Occitan Valleys

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Map of the Occitan Valleys.
A. Communes that declared to be Occitan-speaking according to the Italian law 482/99[1]
B. Communes that declared to be partly Occitan-speaking according to the Italian law 482/99
C. Communes of the valleys that did not declared to be Occitan-speaking according to the Italian law 482/99
D. Communes that declared to be Francoprovençal-speaking according to the Italian law 482/99[2]
E. Communes that declared to be French-speaking according to the Italian law 482/99[3]
Other boundaries
F. Italian communes of the Marquisate of Dolceacqua and other dependencies of the County of Nice[4]
G. Approximative boundary of the Occitan valleys[5]
H. Boundary of Occitan language according to IRES of Piedmont, where it differs from G[6]
I. Boundary of the Occitan-language according to the IEO, where it differs from G[7]
J. Northern boundary of the brigasc-royasc area
K. Approximative boundary of the Occitan language
L. Approximative boundary of the Old Occitan[8]
M. Eastern boundary of the county of Nice
N. Eastern boundary of the department of Alpes-Maritimes (1793-1814)
O. Eastern boundary of the province of Nice (1859-1860)]
P. Eastern boundary of non diphtongation [9]
Q. Eastern boundary of /bew/ vs /biw/ [10]

The Occitan Valleys (Occitan: Valadas Occitanas, Italian: Valli Occitane, French: Vallées Occitanes) are the part of Occitania (the territory of the Occitan language) within the borders of Italy. It is a mountainous region in the southern Alps. Most of its valleys are oriented eastward and descend toward the plains of Piedmont.

The area has a population of 174,476 inhabitants (July, 2013). Its major towns are Lo Borg Sant Dalmatz (Borgo San Dalmazzo), Buscha (Busca), Boves (Bueves) and Draonier (Dronero).

The Occitan linguistic enclave of La Gàrdia (Guardia Piemontese) in Calabria does not belong to the Occitan Valleys.

A 1999 Italian law ("Law 482") provides for the protection of linguistic minorities, including Occitan.[11]

Communities with clear Occitan presence before the 482/99 Act[edit]

These are the villages where an autochthonous Provençal-speaking community has surely settled and may still speak the language. Around 35% of the population (stats by Enrico Allasino, IRES 2005 and IRES Piemonte no.113/2007) declared to be able to speak or understand the local Provençal language, with various levels of proficiency. By the way Italian and Piemontese are spoken by the majority of the people in the area, and the patois is much influenced by both the other two languages.

Val d'Ors Upper Susa Valley
Bardonescha Bardonecchia
Cesana Cesana Torinese
Chaumont Chiomonte
Las Clavieras Claviere
Exilhas Exilles
Ols or Ors Oulx
Salbertrand Salbertrand
Lo Grand Sauze Sauze di Cesana
Lo Sauze (d'Ors) Sauze d'Oulx
La Sestriera Sestriere
Val Cluson Alta Val Chisone
Finoistrèlas Fenestrelle
Praamòl Pramollo
Prajalats Pragelato
Lo Rore Roure
Usseaus Usseaux
Val Sant Martin
Val Sopata
Val Germanasca
Pomaret Pomaretto
Massèl Massello
Lo Perier Perrero
Praal Prali
Salsa Salza di Pinerolo
Val Pèlis Val Pellice
Angrònha Angrogna
Buèbi Bobbio Pellice
La Tor Torre Pellice
Lo Vialar Villar Pellice
Val Pò Alta Valle Po
Ostana Ostana
Val Varacha Val Varaita
Blins Bellino
Chastèldalfin Casteldelfino
Fraisse Frassino
Lo Mèl Melle
Pont e la Chanal Pontechianale
Sant Pèire Sampeyre
Valmala Valmala
Venascha Venasca
Val Maira Val Maira
Acelh Acceglio
"Cartinhan" Cartignano
Chanuelhas Canosio
Cèlas Celle di Macra
Elva Elva
L'Arma Macra
La Màrmol Marmora
Prats Prazzo
San Dumian San Damiano Macra
Estròp Stroppo
Val Grana Valle Grana
Chastèlmanh Castelmagno
Montrós Monterosso Grana
Pradievi Pradleves
Val d'Estura Valle Stura
Aison Aisone
L'Argentiera Argentera
Demont Demonte
Pèirapuerc Pietraporzio
La Ròca Roccasparvera
Sambuc Sambuco
Vinai Vinadio
Val Ges Valle Gesso
Entraigas Entracque
Roascha Roaschia
Vaudier Valdieri
Val Vermenanha Val Vermenagna
Limon Limone Piemonte
Robilant Robilante
Lou Vernant Vernante

Communities whose patois community is extinct[edit]

In these communities, apart of Italian, the most spoken language is Piedmontese. In the past, in the lower Val Chisone, Waldensian communities were the major part of the population. Chisone, Pellice and Germanasca Valleys were referred as "Waldensian Valleys" and the local Provençal speech was called "Waldesian language", and it was opposed to the language of the Catholic population which was Piedmontese. The Lower Chisone Valley in the 20th century had a rapid industrial growth since it was the birthplace of [???????], and since then the Waldensian was replaced by Piedmontese in the most bustled villages. In Oncino and Crissolo the local patois disappeared after a dramatic depopulation.

Val Cluson Val Chisone
L'Envèrs de Pinascha Inverso Pinasca
Peirosa Perosa Argentina
Pinascha Pinasca
Prustin Prarostino
San Geman San Germano Chisone
Lis Vialars Villar Perosa
Val Po Valle Po
Criçòl Crissolo
Oncin Oncino

Communities claimed to be Occitan since the 482/99 Act[edit]

These are the communities which are referred as "Occitan" in the text of the 482/99 Act, and by the agency of linguistic safeguard Chambra d'Oc, even if there was no previous source which supported this appellation. All these villages and towns lack the historical rootedness of the linguistic minority, because no linguist noticed any Occitan presence before the law. In these cases the Provençal translation of the place name doesn't exist, or it's an exonym used by the patoisants of the upper valleys to indicate the lower valley settlements, or it is the transliteration in Occitan orthography of the Piedmontese/Ligurian toponym.

Val Cluson Alta Val Chisone
Las Pòrtas Porte
- Pinerolese
Campilhon e Fenil Campiglione-Fenile
Cantaloba Cantalupa
Frussasc Frossasco
Pinairòl Pinerolo
Rolet Roletto
'Sant Pière San Pietro Val Lemina
San Segond San Secondo di Pinerolo
Val Pèlis Val Pellice
Bibiana - Bibiana
Bricairàs - Bricherasio
Luserna e San Jan Luserna San Giovanni
Lusernèta Lusernetta
Val Infernòt e Plana Padana Valle Infernotto e Pianura Padana
Barge Barge
Banhòl Bagnolo Piemonte
Envie Envie
Revèl Revello
Val Pò Valle Po
Brondèl Brondello
Castelar Castellar
Gambasca Gambasca
Martinhana Martiniana Po
Paisana Paesana
Panh Pagno
Rifred Rifreddo
Sant Frònt Sanfront
Val Varacha Val Varaita
Brossasc Brossasco
Isascha Isasca
Peasc Piasco
Rossana Rossana
Val Maira Val Maira
Busca Busca
Draonier Dronero
La Ròca Roccabruna
Lo Vilar Villar San Costanzo
Val Grana Valle Grana
Bernès Bernezzo
Caralh Caraglio
Cervasca Cervasca
Montomal Montemale di Cuneo
Valgrana Valgrana
Val d'Estura Valle Stura
Lo Borg Borgo San Dalmazzo
Gaiòla Gaiola
Moiòla Moiola
Ritana Rittana
Valàuria Valloriate
Vinhòl Vignolo
Val Ges Valle Gesso
Rocavion Roccavione
Region de Mondòvi Mondovì neighbourhood
Frabosa Sobrana Frabosa Soprana
Frabosa Sotana Frabosa Sottana
Roburent Roburent
Ròcafòrt Roccaforte Mondovì
Vilanòva Villanova Mondovì
Val Pes Valle Pesio
Bueves - Boves
La Clusa - Chiusa di Pesio
Poranh Peveragno
Tèrra Brigasca Upper Tanaro Valley
Ra Briga Auta Briga Alta
Viosèna Viozene di Ormea
Reaud Realdo di Triora
Verdeja Verdeggia di Triora
Val Ròia Roja Valley
Auriveta Olivetta San Michele

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "La minoranza linguistica occitana", site of the Region of Piedmont.
  2. ^ "La minoranza linguistica francoprovenzale", site of the Region of Piedmont.
  3. ^ "La minoranza linguistica francese", site of the Region of Piedmont.
  4. ^ Girolamo Rossi. Storia del marchesato di Dolceacqua e dei comuni di Pigna e Castelfranco. Oneglia: Tipografia di Giovanni Grilini. 1862. Read online.
  5. ^ According to the Atlante delle Minoranze Linguistiche del Piemonte e della Provincia di Imperia.
  6. ^ Enrico Allasino, Consuelo Ferrier, Sergio Scamuzzi, Tullio Telmon. Le lingue del Piemonte.
  7. ^ Institut d'études occitanes. "Comunas occitanas d'Itàlia", site luòcs.
  8. ^ Ernst Hirsch. Provenzalische Mundarttexte aus Piemont. Tübingen: Niemeyer Max Verlag GmbH, 1978.
  9. ^ Franco Bronzat. "Lingua “valdese” e occitano alpino: parentele morfo-fonetiche e lessicali". Bolletino della Società di Studi Valdesi. N°197. Dicembre 2005. pp 69-112.
  10. ^ Franco Bronzat. "Lingua “valdese” e occitano alpino: parentele morfo-fonetiche e lessicali". Bolletino della Società di Studi Valdesi. N°197. Dicembre 2005. pp 69-112.
  11. ^ Loi du 15 décembre 1999, no 482 en italien et en français