German-occupied Europe

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German–occupied Europe
World War II in Europe, 1942.svg
German conquests of Europe (in dark blue), during World War II with countries occupied nominally
Period 1939–1945

The German–occupied Europe also known as the Greater Germanic Reich refers to the sovereign countries of Europe which were occupied by the military forces of Nazi Germany at various times between 1939 and 1945 and administered by the Nazi regime.[1]

Background[edit]

Several German occupied countries entered World War II as Allies of the United Kingdom or the Soviet Union. Some were forced to surrender such as Czechoslovakia; others like Poland (invaded on 1 September 1939)[1] were conquered in battle and then occupied. In some cases, the legitimate governments went into exile, in other cases the governments-in-exile were formed by their citizens in other Allied countries. Selected countries occupied by Nazi Germany were officially neutral. Yet, others were former members of the Axis powers, and have been occupied by German forces at a later stage of the war.

Occupied countries[edit]

The countries occupied included all, or most of the following:

Country of
occupation
Timeline of occupation See for further details
Albania Albanian Kingdom
(German occupation of Albania)
September 8, 1943 – 1944 Puppet government of Nazi Germany:
Flag of Albania (1943-1944).svg Albanian Kingdom
Guernsey Bailiwick of Guernsey
(German occupation of Guernsey)
June 30, 1940 – May 9, 1945
Jersey Bailiwick of Jersey
(German occupation of Jersey)
June 30, 1940 – May 9, 1945
Commissioner Government

Government of National Salvation
(German occupation of Serbia)

April 30, 1941 – 1941/1942/1943/1944 Occupied territory of Nazi Germany:
Nazi Germany Territory of the Military Commander in Serbia
Czechoslovakia Czechoslovak Republic

Czechoslovakia Czecho-Slovak Republic


Czechoslovakia Czechoslovak Republic
(German occupation of Czechoslovakia)

October 1, 1938 – 1945
(Sudetenland)
March 15, 1939 – 1945
(Protectorate of Bohemia and Moravia)
1939–1945
(German Zone of Protection in Slovakia)
March 12, 1944 – 1944/1945
(Government of National Unity)
August 29, 1944 – 1944/1945
(Slovak Republic)
Annexed territories of Nazi Germany:
Nazi Germany Gau Bayreuth
Flag of Bohmen und Mahren.svg Protectorate of Bohemia and Moravia
Nazi Germany Reichsgau Niederdonau
Nazi Germany Reichsgau Oberdonau
Nazi Germany Reichsgau Sudetenland

Occupied territory of Nazi Germany:
Kingdom of Hungary
Slovakia Slovak Republic
Puppet government of Nazi Germany:
Slovakia Slovak Republic

Austria Federal State of Austria
(German occupation of Austria)
March 12, 1938 – 1945 Annexed territories of Nazi Germany:
Nazi Germany Reichsgau Kärnten
Nazi Germany Reichsgau Niederdonau
Nazi Germany Reichsgau Oberdonau
Nazi Germany Reichsgau Salzburg
Nazi Germany Reichsgau Steiermark
Nazi Germany Reichsgau Tirol-Vorarlberg
Nazi Germany Reichsgau Wien
Free City of Danzig Free City of Danzig
(German occupation of Danzig)
September 1, 1939 – 1945 Annexed territories of Nazi Germany:
Nazi Germany Reichsgau Danzig-West Prussia
France French Republic

Free France


France Provisional Government of the French Republic
(German occupation of France)

May 10, 1940 – 1944/1945
(Zone interdite)
November 10, 1942 – 1943/1944/1945
(Zone sud)
September 8, 1943 – 1943/1944/1945
(Zone sud)
Annexed territories of Nazi Germany:
Nazi Germany Gau Baden
Nazi Germany Gau Westmark
Nazi Germany Reichsgau Flandern

Occupied territories of Nazi Germany:
Nazi Germany Military Administration in Belgium and Northern France


Nazi Germany Reichskommissariat of Belgium and Northern France


Nazi Germany Military Administration in France
Puppet government of Nazi Germany:
Vichy France French State

Governorate of Montenegro
(German occupation of Montenegro)
September 8, 1943 – 1943/1944 Occupied territory of Nazi Germany:
German occupied territory of Montenegro
Luxembourg Grand Duchy of Luxembourg
(German occupation of Luxembourg)
May 10, 1940 – 1944/1945 Annexed territories of Nazi Germany:
Nazi Germany Gau Koblenz-Trier
Independent State of Macedonia
(German occupation of Macedonia)
September 8, 1944 – 1944
Independent State of Croatia
(German occupation of Croatia)
April 10, 1941 – 1941/1942/1943/1944/1945
September 8, 1943 – 1943/1944/1945
Kingdom of Italy Italian Islands of the Aegean
(German occupation of the Dodecanese)
September 8, 1943 – 1945 Puppet government of Nazi Germany:
Italian Social Republic Italian Social Republic
Belgium Kingdom of Belgium
(German occupation of Belgium)
May 10, 1940 – 1944/1945 Annexed territories of Nazi Germany:
Nazi Germany Gau Cologne-Aix-la-Chapelle
Nazi Germany Reichsgau Flandern
Nazi Germany Reichsgau Wallonien

Occupied territories of Nazi Germany:
Nazi Germany Military Administration in Belgium and Northern France


Nazi Germany Reichskommissariat of Belgium and Northern France

Denmark Kingdom of Denmark
(German occupation of Denmark)
April 9, 1940 – May 5, 1945
Kingdom of Greece Kingdom of Greece
(German occupation of Greece)
April 6, 1941 – 1943/1944/1945 Puppet government of Nazi Germany:
Flag of Greece (1822-1978).svg Hellenic State
Kingdom of Hungary
(German occupation of Hungary)
March 12, 1944 – 1944/1945 Puppet government of Nazi Germany:
Government of National Unity
Kingdom of Italy Kingdom of Italy
(German occupation of Italy)
September 8, 1943 – 1943/1944/1945 Puppet government of Nazi Germany:
Italian Social Republic Italian Social Republic

Occupied territories of Nazi Germany:
Nazi Germany Operational Zone of the Adriatic Littoral
Nazi Germany Operational Zone of the Alpine Foothills

Norway Kingdom of Norway
(German occupation of Norway)
April 9, 1940 – May 8, 1945 Occupied territories of Nazi Germany:
Nazi Germany Reichskommissariat für die besetzten norwegischen Gebiete
Puppet government of Nazi Germany:
Norway National Government
Netherlands Kingdom of the Netherlands
(German occupation of the Netherlands)
May 10, 1940 – 1944/1945 Occupied territories of Nazi Germany:
Nazi Germany Reich Commissariat for the Occupied Dutch Territories
Kingdom of Romania Kingdom of Romania
(German occupation of Romania)
August 23, 1944 – 1944
Kingdom of Yugoslavia Kingdom of Yugoslavia

Republic of Užice


Bihać Republic


Democratic Federal Yugoslavia
(German occupation of Yugoslavia)

April 6, 1941 – 1941/1942/1943/1944/1945
September 8, 1943 – 1943/1944/1945
Annexed territories of Nazi Germany:
Nazi Germany Operational Zone of the Adriatic Littoral
Nazi Germany Reichsgau Kärnten
Nazi Germany Reichsgau Steiermark

Occupied territories of Nazi Germany:
German occupied territory of Montenegro
Kingdom of Hungary
Nazi Germany Territory of the Military Commander in Serbia
Puppet government of Nazi Germany:
Commissioner Government


Flag of Albania (1943-1944).svg Albanian Kingdom
Government of National Salvation
Flag of Independent State of Croatia.svg Independent State of Croatia
Flag IMARO.svg Independent Macedonia

Monaco Principality of Monaco
(German occupation of Monaco)
September 8, 1943 – 1945
Finland Republic of Finland
(German occupation of Finland)
September 15, 1944 – April 25, 1945
(Lapland)
Republic of Poland

Republic of Poland
(German occupation of Poland)
(German annexed territories of Poland)

September 1, 1939 – 1944/1945 Annexed territories of Nazi Germany:
Nazi Germany Bezirk Bialystok
Nazi Germany Gau East Prussia
Nazi Germany Gau Niederschlesien
Nazi Germany
Nazi Germany General Government
Reichsgau Danzig-West Prussia
Nazi Germany Reichsgau Wartheland

Occupied territories of Nazi Germany:
War Ensign of Germany 1938-1945.svg Military Administration in Poland


Nazi Germany Reichskommissariat Ostland
Nazi Germany Reichskommissariat Ukraine

San Marino Republic of San Marino
(German occupation of San Marino)
September 17, 1944 – September 20, 1944
Provisional Government of Lithuania
(German occupation of Lithuania)
June 23, 1941 – August 5, 1941 Occupied territory of Nazi Germany:
Nazi Germany Reichskommissariat Ostland
Slovakia Slovak Republic
(German occupation of Slovakia)
1939–1945
(German Zone of Protection in Slovakia)
August 29, 1944 – 1944/1945
(Slovak Republic)
Occupied territories of Nazi Germany:
German Zone of Protection in Slovakia
Puppet government of Nazi Germany:
Slovakia Slovak Republic
Flag of Saar 1920-1935.svg Territory of the Saar Basin March 1, 1935 – 1939
1939–1945
Annexed territories of Nazi Germany:
Nazi Germany Gau Westmark
Ukraine Ukrainian National Government
(German occupation of Ukraine)
June 30, 1941–September 1941 Annexed territories of Nazi Germany:
Nazi Germany General Government

Occupied territories of Nazi Germany:
Nazi Germany Reichskommissariat Ukraine

Union of Soviet Socialist Republics
(German occupation of the Soviet Union)

Byelorussian Soviet Socialist Republic Byelorussian Soviet Socialist Republic
(German occupation of Belarus)

Estonian Soviet Socialist Republic
(German occupation of Estonia)

Latvian Soviet Socialist Republic
(German occupation of Latvia)

Lithuanian Soviet Socialist Republic
(German occupation of Lithuania)

Moldavian Soviet Socialist Republic Moldavian Soviet Socialist Republic
(German occupation of Moldova)

Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic
(German occupation of Russia)

Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic
(German occupation of Ukraine)

June 22, 1941 – 1941/1942/1943/1944/1945 Annexed territories of Nazi Germany:
Nazi Germany Bezirk Bialystok
Nazi Germany General Government

Occupied territories of Nazi Germany:
Nazi Germany Reichskommissariat Ostland
Nazi Germany Reichskommissariat Ukraine

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b Encyclopædia Britannica, German occupied Europe. World War II. Retrieved 1 September 2015 from the Internet Archive.