|An ocelot in Zooparque, Itatiba, Brazil|
|Distribution of the ocelot (2016)|
The ocelot (//; Leopardus pardalis) is a small wild cat native to the southwestern United States, Mexico, and Central and South America. This medium-sized cat is characterized by solid black spots and streaks on its coat, round ears, and white neck and undersides. It weighs between 8 and 15.5 kg (18 and 34 lb) and reaches 40–50 cm (16–20 in) at the shoulders. It was first described by Carl Linnaeus in 1758. Two subspecies are recognized: L. p. pardalis and L. p. mitis.
Typically active during twilight and at night, the ocelot tends to be solitary and territorial. It is efficient at climbing, leaping and swimming. It preys on small terrestrial mammals, such as armadillo, opossum and lagomorphs. Both sexes become sexually mature at around two years of age; they can breed throughout the year, though the peak mating season varies geographically. After a gestation period of two to three months, the female gives birth to a litter of one to three kittens. They stay with their mother for up to two years, after which they leave to establish their own territories.
The ocelot prefers areas with dense vegetation cover, high prey availability, and proximity to water sources. It is listed as Least Concern on the IUCN Red List, and is threatened by habitat destruction, hunting and traffic accidents. Populations are decreasing in many parts of its range. The association of the ocelot with humans dates back to the Aztec and Incan civilizations; it has occasionally been owned as a pet.
The name "ocelot" comes from the Nahuatl word ōcēlōtl (pronounced [oːˈseːloːt͡ɬ]), which generally refers to the jaguar rather than the ocelot. Another possible origin for the name is the Latin ocellatus ("having little eyes" or "marked with eye-like spots"), in reference to the cat's spotted coat.
Other vernacular names for the ocelot include cunagaro (Venezuela), gato onza (Argentina), gato tigre (Panama), heitigrikati (Suriname), jaguatirica (Brazil), manigordo (Costa Rica, Panama and Venezuela), maracaja (Brazil), mathuntori, ocelote, onsa, pumillo, tiger cat (Belize), tigrecillo (Bolivia) and tigrillo (Colombia, Ecuador, Guatemala and Peru).
Felis pardalis was the scientific name proposed for the ocelot by Carl Linnaeus in 1758. The genus Leopardus was proposed by John Edward Gray in 1842 for several spotted cat skins in the collection of the Natural History Museum, London.
- Felis mitis by Frédéric Cuvier in 1824 was a specimen from Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.
- F. chibi-gouazou by Edward Griffith in 1827 was based on earlier descriptions and illustrations.
- Leopardus griseus by John Edward Gray in 1842 was a spotted cat skin from Central America.
- F. pseudopardalis by Pierre Boitard in 1845 was an ocelot kept in the Jardin des plantes.
- F. melanura by Robert Ball in 1844 was a specimen from British Guiana.
- F. albescens by Jacques Pucheran in 1855 was a specimen from Brownsville, Texas.
- F. aequatorialis by Edgar Alexander Mearns in 1903 was a skin of an adult female ocelot from Talamanca canton in Costa Rica.
- F. maripensis and F. sanctaemartae by Joel Asaph Allen in 1904 were skins of two adult female ocelots from Maripa, Venezuela and Santa Marta district in Colombia, respectively.
- F. pardalis pusaea by Oldfield Thomas in 1914 was an ocelot skin and skull from Guayas Province in coastal Ecuador.
- F. pardalis nelsoni and F. p. sonoriensis by Edward Alphonso Goldman in 1925 as subspecies of F. pardalis, based on specimens from Manzanillo and the Mayo River region respectively in Mexico.
- L. pardalis steinbachi by Reginald Innes Pocock in 1941 was a specimen from Buena Vista, Ichilo in Bolivia.
In 1919, Allen reviewed the specimens described until 1914, placed them into the genus Leopardus and recognized nine subspecies as valid taxa based on the colors and spot patterns of skins. In 1941, Pocock reviewed dozens of ocelot skins in the collection of the Natural History Museum and regrouped them to nine different subspecies, also based on their colors and spots. Later authors recognized 10 subspecies as valid.
In 1998, results of a mtDNA control region analysis of ocelot samples indicated that four major ocelot groups exist, one each in Central America, northwestern South America, northeastern South America and southern South America south of the Amazon River. A 2010 study of morphological features noted significant differences in the size and color of the Central and South American populations, suggesting they could be separate species. In 2013, a study of craniometric variation and microsatellite diversity in ocelots throughout the range recognized three subspecies: L. p. albescens from the Texas–Mexico border, L. p. pardis from Central America and L. p. pseudopardalis from South America, though L. p. mitis may comprise the ocelot population in the southern part of South America.
In 2017, the Cat Classification Task Force of the IUCN Cat Specialist Group noted that up to four subspecies can be identified, but recognized only two as valid taxa. These two taxa differ in morphological features and are geographically separated by the Andes:
- L. p. pardalis has a greyish fur. Its range extends from Texas and Arizona to Costa Rica.
- L. p. mitis has a more yellowish fur and is larger than pardalis. It occurs in South America as far south as northern Argentina.
Results of a phylogenetic study indicate that the Leopardus lineage genetically diverged from the Felidae around 8 million years ago (mya). The ocelot is estimated to have diverged from the margay (Leopardus wieldii) between 2.41 and 1.01 mya. The relationship of the ocelot within the Felidae is considered as follows:
The ocelot's fur is extensively marked with solid black markings on a creamy, tawny, yellowish, reddish gray or gray background color. The spots on the head and limbs are small, but markings on the back, cheeks and flanks are open or closed bands and stripes. A few dark stripes run straight from the back of the neck up to the tip of the tail. Its neck and undersides are white, the insides of the legs are marked with a few horizontal streaks. Its round ears are marked with a bright white spot. Each ocelot has a unique color pattern which can be used to identify specific individuals. Its fur is short, about 0.8 cm (0.31 in) long on the belly, but with about 1 cm (0.39 in) long guard hairs on the back. It has 28 to 30 teeth, with the dental formula 3.1.2–3.1. Its eyes are brown but reflect golden when illuminated. The body has a notably strong odor.
The ocelot is a medium-sized cat with a head-and-body length of between 55 and 100 cm (22 and 39 in) and a 30 to 45 cm (12 to 18 in) long tail. It typically reaches 40–50 cm (16–20 in) at the shoulder. The weight of females ranges between 7 and 12 kg (15 and 26 lb) and of males between 7 and 15.5 kg (15 and 34 lb). Its footprint measures nearly 2 cm × 2 cm (0.8 in × 0.8 in).
The ocelot can be easily confounded with the margay (Leopardus wiedii) and the oncilla (L. tigrinus), though the ocelot is noticeably larger and heavier with a shorter tail. Though all three have rosettes on their coats, the ocelot typically has a more blotched pattern; the oncilla has dark spots on its underbelly unlike the other two. Other differences lie in the facial markings, appearance of the tail and fur characteristics. The ocelot is similar in size to a bobcat (Lynx rufus), though larger individuals have occasionally been recorded. The jaguar is notably larger and heavier, and has rosettes instead of spots and stripes.
Distribution and habitat
The ocelot ranges from the southwestern United States to northern Argentina, up to an elevation of 3,000 m (9,800 ft). It inhabits tropical forests, thorn forests, mangrove swamps and savannas. A 2019 study in the Brazilian Amazon showed that it prefers habitats with good availability of prey and water, and tends to avoid other predators. It favors areas with dense forest cover and water sources, far from roads and human settlement, avoiding steep slopes and highly elevated areas due to lack of prey. In areas where ocelots coexist with larger predators such as the cougar and human beings, they may tune their active hours to avoid them, and seek dense cover to avoid competitors. It can adapt well to its surroundings; as such, factors other than the aforementioned are not significant in its choice of habitat.
Ecology and behavior
The ocelot is usually solitary and active mainly during twilight and at night. Radio collared individuals in the Cocha Cashu Biological Station in Peru rested during the day and became active earliest in the late afternoon; they moved between 3.2 and 17 hours until dawn and then returned to their dens.
During the daytime, it rests on trees, in dens below large trees or other cool, sheltered sites on the ground. It is agile in climbing and leaping, and escapes predators by jumping on trees. It is also an efficient swimmer. It scent-marks its territory by spraying urine. The territories of males are 3.5–46 km2 (1.4–17.8 sq mi) large, while those of females cover 0.8–15 km2 (0.31–5.79 sq mi). Territories of females rarely overlap, whereas the territory of a male includes those of two to three females. Social interaction between sexes is minimal, though a few adults have been observed together even in non-mating periods, and some juveniles interact with their parents. Data from camera trapping studies confirm that several ocelot individuals deposit scat in one or several communal sites, called latrines. The ocelot can be aggressive in defending its territory, fighting even to death.
The population density of ocelots has been observed to be high in areas with high rainfall, and tend to decrease with increasing latitude; highest densities have been recorded in the tropics. In 2014, the ocelot population density in Barro Colorado Island was estimated to be 1.59–1.74/km2 (4.1–4.5/sq mi), greater than 0.984/km2 (2.55/sq mi) recorded in northwestern Amazon in Peru in 2010, which was the densest ocelot population recorded thus far.
Hunting and diet
Ocelots have been observed to follow scent trails to acquire prey. They walk slowly at a speed of about 0.3 km/h (0.2 mph) searching for prey. Alternatively, an ocelot may wait for prey for 30 to 60 minutes at a certain site, and move to another walking at 0.8–1.4 km/h (0.5–0.9 mph) if unsuccessful. An ocelot typically prefers hunting in areas with vegetation cover, avoiding open areas, especially on moonlit nights, so as not to be seen by the prey. As a carnivore it preys on small terrestrial mammals such as rodents, lagomorphs, armadillos, opossums, and also fish, insects, reptiles and small birds. It usually feeds on the kill immediately, but removes bird feathers before. It typically preys on animals that weigh less than 1 kg (2.2 lb), but rarely targets large animals such as deer and peccaries. An ocelot requires 600–800 g (21–28 oz) of food every day to satisfy its energy requirements.
Primates prevail in the diet of ocelots in southeastern Brazil, and iguanas in a tropical deciduous forest in Mexico. The composition of the diet varies by season; in Venezuela, ocelots were found to prefer iguanas and rodents in the dry season and then switch to land crabs in the wet season. In southeastern Brazil, ocelots have a similar prey preference as margays and oncillas. The oncillas focus on tree-living marsupials and birds while the margays are not as selective.
Both male and female ocelots produce a long-range "yowl" in the mating season as well as a short-range "meow". Ocelots can mate any time during the year. The peak mating season varies geographically; in Argentina and Paraguay peaks have been observed in autumn, and in Mexico and Texas in autumn and winter. Oestrus lasts four to five days, and recurs every 25 days in a non-pregnant female. A study in southern Brazil showed that sperm production in ocelots, margays and oncillas peaks in summer. Captive ocelots spend more time together when mating; both scent-mark extensively and eat less during this time. Breeding ocelots in captivity is often difficult.
A litter of one to three is born after a gestational period of two to three months. Females give birth in dens, usually located in dense vegetation. A newborn kitten weighs 200–340 g (7.1–12.0 oz). The kitten is born with spots and stripes, though on a gray background; the color changes to golden as the ocelot grows older. A study in southern Texas revealed that a mother keeps a litter in a den for 13 to 64 days, and shifts the young to two or three dens. The kitten's eyes open 15 to 18 days after birth. Kittens begin to leave the den at the age of three months. They remain with their mother for up to two years, and then start dispersing and establishing their own territory. In comparison to other felids, ocelots have a relatively longer duration between births and a narrow litter size. Captive ocelots live for up to 20 years.
Throughout its range, the ocelot is threatened by loss and fragmentation of habitat. In Texas, the fertile land that supports dense cover and constitutes the optimum habitat for the ocelot is being lost to agriculture. The habitat is often fragmented into small pockets that cannot support ocelots well, leading to deaths due to starvation. Traffic accidents have emerged as a major threat over the years as ocelots try to expand beyond their natural habitat to new areas and get hit by vehicles. In the Atlantic Forest in northeastern Argentina, it is affected by logging and poaching of prey species.
The fur trade was a flourishing business in the 1960s and the 1970s that resulted in severe exploitation of felids such as the ocelot and the jaguar. In the 1960s, ocelot skins were among the most highly preferred in the US, reaching an all-time high of 140,000 skins traded in 1970. This was followed by prohibitions on commercial trade of spotted cat skins in several range states such as Brazil and the US, causing ocelot skins in trade to plummet. In 1986, the European Economic Community banned import of ocelot skins, and in 1989, the ocelot was included in Appendix I of the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora. However, hunting of ocelots for skins has continued and is still a major threat to ocelot survival.
Another threat has been the international pet trade; this typically involves capturing ocelot kittens by killing their mothers; these cats are then sold to tourists. Though it is banned in several countries, pet trade survives; in some areas of Central and South America ocelots are still sold in a few local markets.
The ocelot is listed as Least Concern on the IUCN Red List because of its wide distribution in the Americas. As of 2013, the global population was estimated at more than 40,000 mature individuals, with stable populations in some Amazon basin areas. As of 2012, the ocelot population in Argentina's subtropical regions was estimated to consist of 1,500 to 8,000 mature individuals. It has been recorded in oil palm landscapes and big cattle ranches in the Colombian llanos and inter-Andean valleys. In Texas and northeastern Mexico, ocelot populations have reduced drastically; as of 2014, the population in Texas is estimated to be 50–80 individuals. The reduced numbers have led to increased inbreeding and low genetic diversity.
Ocelot hunting has been banned in Argentina, Brazil, Bolivia, Colombia, Costa Rica, French Guiana, Guatemala, Honduras, Mexico, Nicaragua, Panama, Paraguay, Suriname, Trinidad and Tobago, United States, Uruguay and Venezuela; regulations have been placed on hunting in Peru. The US Fish and Wildlife Service, the Texas Parks and Wildlife Department and The Nature Conservancy are among agencies actively involved in ocelot conservation efforts, such as the protection and regeneration of vegetation in the Rio Grande Valley.
The American Zoo and Aquarium Association established a Species Survival Plan for the Brazilian ocelot. In 2006, the captive population in North American zoos consisted of 16 ocelots representing six founders and their offspring. Some litters were produced using artificial insemination. The Emperor Valley Zoo in Trinidad keeps foremost confiscated and trapped ocelots.
Ocelots have been associated with humans since the time of the Aztec and Incan civilizations, who depicted ocelots in their art and mythology. Ocelot bones were made into thin, pointed instruments to pierce ears and limbs for ritual bloodletting. Several figurines depicting ocelots and similar felids are known. In her 1904 work A Penitential Rite of the Ancient Mexicans, archaeologist Zelia Nuttall described a statue depicting an ocelot or a tiger excavated in Mexico City and its relation to the Aztec deity Tezcatlipoca. She argued that the sculpture depicted an ocelot, writing,
"According to the well-known myth, Tezcatlipoca, when cast down from heaven by Quetzalcoatl, "fell into the water where he transformed himself into an ocelot" and arose to kill certain giants.
Moreover, she described a photograph of a seated person to corroborate her claim:
At the back of his head, above his left hand, the head of an ocelot is visible, whose skin hangs behind his back, the tail ending below his knee. Besides this the personage wears leggings made of the spotted ocelot skin and a rattlesnake girdle from which hang two conventionalized hearts. It is interesting to find that in a note written beneath its photograph the late Senor Islas de Bustamante, independently identified the above figure as a representation of "Ocelotl-Tezcatlipoca" or Tlatoca-ocelot, lit. the Lord Ocelot ... and described as wearing "the beard of the mask of Tezcatlipoca".
Like many other felids, ocelots are occasionally kept as pets. Mindy Stinner (of the Conservators Center, Burlington) notes that ocelots, unlike caracals and servals, might demand a lot of attention from their owners. They have a tendency to chew on or suck on objects, such as fabric and the fingers of their owners; this can lead them to accidentally ingest objects like tennis balls. Agile and playful, pet ocelots can be troublesome to keep due to their habit of leaping around and potentially damaging objects; ocelots may unintentionally injure their owners from bites. Nevertheless, carefully raised ocelots can be highly affectionate to their owners. Painter Salvador Dalí owned a pet ocelot named Babou that was seen with him at many places he visited, including a voyage aboard SS France. When one of the diners at a New York restaurant was alarmed by the ocelot, Dali told her that it was a common domestic cat that he had "painted over in an op art design". Opera singer Lily Pons and musician Gram Parsons are also known to have owned ocelots.
- Paviolo, A.; Crawshaw, P.; Caso, A.; de Oliveira, T.; Lopez-Gonzalez, C.A.; Kelly, M.; De Angelo, C. & Payan, E. (2015). "Leopardus pardalis (errata version published in 2016)". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. IUCN. 2015: e.T11509A97212355. Retrieved 17 January 2020.
- Murray, J. L. & Gardner, G. L. (1997). "Leopardus pardalis" (PDF). Mammalian Species (548): 1–10. doi:10.2307/3504082. JSTOR 3504082.
- "ocelot, n.". Oxford English Dictionary. 2004.
- Karttunen, F. (1983). An Analytical Dictionary of Nahuatl. Austin, Texas: University of Texas Press. p. 176.
- Lockhart, J. (2001). Nahuatl as Written: Lessons in Older Written Nahuatl, with Copious Examples and Texts. Stanford, California: Stanford University Press. p. 228.
- Sunquist, M.; Sunquist, F. (2002). "Ocelot Leopardus pardalis (Linnaeus, 1758)". Wild Cats of the World. Chicago, US: University of Chicago Press. pp. 120–129. ISBN 978-0-226-77999-7.
- Ojasti, J. (1996). Wildlife Utilization in Latin America: Current Situation and Prospects for Sustainable Management. Rome: Food and Agriculture Organization. pp. 82–84. ISBN 978-92-5-103316-6.
- Linnaeus, C. (1758). "Felis pardalis". Caroli Linnæi Systema naturæ per regna tria naturæ, secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis. Tomus I (10th ed.). Holmiae: Laurentius Salvius. p. 42.
- Gray, J. E. (1842). "Descriptions of some new genera and fifty unrecorded species of Mammalia". Annals and Magazine of Natural History. 10 (65): 255−267. doi:10.1080/03745484209445232.
- Allen, J. A. (1919). "Notes on the synonymy and nomenclature of the smaller spotted cats of tropical America" (PDF). Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History. 41 (7): 345.
- Wilson, D.E.; Reeder, D.M., eds. (2005). "Species Leopardus pardalis". Mammal Species of the World: A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference (3rd ed.). Johns Hopkins University Press. p. 539. ISBN 978-0-8018-8221-0. OCLC 62265494.
- Cuvier, F. G. (1824). "Le chati femelle [The female cat]". In Geoffroy St.-Hilaire, E.; Cuvier, F. G. (eds.). Histoire Naturelle des Mammifères : Avec des Figures Originales, Coloriées, Dessinées d'aprèsdes Animaux Vivans [Natural History of Mammals: With Original Figures, Colored, Drawn after Living Animals] (in French). 1. Paris: Chez A. Belin. pp. Pl. 54, 1−3.
- Griffith, E. (1827). "Middle-sized cats, with tail rather long, and generally with spots and stripes". The Animal Kingdom arranged in Conformity with its Organization. 5. London: Geo. B. Whittaker. pp. 167–173.
- Boitard, P. (1845). "Les chats (The cats)". Le Jardin des Plantes. Description et Moeurs des Mammifères de la Ménagerie et du Muséum d'Histoire Naturelle [Garden Plants. Description and Customs of the Mammals of the Menagerie and the Natural History Museum] (in French). Paris: J.-J. Dubochet. pp. 234–269.
- Ball, R. (1844). "Description of the Felis melanura". Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London. 12: 128−129.
- Pucheran, J. (1855). "Description du chat bai et du chat albescent; et remarques sur les caractères et sur la distribution géographique de plusieurs autre chats (Description of bay cat and albescent cat; and remarks on the characters and the geographic distribution of several other cats)". In Geoffroy St.-Hilaire, I. (ed.). Voyage autour du Monde sur la Frégate la Vénus commandée par Abel du Petit-Thouars. Zoologie. Mammifères [Travel around the World on the Frigate Venus commanded by Abel du Petit-Thouars. Zoology. Mammals] (in French). Paris: G & J. Baudry. pp. 137−155.
- Mearns, A. (1903). "The ocelot cats". Proceedings of the United States National Museum. 25 (1286): 237−249. doi:10.5479/si.00963801.1286.237.
- Allen, J. A. (1904). "New mammals from Venezuela and Colombia" (PDF). Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History. XX (28): 327–335.
- Thomas, O. (1914). "On various South-American mammals". Annals and Magazine of Natural History; Zoology, Botany, and Geology. 8th. 13 (75): 345–363. doi:10.1080/00222931408693492.
- Goldman, E. A. (1925). "Two new ocelots from Mexico". Journal of Mammalogy. 6 (2): 122–124. doi:10.2307/1373387. JSTOR 1373387.
- Pocock, R. I. (1941). "Some new geographical races of Leopardus, commonly known as ocelots and margays". Annals and Magazine of Natural History; Zoology, Botany, and Geology. 11th. 8 (45): 234–239. doi:10.1080/03745481.1941.9727966.
- Pocock, R. I. (1941). "The Races of the Ocelot and the Margay". In Field, S. (ed.). Papers on mammalogy published in honor of Wilfred Hudson Osgood. 27. Chicago: Field Museum of Natural History. pp. 319–369.
- Goldman, E. A. (1943). "The races of the Ocelot and Margay in Middle America" (PDF). Journal of Mammalogy. 24 (3): 372–385. doi:10.2307/1374838. JSTOR 1374838.
- Cabrera, A. (1957). Catálogo de los mamíferos de América del Sur. Revista del Museo Argentino de Ciencias Naturales Bernardino Rivadavia e Instituto Nacional de Investigacion de las Ciencias Naturales. Ciencias Zoologicas 4. Buenos Aires: Casa Editora "Coni".
- Eizirik, E.; Bonatto, S. L.; Johnson, W. E.; Crawshaw Jr., P. G.; Vié, J. C.; Brousset, D. M.; O'Brien, S. J. & Salzano, F. M. (1998). "Phylogeographic patterns and evolution of the mitochondrial DNA control region in two neotropical cats (Mammalia, Felidae)". Journal of Molecular Evolution. 47 (5): 613–624. Bibcode:1998JMolE..47..613E. doi:10.1007/PL00006418. PMID 9797412.
- Nascimento, F. O. do (2010). Revisão taxonômica gênero do Leopardus Gray, 1842 [Taxonomic revision of genus Leopardus Gray 1842] (PDF) (PhD Thesis) (in Portuguese). Sao Paulo: University of Sao Paulo. doi:10.11606/T.41.2010.tde-09122010-104050.
- Ruiz-García, M.; Corrales, C. & Pineda-Castro, M. (2013). "Craniometric and microsatellite genetic differentiation among putative ocelot subspecies (Leopardus pardalis)". In Ruiz-García, M. & Shostell, J. M. (eds.). Molecular Population Genetics, Evolutionary Biology, and Biological Conservation of Neotropical Carnivores. New York: Nova Publishers. pp. 289–332. ISBN 978-1-62417-071-3.
- Kitchener, A. C.; Breitenmoser-Würsten, C.; Eizirik, E.; Gentry, A.; Werdelin, L.; Wilting, A.; Yamaguchi, N.; Abramov, A. V.; Christiansen, P.; Driscoll, C.; Duckworth, J. W.; Johnson, W.; Luo, S.-J.; Meijaard, E.; O'Donoghue, P.; Sanderson, J.; Seymour, K.; Bruford, M.; Groves, C.; Hoffmann, M.; Nowell, K.; Timmons, Z. & Tobe, S. (2017). "A revised taxonomy of the Felidae: The final report of the Cat Classification Task Force of the IUCN Cat Specialist Group" (PDF). Cat News (Special Issue 11): 47−48.
- Johnson, W. E.; Eizirik, E.; Pecon-Slattery, J.; Murphy, W. J.; Antunes, A.; Teeling, E. & O'Brien, S. J. (2006). "The Late Miocene radiation of modern Felidae: A genetic assessment" (PDF). Science. 311 (5757): 73–77. Bibcode:2006Sci...311...73J. doi:10.1126/science.1122277. PMID 16400146.
- Werdelin, L.; Yamaguchi, N.; Johnson, W. E. & O'Brien, S. J. (2010). "Phylogeny and evolution of cats (Felidae)". In Macdonald, D. W. & Loveridge, A. J. (eds.). Biology and Conservation of Wild Felids. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press. pp. 59–82. ISBN 978-0-19-923445-5.
- Camarena-Ibarrola, A.; Figueroa, K.; Tejeda, H. & Valero, L. (2019). "Ocelot identification through spots". Multimedia Tools and Applications. 78 (18): 26239–26262. doi:10.1007/s11042-019-07837-1.
- Cisin, C. (1967). Especially Ocelots. Amagansett, New York: Harry G. Cisin.
- "Ocelot". Caldwell Zoo. Retrieved 24 December 2019.
- Nowak, R. M. (1999). "Felis pardalis (Ocelot)". Walker's Mammals of the World (Sixth ed.). Baltimore, US: Johns Hopkins University Press. pp. 816–817. ISBN 978-0-8018-5789-8.
- Murie, O. J. (1998). "Ocelot". A Field Guide to Animal Tracks (Second ed.). New York, US: Houghton Mifflin Co. p. 123. ISBN 978-0-395-91094-8.
- Bowers, N.; Bowers, R. & Kaufman, K. (2007). "Ocelot Leopardus pardalis". Kaufman Field Guide to Mammals of North America. New York: Houghton Mifflin Co. p. 140. ISBN 978-0-618-95188-8.
- Moreno, R. S.; Kays, R. W. & Samudio, R. (2006). "Competitive release in diets of ocelot (Leopardus pardalis) and puma (Puma concolor) after jaguar (Panthera onca) decline" (PDF). Journal of Mammalogy. 87 (4): 808–816. doi:10.1644/05-MAMM-A-360R2.1. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2011-03-04.
- Burt, W.H. (1976). "Ocelot Felis pardalis". A Field Guide to the Mammals: North America North of Mexico (Third ed.). Boston, US: Houghton Mifflin Co. pp. 78–79. ISBN 978-0-395-91098-6.
- Ahumada, J. A.; Hurtado, J.; Lizcano, D. & Somers, M. (2013). "Monitoring the status and trends of tropical forest terrestrial vertebrate communities from camera trap data: a tool for conservation". PLoS ONE. 8 (9): e73707. Bibcode:2013PLoSO...873707A. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0073707. PMC 3762718. PMID 24023898.
- Di Bitetti, M. S.; Albanesi, S. A.; Foguet, M. J.; De Angelo, C. & Brown, A. D. (2013). "The effect of anthropic pressures and elevation on the large and medium-sized terrestrial mammals of the subtropical mountain forests (Yungas) of NW Argentina". Mammalian Biology. 78 (1): 21–27. doi:10.1016/j.mambio.2012.08.006.
- Wang, B.; Rocha, D. G.; Abrahams, M. I.; Antunes, A. P.; Costa, H. C. M.; Gonçalves, A. L. S.; Spironello, W. R.; Paula, M. J.; Peres, C. A.; Pezzuti, J.; Ramalho, E.; Reis, M. L.; Carvalho Jr, E.; Rohe, F.; Macdonald, D. W. & Tan, C. K. W. (2019). "Habitat use of the ocelot (Leopardus pardalis) in Brazilian Amazon". Ecology and Evolution. 9 (9): 5049–5062. doi:10.1002/ece3.5005. PMC 6509378. PMID 31110661.
- de Oliveira, T. G.; Tortato, M. A.; Silveira, L.; Kasper, C. B.; Mazim, F. D.; Lucherini, M. & Sunquist, M. E. (2010). "Ocelot ecology and its effect on the small‐felid guild in the lowland neotropics" (PDF). In Macdonald, D. & Loveridge, A. (eds.). Biology and Conservation of Wild Felids. New York: Oxford University Press. pp. 559–580. ISBN 978-0-19-923445-5.
- Massara, R. L.; de Oliveira Paschoal, A. M.; Bailey, L. L.; Doherty, P. F.; de Frias Barreto, M. & Chiarello, A. G. (2018). "Effect of humans and pumas on the temporal activity of ocelots in protected areas of Atlantic Forest". Mammalian Biology. 92: 86–93. doi:10.1016/j.mambio.2018.04.009.
- Emmons, L. H. (1988). "A field study of ocelots Felis pardalis in Peru" (PDF). Revue d'Écologie. 43 (2): 133–157.
- Moreno, R. & Giacalone, J. (2006). "Ecological data obtained from latrine use by ocelots (Leopardus pardalis) on Barro Colorado Island, Panamá". Tecnociencia (in Spanish). 8: 7–21.
- Rodgers, T. W.; Giacalone, J.; Heske, E. J.; Pawlikowski, N. C. & Schooley, R. L. (2015). "Communal latrines act as potentially important communication centers in ocelots Leopardus pardalis". Mammalian Biology-Zeitschrift für Säugetierkunde. 80 (5): 380−384. doi:10.1016/j.mambio.2015.05.004.
- King, T.W.; Salom-Pérez, R.; Shipley, L.A.; Quigley, H.B. & Thornton, D.H. (2016). "Ocelot latrines: communication centers for Neotropical mammals". Journal of Mammalogy. 98 (1): 106−113.
- Thompson, C. L. (2011). "Intraspecific killing of a male ocelot". Mammalian Biology-Zeitschrift für Säugetierkunde. 76 (3): 377–379. doi:10.1016/j.mambio.2010.10.011.
- Di Bitetti, M. S.; Paviolo, A.; De Angelo, C. D. & Di Blanco, Y. E. (2008). "Local and continental correlates of the abundance of a neotropical cat, the ocelot (Leopardus pardalis)". Journal of Tropical Ecology. 24 (2): 189–200. doi:10.1017/S0266467408004847.
- Rodgers, T. W.; Giacalone, J.; Heske, E. J.; Janečka, J. E.; Phillips, C. A. & Schooley, R. L. (2014). "Comparison of noninvasive genetics and camera trapping for estimating population density of ocelots (Leopardus pardalis) on Barro Colorado Island, Panama". Tropical Conservation Science. 7 (4): 690–705. doi:10.1177/194008291400700408.
- Kolowski, J. M. & Alonso, A. (2010). "Density and activity patterns of ocelots (Leopardus pardalis) in northern Peru and the impact of oil exploration activities". Biological Conservation. 143 (4): 917–925. doi:10.1016/j.biocon.2009.12.039.
- Harwell, G. (1990). "Status of the Texas ocelot". Listed cats of Texas and Arizona: Recovery plan, with emphasis on the ocelot (Report). US Fish and Wildlife Service. pp. 10–22.
- Bianchi, R.C. & Mendes, S.L. (2007). "Ocelot (Leopardus pardalis) predation on primates in Caratinga Biological Station, southeast Brazil". American Journal of Primatology. 69 (10): 1173–1178. doi:10.1002/ajp.20415. PMID 17330310.
- Meza, A.V.; Meyer, E.M. & Gonzalez, C.A.L. (2002). "Ocelot (Leopardus pardalis) food habits in a tropical deciduous forest of Jalisco, Mexico". The American Midland Naturalist. 148 (1): 146–154. doi:10.1674/0003-0031(2002)148[0146:OLPFHI]2.0.CO;2.
- Ludlow, M.E. & Sunquist, M. (1987). "Ecology and behavior of ocelots in Venezuela". National Geographic Research. 3 (4): 447–461.
- Wang, E. (2002). "Diets of ocelots (Leopardus pardalis), margays (L. wiedii), and oncillas (L. tigrinus) in the Atlantic rainforest in southeast Brazil". Studies on Neotropical Fauna and Environment. 37 (3): 207–212. doi:10.1076/snfe.22.214.171.12464.
- Peters, G. (1984). "On the structure of friendly close range vocalizations in terrestrial carnivores (Mammalia: Carnivora: Fissipedia)". Zeitschrift für Säugetierkunde. 49 (3): 157–182.
- Morais, R.N.; Mucciolo, R.G.; Gomes, M.L.F.; Lacerda, O.; Moraes, W.; Moreira, N.; Graham, L.H.; Swanson, W.F.; Brown, J.L. (2002). "Seasonal analysis of semen characteristics, serum testosterone and fecal androgens in the ocelot (Leopardus pardalis), margay (L. wiedii) and tigrina (L. tigrinus)". Theriogenology. 57 (8): 2027–2041. doi:10.1016/S0093-691X(02)00707-0. PMID 12066863.
- "Zoo celebrates its first ever ocelot birth". City of Albuquerque. 26 November 2019. Retrieved 24 December 2019.
- Laack, L.L.; Tewes, M.E.; Haines, A.M.; Rappole, J.H. (2005). "Reproductive life history of ocelots Leopardus pardalis in southern Texas". Acta Theriologica. 50 (4): 505–514. doi:10.1007/BF03192643.
- Texas Parks and Wildlife Department Wildlife Diversity Branch (n.d.). Ocelot (PDF) (Report). Austin, Texas: Texas Parks and Wildlife Department. pp. 1–3.
- Di Bitetti, M.S.; De Angelo, C.D.; Di Blanco, Y. E. & Paviolo, A. (2010). "Niche partitioning and species coexistence in a Neotropical felid assemblage" (PDF). Acta Oecologica. 36 (4): 403–412. Bibcode:2010AcO....36..403D. doi:10.1016/j.actao.2010.04.001.
- Loveridge, A. J.; Wang, S. W.; Frank, L. G. & Seidensticker, J. (2010). "People and wild felids: conservation of cats and management of conflicts" (PDF). In Macdonald, D. W. & Loveridge, A. J. (eds.). Biology and Conservation of Wild Felids. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press. pp. 161–190. ISBN 978-0-19-923445-5.
- McMahan, L. R. (1986). "The international cat trade". In Miller, S. D.; Everett, D. D. (eds.). Cats of the World: Biology, Conservation, and Management. Washington D. C.: National Wildlife Federation. pp. 461–488. ISBN 978-0-912186-78-8.
- Vasquez, J. M. (1972). "U.S. moves to bar pelts of big cats". The New York Times. Retrieved 17 December 2019.
- Graham, K. (2017). "International Intent and Domestic Application of the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES): The Case of the Ocelot (Leopardus pardalis)". Journal of International Wildlife Law & Policy. 20 (3–4): 253–294. doi:10.1080/13880292.2017.1403797.
- de Oliveira, T. G.; de Almeida, L. B. & de Campos, C. B. (2013). "Avaliação do risco de extinção da jaguatirica Leopardus pardalis no Brasil" [Assessment of the risk of extinction of ocelot (Leopardus pardalis) in Brazil]. Biodiversidade Brasileira (in Portuguese). 3 (1): 66–75. ISSN 2236-2886.
- Aprile G.; Cuyckens, E.; De Angelo, C.; Di Bitetti, M.; Lucherini, M.; Muzzachiodi, N.; Palacios, R.; Paviolo, A.; Quiroga, V. & Soler, L. (2012). "Family: Felidae". In R.A. Ojeda, V. Chillo, Vand G.B. Díaz Isenrath (eds.). Libro Rojo de los Mamíferos Amenazados de la Argentina [Red Book of Threatened Mammals of Argentina] (in Portuguese). Mendoza, Argentina: SAREM.CS1 maint: uses editors parameter (link)
- Boron, V. & Payan, E. (2013). "Abundancia de carnívoros en el agropaisaje de las plantaciones de palma de aceite del valle medio del río Magdalena, Colombia (undance of carnivores in the agro-landscape of oil palm plantations in the middle valley of the Magdalena River, Colombia)". In Castaño-Uribe, C.; Gonzalez-Maya, J.F.; Ange, C.; Zarrate-Charry, D.; Vela-Vargas, M. (eds.). Plan de Conservación de Felinos del Caribe Colombiano 2007–2012: Los Felinos y su Papel en la Planificación Regional Integral basada en Especies Clave [Conservation Plan for Felines of the Colombian Caribbean 2007–2012: Felines and their Role in Comprehensive Regional Planning based on Key Species] (in Portuguese). Santa Marta: Fundación Herencia Ambiental Caribe, ProCAT, Colombia, The Sierra to Sea Institute. pp. 165–176.CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
- Janecka, J. E.; Tewes, M. E.; Laack, L.; Caso, A.; Grassman, L. I.; Honeycutt, R. L. & Castresana, J. (2014). "Loss of genetic diversity among ocelots in the United States during the 20th century linked to human induced population reductions". PLoS ONE. 9 (2): e89384. Bibcode:2014PLoSO...989384J. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0089384. PMC 3935880. PMID 24586737.
- Swanson, W.F. (2006). "Application of assisted reproduction for population management in felids: the potential and reality for conservation of small cats" (PDF). Theriogenology. 66 (1): 49–58. doi:10.1016/j.theriogenology.2006.03.024. PMID 16650889.
- Khan, K.; Mohammed, R. (2015). "Captive Ocelots at Trinidad's Emperor Valley Zoo: Retrospective and Suggested Management". Living World, Journal of the Trinidad and Tobago Field Naturalists' Club: 52–56.
- Nuttall, Z. (1904). A Penitential Rite of the Ancient Mexicans. Archaeological and Ethnological Papers of the Peabody Museum. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Peabody Museum of Archaeology and Ethnology. pp. 10, 18, 21, 23–26. OCLC 2991502.
- Stinner, M. "Care Sheet – Ocelot". Phoenix Exotic Wildlife Association. Retrieved 24 December 2019.
- De Burca, J. (2018). Salvador Dalí at Home. London: White Lion Publishing. p. 113. ISBN 978-0-7112-3943-2.
- Woodward, D. (2013-01-23). "Salvador Dalí's ocelot". Another Magazine. Retrieved 20 December 2019.
- "11 surreal facts about Salvador Dalí". The Telegraph. Retrieved 20 December 2019.
- McNamee, T. (2013). The Man who Changed the Way we Eat: Craig Claiborne and the American Food Renaissance (First ed.). New York: Simon & Schuster. p. 142. ISBN 978-1-4516-9844-2.
- Twomey, B. (2015). "Met opera's Lily Pons leaves pet at Bronx Zoo". Bronx Times-Reporter p. 48.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Leopardus pardalis.|
|Wikispecies has information related to Leopardus pardalis|
|Look up ocelot in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.|
- "Ocelot". IUCN / SSC Cat Specialist Group.
- "Leopardus pardalis". CITES.
- "Leopardus pardalis". Integrated Taxonomic Information System.
- "Ocelot". National Geographic Society. 2010-11-11.
- "Leopardus ID: ocelot, margay, oncilla". International Society for Endangered Cats (ISEC) Canada. Retrieved 24 December 2019.
- "Ocelot". Buffalo Zoo. Retrieved 24 December 2019.