members from joining if they have a history of bigotry or have been associated with any discriminatory organization.[79]

See also


  1. ^ a b c "Return of armed militia group Oath Keepers to Ferguson raises concern". Chicago Tribune. Associated Press. August 11, 2015. Archived from the original on August 13, 2015. Retrieved August 14, 2015. [Ferguson 2015] wearing camouflage bulletproof vests and openly carrying rifles and pistols on West Florissant Avenue
  2. ^ Multiple sources:
    • Beckett, Lois; Laughland, Oliver (November 5, 2016). "Specter of election day violence looms as Trump spurs vigilante poll watchers". The Guardian. Archived from the original on August 3, 2019. Retrieved December 1, 2016. One of America's largest anti-government armed militia groups, the Oath Keepers.
    • Skocpol, Theda; Williamson, Vanessa (2012). The Tea Party and the Remaking of Republican Conservatism. Oxford University Press. p. 33. ISBN 9780190633660. Archived from the original on June 27, 2020. Retrieved December 1, 2016. Some anti-government extremists have unquestionably found their way into Tea Party groups--for example, members of the Oath Keepers, a group centered on current and former law enforcement officers.. Expecting the Obama Administration to declare martial law across the country and detain citizens en masse, Oath Keepers proclaim their readiness to engage in armed insurrection to counter this supposed threat from the federal government. ... The possibility of such a confrontation is not entirely rhetorical because members of the Oath Keepers have been tied to various militia groups.
    • Feuer, Alan (January 16, 2016). "Standoff in Oregon Attracts Supporters Bearing Disparate Grievances". New York Times. Archived from the original on August 3, 2019. Retrieved December 1, 2016. members of the so-called Patriot movement, an umbrella effort of antigovernment activists that includes groups like the Oath Keepers, an organization of law enforcement officers and military veterans.
    • Crowley, Michael (August 10, 2016). "Trump's long dalliance with violent rhetoric". Politico. Archived from the original on August 3, 2019. Retrieved December 1, 2016. the popular anti-government group Oath Keepers
  3. ^ "The far-right anti-government group largely consists of former and current members of the military, first responders and police officers."[1]
  4. ^ a b McCoy, Terrence (January 1, 2014). "The Oath Keepers: The Little-known Militia Now Roaming the Streets of Ferguson". The Washington Post. Archived from the original on October 28, 2017. Retrieved December 1, 2016.
  5. ^ a b "About Oath Keepers". Oath Keepers. November 6, 2014. Archived from the original on April 3, 2016. Retrieved March 20, 2016.
  6. ^ Mahler, Jonathan; Wines, Michael (November 7, 2016). "Fear Is Driving Voting Rights Advocates and Vigilantes to Watch Polling Stations". The New York Times. Archived from the original on December 16, 2016. Retrieved March 3, 2017.
  7. ^
  8. ^ "Press Release: ADL Report Exposes Tactics of Anti-Government "Oath Keepers"". Anti-defamation League. Archived from the original on February 1, 2016. Retrieved March 20, 2016.
  9. ^ "The Oath Keepers Anti-Government Extremists Recruiting Military and Police". Anti-Defamation League. Archived from the original on January 17, 2017. Retrieved May 19, 2016.
  10. ^ a b "Oath Keepers: What anti-hate groups are saying about them". Cox Media Group. August 11, 2015. Archived from the original on March 22, 2016. Retrieved March 20, 2016.
  11. ^ Lenz, Ryan (July 25, 2013). "Oath Keepers Rally Reveals Radical Politics of Group". Southern Poverty Law Center. Archived from the original on March 9, 2016. Retrieved March 20, 2016.
  12. ^ Keller, Larry. "Evidence Grows of Far-Right Militia Resurgence". Southern Poverty Law Center. Archived from the original on March 10, 2016. Retrieved March 20, 2016.
  13. ^ Lenz, Ryan. "Are the Oath Keepers Fighting 'Martial Law'?". Southern Poverty Law Center. Archived from the original on March 10, 2016. Retrieved March 20, 2016.
  14. ^ Dearden, Lizzie (August 11, 2015). "Oath Keepers: Who are white militia at Ferguson protests and why are they allowed to carry guns?". The Independent. Archived from the original on September 15, 2017. Retrieved December 1, 2016.
  15. ^ Sakuma, Amanda; Rayford, Bradley J (August 11, 2015). "'Oath Keepers' armed with guns roam streets of Ferguson". MSNBC. Archived from the original on September 6, 2015. Retrieved September 7, 2015. With their hands resting casually on the assault rifles strapped across their chests, the men formed a diamond around their subjects, surveying the area in search of a threat.
  16. ^ Duara, Nigel (August 11, 2015). "'Oath Keepers' with rifles roam among Ferguson protesters, raising concerns". Los Angeles Times. Archived from the original on August 20, 2015. Retrieved August 31, 2015. As protests in Ferguson continued on a sweat-soaked Missouri night, at least three men openly carrying assault rifles approached the south end of West Florissant Avenue – and began to attract a crowd themselves.
  17. ^
  18. ^
  19. ^ Acosta, Jim (November 18, 2009). "Who are the Oathkeepers". CNN. Archived from the original on November 19, 2009. Retrieved November 18, 2009.
  20. ^ "Elmer Stewart Rhodes". Southern Poverty Law Center. Archived from the original on January 30, 2016. Retrieved March 20, 2016.
  21. ^ "Incorporation Information for the Oath Keepers, Inc". Nevada Secretary of State. E0559982009-3. State of Nevada. October 22, 2009. Retrieved November 18, 2009.[permanent dead link]
  22. ^ Maimon, Alan (October 18, 2009). "Ready To Revolt: Oath Keepers pledges to prevent dictatorship in United States". Las Vegas Review-Journal. Archived from the original on October 25, 2009. Retrieved October 24, 2009.
  23. ^ In the Matter of Elmer S. Rhodes (Mont. Dec. 8, 2015).
  24. ^ a b Fowler, Sarah (August 12, 2015). "Ferguson unrest: Who are the mysterious 'Oath Keepers'?". BBC News. Archived from the original on August 13, 2015. Retrieved August 13, 2015.
  25. ^ Rhodes, Stewart. "Just Following Orders." S.W.A.T. Magazine Apr. 2008. Web. August 20, 2015. Archived August 14, 2015, at the Wayback Machine
  26. ^ a b Giglio, Michael Anthony (October 28, 2020). "After Covering Civil War Overseas, Journalist Examines U.S. Militia Movement". Fresh Air (Interview). Interviewed by Terri Gross. NPR. Archived from the original on November 6, 2020.
  27. ^ "Oath Keepers". Anti-Defamation League. Retrieved November 4, 2020.
  28. ^ Fowler, Sarah. Ferguson Unrest: Who Are the Mysterious 'Oath Keepers'? Archived July 22, 2018, at the Wayback Machine, BBC News (August 12, 2015).
  29. ^ a b Tritten, Travis (July 22, 2015). "Army to recruiters: Treat armed citizens as security threat". Stars & Stripes. Archived from the original on July 11, 2017. Retrieved August 27, 2017.
  30. ^ Bogan, Jesse (December 2, 2014). Oath Keepers' are back on the rooftops in Ferguson despite St. Louis County ordinance Archived August 1, 2016, at the Wayback Machine. St. Louis Post-Dispatch.
  31. ^ a b Laughland, Oliver, Jon Swaine, and Joanna Walters, White Militiamen Roam Ferguson with Rifles While Black Men Wrongly Arrested Archived December 12, 2016, at the Wayback Machine, The Guardian (August 11, 2015).
  32. ^ "Heavily armed 'Oath Keepers' inject new unease in Ferguson". The Irish Times. August 11, 2015. Archived from the original on September 15, 2015. Retrieved August 11, 2015.
  33. ^ "Oath Keepers arrival at Ferguson protest 'inflammatory,' top cop says". Fox News Channel. August 11, 2015. Archived from the original on August 15, 2015. Retrieved August 11, 2015.
  34. ^ a b Larimer, Sarah; Phillip, Abby (August 11, 2015). "Who are the Oath Keepers, and why has the armed group returned to Ferguson?". The Washington Post. Archived from the original on August 12, 2015. Retrieved August 13, 2015.
  35. ^ Bambury, Brent. "An Oath Keeper on guns, race and Ferguson". CBC Radio. Archived from the original on September 17, 2015. Retrieved September 11, 2015.
  36. ^ a b c Saul, Heather (August 23, 2014). "Ferguson riots: St Louis police officer Dan Page suspended over video". The Independent. Archived from the original on September 14, 2017. Retrieved September 7, 2016.
  37. ^ McLaughlin, Michael (August 22, 2014). St. Louis County Police Officer Dan Page Suspended Following Inflammatory Video Archived August 22, 2015, at the Wayback Machine, The Huffington Post.
  38. ^ Vale, Paul (December 1, 2014). "Vigilante 'Oath Keepers' Offering Free Security In Ferguson Told To Stand Down By St. Louis Police". The Huffington Post. Archived from the original on December 3, 2014. Retrieved December 5, 2014.
  39. ^ a b Badash, David (September 10, 2015). "Kim Davis wont be arrested again promise patriot militia group". Archived from the original on September 12, 2015. Retrieved September 13, 2015.
  40. ^ "Kim Davis' Legal Team Declines Oath Keepers' Offer to Protect Her Against Unlawul Arrrest [sic]". September 9, 2015. Archived from the original on September 13, 2015. Retrieved September 12, 2015.
  41. ^ "Far-right group calls for armed militias to stand watch outside US schools". The Independent. February 28, 2018. Archived from the original on March 10, 2018. Retrieved February 28, 2018.
  42. ^ Eltagouri, Marwa (February 27, 2018). "A militia group hopes it can stop shootings by posting armed volunteers outside each school". Washington Post. ISSN 0190-8286. Archived from the original on February 28, 2018. Retrieved February 28, 2018.
  43. ^ Neiwert, David (2017). Alt-America : the rise of the radical right in the age of Trump. Verso Books. pp. 145–149. ISBN 9781786634238.
  44. ^ Walker, Jesse (May 1, 2010). "Protect & Serve". The American Conservative. Archived from the original on July 22, 2019. Retrieved September 28, 2020.
  45. ^ Henandez, Daniel (April 3, 2014). "Federal rangers face off against armed protesters in Nevada 'range war'". The Guardian. Archived from the original on April 14, 2014. Retrieved August 13, 2015.
  46. ^ Botkin, Ben (April 13, 2014). "Bundy ranch dispute with federal land agency draws variety of foot soldiers". Las Vegas Review-Journal. Archived from the original on September 16, 2015. Retrieved August 13, 2015.
  47. ^ Urquhart, By Jim (April 23, 2015). "Oregon mine that summoned armed guards in land dispute files appeal". Reuters. Archived from the original on October 8, 2015. Retrieved August 13, 2015.
  48. ^ Moriarty, Thomas (April 23, 2015). "Armed protesters gather at Medford BLM office over Sugar Pine Mine dispute". Mail Tribune. Archived from the original on July 22, 2015. Retrieved August 13, 2015.
  49. ^ Puckett, Karl (August 6, 2015). "Constitution advocates issue cease, desist order at mine". Great Falls Tribune. Archived from the original on February 8, 2016. Retrieved August 13, 2015.
  50. ^ Swearingen, Marshall (August 12, 2015). "Dispatch from White Hope Mine dispute in Montana". High Country News. Archived from the original on August 13, 2015. Retrieved August 13, 2015.
  51. ^ Boggioni, Tom (January 16, 2016). "Militia head warns feds: Don't 'Waco' the Oregon occupiers unless you want a 'bloody, brutal civil war'". The Raw Story. Washington, D.C.: Raw Story Media, Inc. Archived from the original on September 9, 2016. Retrieved September 11, 2016.
  52. ^ "NPS - Page In-Progress". Archived from the original on August 24, 2017. Retrieved August 24, 2017.
  53. ^ "News Conference". Archived from the original on August 25, 2017. Retrieved August 24, 2017.
  54. ^ "UPDATE: Guns banned from Saturday's 'Patriot Prayer' in San Francisco". August 23, 2017. Archived from the original on August 24, 2017. Retrieved August 24, 2017.
  55. ^ "Oath Keepers confirm militia will attend controversial Crissy Field rally". August 18, 2017. Archived from the original on August 24, 2017. Retrieved August 24, 2017.
  56. ^ Zimmerman, Sarah; Flaccus, Gillan (June 22, 2019). "Militia threat shuts down Oregon Statehouse amid walkout". Associated Press. Archived from the original on June 25, 2019. Retrieved June 25, 2019.
  57. ^ Radnovich, Connor (June 22, 2019). "Saturday Senate session canceled after potential threat of militia protest violence". Salem Statesman Journal. Retrieved June 25, 2019.
  58. ^ Szekely, Peter (June 23, 2019). "Oregon Capitol building closed as precaution amid partisan dispute". Reuters. Archived from the original on June 25, 2019. Retrieved June 25, 2019.
  59. ^ Lubben, Alex (June 25, 2019). "Let's Check In on Those Oregon Republicans Who Fled the Capital, Shall We?". Vice News. Archived from the original on June 25, 2019. Retrieved June 25, 2019.
  60. ^ Shuham, Matt (September 1, 2020). "With Itchy Trigger Fingers, Some Right Wingers Predict The Next Civil War Has Finally Arrived". Talking Points Memo. Archived from the original on October 4, 2020. Retrieved September 4, 2020.
  61. ^ "Oath Keepers Website Warns Clinton Victory Could Lead To 'Outright Civil War'". Right Wing Watch. People for the American Way. April 21, 2016. Archived from the original on April 24, 2016. Retrieved April 29, 2016.
  62. ^ Smith, Brandon (April 14, 2016). "The Weirdest Possible Outcomes For The Strangest Election In U.S. History". Oath Keepers. Archived from the original on April 15, 2016. Retrieved April 29, 2016.
  63. ^ Sullivan, Kevin (October 27, 2016). "Militia group calls on members to patrol polls on Election Day". Archived from the original on October 28, 2016. Retrieved November 3, 2016 – via
  64. ^ Giglio, Michael Anthony (November 2020). "A Pro-Trump Militant Group Has Recruited Thousands of Police, Soldiers, and Veterans". The Atlantic. ISSN 2151-9463. Archived from the original on September 30, 2020.
  65. ^ Jackson, Sam (September 11, 2020). "Analysis | The long, dangerous history of right-wing calls for violence and civil war". Washington Post. Retrieved December 20, 2020.
  66. ^ Rupar, Aaron (December 14, 2020). "Despite "credible threat of violence," Michigan's Electoral College vote went smoothly". Vox. Retrieved December 20, 2020.
  67. ^ "'Second revolution begins': Armed right-wing groups celebrate Capitol attack". Retrieved January 7, 2021.
  68. ^ CNN, David Shortell, Katelyn Polantz, Evan Perez and Zachary Cohen. "Members of extremist Oath Keepers group planned attack on US Capitol, prosecutors say". CNN.
  69. ^ Savage, Charlie (January 19, 2021). "New Evidence Of Conspiracy Among Rioters". The New York Times.
  70. ^ a b c Keller, Larry (August 2009). "The Second Wave: Return of the Militias". A Special Report from the Southern Poverty Law Center. Montgomery, Alabama: 5–10. Archived from the original on July 24, 2013. Retrieved September 12, 2013.
  71. ^ Fausset, Richard (September 18, 2009). "Oath Keepers organizer sees need to sound an alarm". Los Angeles Times. Archived from the original on September 23, 2009. Retrieved November 2, 2009.
  72. ^ "Sheriff Richard Mack (RET) Responds to Southern Poverty Law Center Smear Attack on Oath Keepers and on Sheriff Mack" (Press release). Oath Keepers. August 14, 2009. Archived from the original on August 27, 2009. Retrieved November 3, 2009.
  73. ^ Johnson, Jon (September 2, 2009). "Local man appears on Internet news show". Eastern Arizona Courier. Archived from the original on May 25, 2011. Retrieved November 3, 2009.
  74. ^ Wang, Hansi Lo. Oath Keepers Say They're Defending Ferguson; Others Say They're Not Helping Archived July 19, 2018, at the Wayback Machine. NPR (August 12, 2015).
  75. ^ Rage Grows in America: Anti‑Government Conspiracies: Oath Keepers Archived October 4, 2020, at the Wayback Machine, Anti-Defamation League (November 2009), p. 26.
  76. ^ Patrick J. Buchanan (October 20, 2009). "Alienated and Radicalized". MSNBC. Archived from the original on October 19, 2011. Retrieved November 14, 2011.
  77. ^ Maimon, Alan (October 18, 2009). "Oath Keepers pledges to prevent dictatorship in United States". Las Vegas Review-Journal. Las Vegas, Nevada: Stephens Media LLC. Archived from the original on July 14, 2014. Retrieved July 4, 2014.
  78. ^ a b Maimon, Alan (October 25, 2009). "Ready To Defend: Oath Keepers speak out at inaugural conference". Las Vegas Review-Journal. Archived from the original on October 27, 2009. Retrieved October 25, 2009.
  79. ^ Oath Keepers Official Website - Bylaws "BYLAWS OF OATH KEEPERS, Article VIII 8.02b" Archived August 12, 2015, at the Wayback Machine. Retrieved August 13, 2015.

Further reading

  • Jackson, Sam. 2020. Oath Keepers: Patriotism and the Edge of Violence in a Right-Wing Antigovernment Group. Columbia University Press.

External links