Scottish units

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Scottish or Scots units of measurement are the weights and measures peculiar to Scotland which were nominally replaced by English units in 1685 but continued to be used in unofficial contexts until at least the late 18th century. The system was based on the ell (length), stone (mass), and boll and firlot (volume). This official system coexisted with local variants, especially for the measurement of land area.

The system is said to have been introduced by David I of Scotland (1124–53), although there are no surviving records until the 15th century when the system was already in normal use. Standard measures and weights were kept in each burgh, and these were periodically compared against one another at "assizes of measures", often during the early years of the reign of a new monarch. Nevertheless, there was considerable local variation in many of the units, and the units of dry measure steadily increased in size from 1400 to 1700.[1][2]

The Scots units of length were technically replaced by the English system by an Act of the Parliament of Scotland in 1685,[3] and the other units by the Treaty of Union with England in 1706.[4] However many continued to be used locally during the 18th century. The introduction of the Imperial system by the Weights and Measures Act 1824 saw the end of any formal use in trade and commerce, although some informal use as customary units continued into the 20th century. "Scotch measure" or "Cunningham measure" was brought to parts of Ulster in Ireland by Ulster Scots settlers, and used into the mid-19th century.[5][6]

Length[edit]

The Royal Mile in Edinburgh was used as the standard for a Scottish mile[citation needed]
ell 
The ell (Latin: ulna) was the basic unit of length, equal to 37 inches.[7] The "Barony ell" of 42 inches was used as the basis for land measurement in the Four Towns area near Lochmaben, Dumfriesshire.[8]
Scottish inch 
As in England.[2] A fraudulent smaller inch of 142 of an ell is also recorded.[9]
foot (fit) 
12 inches.[3][9]
yard (yaird) 
36 inches.[3] Rarely used except with English units, although it appears in an Act of Parliament from 1432: "The king's officer, as is foresaid, shall have a horn, and each one a red wand of three-quarters of a yard at least."[10]
fall (faw) 
6 ells, or 222 inches. Identical to the Scots rod and raip ("rope").[11]
Scots mile 
320 falls (1973 13 yards), but varied from place to place. Obsolete by the 19th century.[12] The Royal Mile in Edinburgh is longer than an English mile (1760 yards) but roughly the length of a Scots mile.

Area[edit]

A number of conflicting systems were used for area, sometimes bearing the same names in different regions, but working on different conversion rates. Because some of the systems were based on what land would produce, rather than the physical area, they are listed in their own section. Please see individual articles for more specific information. Because fertility varied widely, in many areas, production was considered a more practical measure.

Area by size[edit]

For information on the squared units, please see the appropriate articles in the length section

  • square inch
  • square ell
  • square fall (faw)
  • rood (ruid)
  • acre

Area by production[edit]

Oxgangs, Edinburgh named after the Scottish unit.

Eastern Scotland:

  • oxgang (damh-imir) = the area an ox could plough in a year (around 20 acres)
  • ploughgate (plougate) = 8 oxgangs
  • dauch (dabhach/davoch) = 4 ploughgates

Area by taxation/rent[edit]

In western Scotland, including Galloway:

Volume[edit]

Dry volume[edit]

Dry volume measures were slightly different for various types of grain, but often bore the same name.

Weight equivalents of one boll are given in a trade dictionary of 1863 as follows: Flour 140 pounds; Peas or beans 280 pounds; Oats 264 pounds; Barley 320 pounds; Oatmeal 140 pounds.[13]

Fluid volume[edit]

Nipperkin was also used, but perhaps not part of this more formal set.[14][15]

Standard Measures of Scotland before 1707:[16][17][18][19]

Name Scottish units US customary units English units Metric units Notes
gill of Spirits 6 3/5 cubic inches
gill of Ale or Beer 0.014 Gal.(US) 0.053 L
mutchkin 4 gills 0.056 Gal.(US) 3 gills .212 L
chopin 4 mutchkins;16 gills 0.224 Gal.(US) .848 L Derived from the French measure chopine, from c. 13th century.
pint (Scots) of Spirits 2 chopins 28 7/8 cubic inches
pint (Scots) of Ale or Beer 2 chopins 0.448 Gal.(US) 1 quart + 1 pint 1.696 L a.k.a. joug, Tappit Hen; 105 cubic inches;
gallon of Wine or Spirits 8 pints 231 cubic inches, 35 gills in a gallon of spirits
gallon of Ale or Beer 8 pints 3.584 Gal.(US) 3 gallons 13.638 L 846 cubic inches
hogshead of Ale or Beer 54 gallons or 16 gallons
hogshead of Wine or Spirits 63 gallons

Weight[edit]

Weight was measured according to "troy measure" (Lanark) and "tron measure" (Edinburgh), which were standardised in 1661. In the Troy system these often bore the same name as imperial measures.

  • drop (drap)
  • ounce (unce)
  • pound (pund)
  • stone (stane)

Various local measures all existed, often using local weighing stones.

See also[edit]

Bibliography[edit]

  • Collins Encyclopedia of Scotland
  • Weights and Measures, by D. Richard Torrance, SAFHS, Edinburgh, 1996, ISBN 1-874722-09-9 (NB book focuses on Scottish weights and measures exclusively)
  • This article incorporates text from "Dwelly's [Scottish] Gaelic Dictionary" (1911).
  • Scottish National Dictionary and Dictionary of the Older Scottish Tongue
  • Weights and Measures in Scotland: A European Perspective R. D. Connor, et al. National Museum of Scotland and Tuckwell Press, NMSE Publishing, 2004, ISBN 1-901663-88-4

References[edit]

  1. ^ Simpson, A. D. C. (2005), "Interpreting Scots measurement terms: a cautionary tale", in Kay, Christian J.; Mackay, Margaret A., Perspectives on the Older Scottish Tongue, Edinburgh: University Press, pp. 139–52 .
  2. ^ a b Connor, R. D.; Simpson, A. D. C. (2004), Weights and Measures in Scotland: A European Perspective, Edinburgh: NMS/Tuckwell Press, ISBN 978-1-901663-88-4 .
  3. ^ a b c "Act for a standard of miles" (16 June 1685). APS viii: 494, c.59. RPS 1685/4/83.
  4. ^ Union with England Act 1707 (c. 7), art. 17.
  5. ^ Andrews, John Harwood (1985). Plantation acres: an historical study of the Irish land surveyor and his maps. Ulster Historical Foundation. p. 126. 
  6. ^ Hall, Anna Maria (1842). Ireland: Its Scenery, Character, &c. How and Parsons. pp. 198, fn. Retrieved 15 May 2015. We notice the Scotch acre, chiefly because it is the measure employed in some of the northern Irish counties. 
  7. ^ Act of 11 March 1427, RPS 1427/3/2.
  8. ^ Sinclair, John (1793), The statistical account of Scotland, Edinburgh: W. Creech, p. 240 .
  9. ^ a b Act anent the foot measure (29 September 1663), RPS 1663/6/81.
  10. ^ Act of 10 March 1432, RPS 1432/3/12.
  11. ^ "fall, faw", Dictionary of the Scottish LanguageDictionary of the Older Scottish Tongue online edition.
  12. ^ "mile", Dictionary of the Scottish LanguageScottish National Dictionary online edition.
  13. ^ Simmonds, P L (1863). A dictionary of trade products, commercial, manufacturing, and technical terms: with a definition of the moneys, weights, and measures of all countries, reduced to the British standard. London: Routledge, Warne & Routledge. 
  14. ^ "Nipperkin". World Wide Words: Investigating the English language across the globe. Retrieved 11 September 2016. 
  15. ^ Donn, Benjamin. "A new introduction to the mathematicks: being essays on vulgar and decimal Arithmetick (1858)". Retrieved 11 September 2016. 
  16. ^ Wood, L. Ingleby. Scottish pewter-ware and pewterers. London: Simpkin, Marshall & Co., Ltd. pp. 122–124. Retrieved 11 September 2016. 
  17. ^ "Scottish Weights and Measures: Capacity". Scottish Archive Network. Retrieved 11 September 2016. 
  18. ^ Morrison, C. (1820). The Young Lady's Guide to Practical Arithmetic. London: Ogle, Duncan, & Co. p. iv. Retrieved 11 September 2016. 
  19. ^ Tinwell, William (1805). A treatise of practical arithmetic and bookkeeping, by single entry (Fifth ed.). M. Angus and Son. p. 21. Retrieved 11 September 2016. 

External links[edit]