Ocean governance

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Ocean governance is the conduct of the policy, actions and affairs regarding the world's oceans. Within governance, it incorporates the influence of non-state actors, i.e. stakeholders, NGOs and so forth, therefore the state is not the only acting power in policy making. However, ocean governence is complex because much of the ocean is a commons that is not ‘owned’ by any single person or nation/state. As a result, humankind has tended to overexploit marine resources, by treating them as shared resources while not taking equal and collective responsibilities in caring for them.[1]

Effective ocean governance requires robust international agreements.[2] In short, there is a need for some form of governance to maintain the ocean for its various uses, preferably in a sustainable manner. Over the years, a number of international treaties have been signed in order to regulate international ocean governance. Current international policy goals to create more sustainable relations with the ocean are captured in Sustainable Development Goal 14 "life below sea".

Legal framework[edit]

There are two major international legal organizations that are involved in ocean governance on a global scale, the International Maritime Organization and the United Nations. The International Maritime Organization (IMO), which was ratified in 1958 is responsible mainly for maritime safety, liability and compensation and they have held some conventions on marine pollution related to shipping incidents.

IMO marine pollution conventions[edit]

The IMO sees the regulation of marine pollution as one of its most important responsibilities. In particular, the MARPOL convention is regarded as one of its greatest successes.[3] The result of MARPOL has meant that oil pollution has decreased due to a change in equipment standards of oil tankers to prevent operational discharge of oil.[4] However, the main organisation concerned with the economic, environmental, ethical, peace and security issues is the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS).

United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS)[edit]

UNCLOS was first established under the Third UNCLOS in 1973 and fully ratified in 1982. The main aim was to adopt a regime of national seas and international waters on a global scale.[5] It was agreed that the jurisdictional boundaries of individual states were to be enlarged to 200 nautical miles off a state’s coastline. Coastal states were given greater rights to control these areas for protective purposes and the exploitation of natural resources.[6] In total 38 million square nautical miles of ocean space was put under jurisdiction under the Exclusive Economic Zones (EEZ) and the legal framework concerning the continental shelf and territorial sea were altered.[7]

However, the Convention did not come into full effect despite some progress between 1973 and 1982. This was mainly due to a dispute over mineral resources, particularly manganese nodules in the deep-oceans. Developing countries preferred treating these minerals as “common heritage,” that via an international organization would allow them to benefit from a sharing of these resources.[8] However, the developed world, in particular the United States, was not in favor of this and preferring a first-come, first-served approach, with some suggesting this position was based on self-economic interest. Only in 1994 did the United States renounce their objections so that the Convention could be enacted.

Institutions established by UNCLOS[edit]

  • International Seabed Authority (ISA) – An independent international institution that came into force in 1994, with the aim of acting as a custodian of ocean commons (the Common Heritage of Mankind). However its main purpose is to regulate deep seabed mining.[9]
  • Commission on the Limits of the Continental Shelf (CLCS) – Assists states in affairs to do with the establishment of outer limits of their continental shelf.[10]
  • Regime for the Peaceful Settlement of Disputes and the International Tribunal for the Law of the Sea (ITLOS) – This was established to handle disputes with the application and interpretations of UNCLOS.[11]
  • The Meeting of the State Parties (SPLOS) - carried out to conform with the article 319, paragraph 2 (e) to the LOSC Convention and is concerned with administrative matters.[12]

Participatory Governance in Ocean Governance[edit]

In addition to international bodies managing ocean resources, it has been argued that sustainable governance depends on participatory decision making.[13] Participatory governance was first highlighted in Agenda 21, signed at the UNCED (United Nations Conference on Environment and Development) in Rio de Janeiro in 1992. It was stated that:

“One of the fundamental prerequisites for the achievement of sustainable development is broad public participation in decision-making.”[14]

Agenda 21 clearly states that the public needs to be more actively involved in environmental governance, along with the other stakeholders and authoritative bodies. This notion stems from the democratic principles whereby people are empowered to choose their own government and have input into policies affecting their lives. With the inclusion of people in a decision-making process, policy legitimacy improves.[15]

Ocean governance depends on scientific knowledge, but often “lay-knowledge” is equally important for resource management, for example in a fishery. By relying on public participation, it's possible to come to an equitable environmental decision with the community in mind.[15]

Since participatory governance can be time and resource-intensive, it is challenging to expand this approach to regional levels and beyond. It is also important to carefully consider which stakeholders to involve, as there may be a ‘participation paradox’. This paradox suggests that as the number of stakeholders increases in decision making, the involvement of each one and their effectiveness may be reduced in the process.[16]

Importance of Participatory Governance to Integrated Coastal and Ocean Management in Canada (ICOM)[edit]

In 2002, Canada introduced the Oceans Strategy, which was heavily based on participatory governance principles:

“The governance model proposed for Integrated Management is one of collaboration. It involves ocean management decisions based on shared information, on consultation with stakeholders, and on their advisory or management participation in the planning process. It is also based on institutional arrangements that bring together all stakeholders. Participants take an active part in designing, implementing and monitoring the effectiveness of coastal and ocean management plans, and partners enter into agreements on ocean management plans with specific responsibilities, powers and obligations. It is also recognized that in specific cases, Integrated Management and planning may be achieved through co-management.”[17]

Case Study: The Eastern Scotian Shelf Integrated Management (ESSIM) Initiative[edit]

The aim of the ESSIM Initiative is to create integrated and adaptive management plans that are a collaborative effort for ecosystem, social, economic and institutional sustainability of the Eastern Scotian Shelf.[18] It incorporates maintaining existing jurisdictional responsibilities, inclusion, consensus, accountability, dispute resolution, networking, evolution, and learning by doing, which are all part of the governance principles in the Oceans Strategy.[18][19]

The ESSIM relies on the Stakeholders Roundtable (lead stakeholders and government) and the Planning Office drafting up a management plan which is then reviewed at the ESSIM Forum (an annual stakeholders’ meeting), community meetings and the general public. Overall, an agreement then must be reached with the Stakeholder Roundtable and a final plan given to appropriate federal and provincial government agencies, before acquiring final approval under the Oceans Act.[20] It has been seen as fairly successful in improving communication and cooperation within government agencies, but there is room for greater inclusion of coastal community participation to fully fulfill the participatory theory.[21]

Levels of implementation[edit]

Ocean governance can be carried out at a local, national, regional or international level. However, there needs to be a link between all levels of implementation for “good” ocean governance to grow from participatory governance at these different levels. However organizations frequently lack authority and instruments to guarantee compliance and enforcement of these laws.[22]

Local[edit]

Community-based management is featured in the Principle 22. This Declaration highlights that states need to recognize the importance that Indigenous and local communities play in sustainable environmental policy making.[23] Also the stakeholders should play a responsible role with the government in a form of co-management to manage ocean resources.

National[edit]

At a national level, ocean governance depends on an integrated management process within one state. Such processes depend on the engagement and cooperation of all government ministries with functions or authority related to ocean sectors.[22] Ocean issues may be low on a political agenda, therefore successful integrated ocean policy requires political leadership and oversight.[24]

Regional[edit]

At this scale, the scope of challenges expands and greater numbers of organizations have jurisdiction. The Regional Seas Programme of UNEP creates programs to be managed and coordinated by countries that share a common body of water. These Action Plans range from chemical waste to conservation of marine ecosystems.[25] These however need to be strengthened along with The Global Programme of Action for the Protection of the Marine Environment from Land-based Activities (GPA).[12]

To be effective Regional Development Banks (RDBs) and Regional Governmental Organizations (RGOs) participate to provide reinforcement to national organizations.

International[edit]

The General Assembly of the United Nations is seen as the leading international body for global ocean governance. It functions with the Secretary General making recommendations through the Consultative Process of ocean matters and the Law of the Sea, which are then annually reviewed by The General Assembly.[12]

Examples of marine resource governance[edit]

Fishing[edit]

Fishing is a vitally important activity, linked to food security. In 2009, 79.9 million tonnes of fish were caught from marine environments.[26] The FAO has stated that over half (53%) of fish stocks are at full exploitation, with current catches close to the maximum sustainable production levels.[26] Therefore, there is a need for improved international and national policies. While approximately 99% of all fishery resources are within national jurisdiction, overexploitation continues.[7]

Since the mid-1980s, numerous fishery organizations emerged but struggle to prevent global overfishing.[2] There are problems with illegal fishing vessels violating fisheries laws, misreporting catches to authorities or fishing outside their proper jurisdiction. Illegal fishing frequently targets certain fish species with a high economic value, for example Bluefin Tuna.

Poor fishery management may be overcome by transitioning to rights-based fishing and self-governance, which incorporates participatory governance approaches. For this approach to work, there needs to be financial incentives that align with sustainability goals. Under such policies, ‘shares’ are distributed between the shareholders (individual/corporation, community or fishers’ collective) that are linked directly to the productivity and value of the resource. Consequently shareholders appreciate the resource more and overfishing may be reduced.[27] When shareholders have an individual fishery share that they depend on and benefit from, competition may be reduced and sustainability improved.

There is a focus on rights-based approaches in current development programs, which have an emphasis on creating (or recreating) and supporting local institutions for the fishery.[27] While rights may result in economic benefits, there is a possibility of monopolization by larger and powerful shareholders that will squeeze out small-scaled operations. While it may be more equitable for fisher folk to have more rights, they may lack the skills to manage fisheries information, assessment, management and negotiation; and they also lack sufficient funding to carry out these roles.[27]

An alternative approach has been introducing market incentives to encourage sustainable fishing. The Marine Stewardship Council (MSC) introduced such incentives through a fishery certification program, with the incentive that the consumer will buy fish only caught by sustainable fisheries. This in turn creates a cycle that encourages the producer to abide by sustainable practices. To date (December 2011) there are currently 135 certified fisheries in the MSC Program.[28]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Boesch, D.F. (1999) The role of science in ocean governance. Ecological Economics, 31, pp. 189–198.
  2. ^ a b c DeSombre, E.R. (2006) Global Environmental Institutions, Abingdon: Routledge.
  3. ^ International Maritime Organization (IMO), http://www.imo.org/About/Pages/Default.aspx [Accessed: 10/12/2011].
  4. ^ Mitchell, R.B. (1994) International Oil Pollution at Sea. Cambridge, Mass: MIT Press.
  5. ^ Birnie, P.W. (1993) The Law of the Sea and the United Nations Conference on Environment and Development. In: N. Ginsburg, E. Mann Borgese and J. R. Morgan (eds.) Ocean Yearbook, Vol 10, Chicago: The University of Chicago Press, pp. 13–35.
  6. ^ Vallega, A. (2001) Sustainable Ocean Governance: A geographical perspective. London: Routledge.
  7. ^ a b Oceans and the Law of the Sea, http://www.un.org/depts/los/convention_agreements/convention_historical_perspective.htm [Accessed: 12/12/2011].
  8. ^ Krasner, S.D. (1985) Structural Conflict: The Third World Against Global Liberalism, Berkeley: University of California Press.
  9. ^ International Seabed Authority (ISA), http://www.isa.org.jm/en/about Archived 2011-12-30 at the Wayback Machine [Accessed: 12/12/2011].
  10. ^ Oceans and the Law of the Sea, http://www.un.org/Depts/los/clcs_new/commission_purpose.htm#Purpose [Accessed: 12/12/2011].
  11. ^ International Tribunal for the Law of the Sea (ITLOS) http://www.itlos.org/index.php?id=8&L=0 [Accessed: 12/12/2011].
  12. ^ a b c Repetto, M.S. (2005) Towards an ocean governance framework and national policy for Peru. [online] Available at: <http://www.un.org/depts/los/nippon/unnff_programme_home/fellows_pages/fellows_papers/repetto_0506_peru.pdf> [Accessed:12/12/2011].
  13. ^ Costanza, R. (1999) The ecological, economic and social importance of the oceans. Ecological Economics, 31, pp. 199–213.
  14. ^ "United Nations Conference on Environment & Development , 3 to 14 June 1992" (PDF). Rio de Janeiro, Brazil: United Nations. 3 June 1992. pp. Chapter 23. Retrieved 19 August 2020.
  15. ^ a b Evans, J.P. (2012) Environmental Governance, Oxon: Routledge.
  16. ^ De Vivero, J., Mateos, J. and del Corral, D. (2008) The paradox of public participation in fisheries governance. The rising number of actors and the devolution process. Marine Policy, 32, pp. 319–25.
  17. ^ Government of Canada (2002) Canada’s Ocean Strategy: Our Oceans, Our Future. [online] Available at: <http://www.dfo-mpo.gc.ca/oceans/publications/cosframework-cadresoc/pdf/im-gi-eng.pdf> [Accessed: 12/12/2011].
  18. ^ a b Fisheries and Oceans Canada (2001) The Eastern Scotia Shelf Integrated Management (ESSIM) Initiative: Development of a Collaborative Management and Planning Process. Nova Scotia: Fisheries and Oceans Canada
  19. ^ BL Smith Workgroup Inc. (2004) Eastern Scotia Shelf Integrated Management Initiative: Proposed Collaborative Planning Model. A Discussion Paper. In: ‘’Oceans and Coastal Management Report 2004–2005’’: Nova Scotia: Fisheries and Oceans Canada.
  20. ^ Government of Canada (1996) Canada Oceans Act, RSC 1996: Bill C-26, Chapter 31, 2nd Session, 35th Parliament, 45, Eliz. 2, 1996
  21. ^ Kearney, J., Berkes, F., Charles, A., Pinkerton, E. and Wiber, M. (2007) The Role of Participatory Governance and Community-Based Management in Integrated Coastal Management in Canada. Coastal Management, 35, pp. 79–104.
  22. ^ a b United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) Ocean governance and institutional challenges. [online] Available at: <http://www.unesco.org/new/en/natural-sciences/ioc-oceans/priority-areas/rio-20-ocean/ocean-governance/> [Accessed: 12/12/2011].
  23. ^ United Nations (1992) Report of the United Nations Conference on Environment and Development. Rio de Janeiro, 3–14 June 1992. Annex I “Rio Declaration on Environment and Development” [online] Available at: <http://www.un.org/documents/ga/conf151/aconf15126-1annex1.htm> [Accessed: 11/12/2011]
  24. ^ Vallejo, S.M. (1994) New structures for decision-making in integrated ocean policy. In: P. B. Payoyo (ed.) Ocean governance: Sustainable development of the sea. Tokyo: United Nations University Press, pp. 71–95.
  25. ^ United Nations Environment Program (UNEP): Regional Seas, [online] Available at: <http://www.unep.org/regionalseas/about/default.asp> [Accessed: 12/12/2011].
  26. ^ a b Fishing and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) (2010) The state of world fisheries and aquaculture 2010. [online] Available at: http://www.fao.org/docrep/013/i1820e/i1820e.pdf [Accessed: 10/12/2011].
  27. ^ a b c Allison, E. H. (2001) Big laws, small catches: Global ocean governance and the fisheries crisis. Journal of International Development, 13, pp. 933–950.
  28. ^ Marine Stewardship Council (MSC), http://www.msc.org/track-a-fishery/certified [Accessed: 13/12/2011].