Octagonal number

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An octagonal number is a figurate number that represents an octagon. The octagonal number for n is given by the formula 3n2 - 2n, with n > 0. The first few octagonal numbers are:

1, 8, 21, 40, 65, 96, 133, 176, 225, 280, 341, 408, 481, 560, 645, 736, 833, 936 (sequence A000567 in OEIS)

Octagonal numbers can be formed by placing triangular numbers on the four sides of a square. To put it algebraically, the n-th octagonal number is

x_n=n^2 + 4\sum_{k = 1}^{n - 1} k = 3n^2-2n.

The octagonal number for n can also be calculated by adding the square of n to twice the (n - 1)th pronic number.

Octagonal numbers consistently alternate parity.

Octagonal numbers are occasionally referred to as "star numbers," though that term is more commonly used to refer to centered dodecagonal numbers.[1]

Test for octagonal numbers[edit]

Solving the formula for the n-th octagonal number, x_n, for n gives

n= \frac{\sqrt{3x_n+1}+1}{3}.

An arbitrary number x can be checked for octagonality by putting it in this equation. If n is an integer, then x is the n-th octagonal number. If n is not an integer, then x is not octagonal.

See also[edit]


  1. ^ Deza, Elena; Deza, Michel (2012), Figurate Numbers, World Scientific, p. 57, ISBN 9789814355483 .