Obstetrics and gynaecology
Obstetrics and gynecology (commonly known as OB-GYN, OBG, O&G or obs and gynae) is the medical specialty that deals with obstetrics and gynecology. Postgraduate training programs for both aspects are usually combined, preparing the practicing obstetrician-gynecologist to be adept at the care of female reproductive organs' health and at the management of pregnancy, although many doctors go on to develop subspecialty interests in one field or the other.
Education and training
Also known as residency.
After completing medical school, one must complete a 4 year residency program to be eligible to sit for boards.
For the ERAS match in 2017, there will be 238 participating programs accepting applicants. 
In all, this adds up to 11-14 years of education and practical experience. The first 7-9 years are general medical training.
Experienced OBGYN professionals can seek certifications in sub-specialty areas, including maternal and fetal medicine. See Fellowship (medicine).
Examples of subspecialty training available to physicians in the US are:
- Maternal-fetal medicine – an obstetrical subspecialty, sometimes referred to as perinatology, that focuses on the medical and surgical management of high-risk pregnancies and surgery on the fetus with the goal of reducing morbidity and mortality.
- Reproductive endocrinology and infertility – a subspecialty that focuses on the biological causes and interventional treatment of infertility
- Gynecological oncology – a gynaecologic subspecialty focusing on the medical and surgical treatment of women with cancers of the reproductive organs
- Female pelvic medicine and reconstructive surgery – a gynaecologic subspecialty focusing on the diagnosis and surgical treatment of women with urinary incontinence and prolapse of the pelvic organs. Sometimes referred to by laypersons as "female urology"
- Advanced laparoscopic surgery
- Family planning – a gynaecologic subspecialty offering training in contraception and pregnancy termination (abortion)
- Pediatric and adolescent gynecology
- Menopausal and geriatric gynecology
Of these, only the first four are truly recognized sub-specialties by the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) and the American Board of Obstetrics and Gynecology (ABOG). The other subspecialties are recognized as informal concentrations of practice. To be recognized as a board-certified subspecialist by the American Board of Obstetrics and Gynecology or the American Osteopathic Board of Obstetrics and Gynecology, a practitioner must have completed an ACGME or AOA-accredited residency and obtained a Certificate of Added Qualifications (CAQ) which requires an additional standardized examination.
Additionally, physicians of other specialties may become trained in Advanced Life Support in Obstetrics (ALSO), a short certification that equips them to better manage emergent OB/GYN situations.
- "ERAS 2017 Participating Specialties & Programs".
- Welcome to the American Board of Obstetrics and Gynecology Web Site: Certification of Obstetricians and Gynecologists
- "Eligibility/Board Eligibility". American Osteopathic Board of Obstetrics and Gynecology. 2012. Retrieved 19 September 2012.
- Llewellyn-Jones, Derek, Fundamentals of Obstetrics and Gynecology, 7th ed., Mosby, 1999.
- Lane, J (July 1987). "A provincial surgeon and his obstetric practice: Thomas W. Jones of Henley-in-Arden, 1764-1846". Medical History. 31 (3): 333–48. doi:10.1017/s0025727300046895. PMC . PMID 3306222.
- Stockham, Alice B. Tokology. A Book for Every Woman. o.O., (Kessinger Publishing) o.J. Reprint of Revised Edition Chicago, Alice B. Stockham & Co. 1891 (first edition 1886). ISBN 1-4179-4001-8