October 1900

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October 1, 1900: 25-year old Winston Churchill elected to House of Commons

The following events occurred in October 1900:

October 1, 1900 (Monday)[edit]

October 2, 1900 (Tuesday)[edit]

October 3, 1900 (Wednesday)[edit]

  • Apolinario Mabini, who had been the first Prime Minister of the First Philippine Republic during its temporary independence from Spain, was briefly released from prison by American authorities despite his refusal to take an oath of allegiance to the United States. After continuing his criticism of the American territorial administration and of Filipino collaborators, Mabini would be re-arrested, and deported to Guam. [7]
  • The Dream of Gerontius, written by Edward Elgar, was first performed in Birmingham, England. With less than two weeks of rehearsal, the debut under the direction of Hans Richter was a disaster. One observer noted that the concert "seemed to continue for an eternity ... it was evident that the chorus did not know the parts they were trying to sing ... The whole thing was a nightmare." [8]
  • Born: Thomas Wolfe, American novelist, in Asheville, North Carolina (d. 1938)

October 4, 1900 (Thursday)[edit]

  • U.S. Democratic presidential candidate William Jennings Bryan denounced the administration of President William McKinley for permitting slavery to exist in American territory. "We fought then", said Bryan of the Civil War, "for the adoption of a constitutional amendment that provided that no man could own a slave, and yet before the Philippine war is ended we have the Sulu treaty, which recognizes slavery." [9]
  • Died: Charles Alexander Mentry, founder in 1876 of the town of Mentryville, California, was stung by a bee and died at the age of 54. Without him, the Los Angeles County town steadily declined in population and was abandoned by the 1930s, with the exception of Mentry's house.[10]
  • Born: Trinidad Roxas, First Lady Of The Philippines (d. 1995)

October 5, 1900 (Friday)[edit]

October 6, 1900 (Saturday)[edit]

  • The Orange Free State was declared to be annexed to the British Empire as the Orange River Colony.
  • On the Principle of Homotyposis and Its Relation to Heredity was submitted by Karl Pearson to the Royal Society, advancing his theory of heredity.[12]
  • The Brooklyn Superbas clinched the championship of baseball and the National League pennant with an 8–6 win over Philadelphia, as the second place Pittsburgh Pirates lost 4–3 at St. Louis. With three games left, Brooklyn could finish no worse than 81-55 (.595) and Pittsburg, with 7 games left, could finish no better than 81-58 (.582)[13]
  • Phi Mu Alpha, "the professional fraternity for men in music", was founded in New York.[14]
  • In China, revolution broke out in Huizhou, in the Guangdong Province, after Sun Yat-sen called on the Revive China Society (Xingzhonghui) to begin an insurrection. Several hundred men, under the command of Zheng Shilian, began the attack on government offices in Shenzhoutian, and the revolt spread to Shawan and Zhenlong. The rebels were defeated by October 23.[15]
  • Born: Stan Nichols, English cricketer famed as all-rounder, at Newark-on-Trent (d. 1961)

October 7, 1900 (Sunday)[edit]

  • Max Planck hosted fellow physicist Heinrich Rubens for tea, and considered news that Rubens' experiments had contradicted Planck's theories. Later that evening, Planck reviewed his calculations and refined them to what would be announced, on October 19, as Planck's law or the radiation distribution function.[16]
  • Born:Heinrich Himmler, German Reichsführer-SS, in Munich (committed suicide following arrest, 1945)

October 8, 1900 (Monday)[edit]

October 9, 1900 (Tuesday)[edit]

  • The Paris Aero Club sponsored the Gran Prix of ballooning, with six balloons lifting off at 5:20 pm from Vincennes to fly east toward Russia. Count Henri de la Vaulx and Count de Castillen de Saint-Victor, flying the Centaure, arrived in the Ukrainian city of Korostyshiv, 33​34 hours later after flying 1,153 miles to win the race.[18]
  • The entire city Paris was awarded France's Legion of Honor, joining such towns as Chalon-sur-Saône, Tournus and St. Jean de Losne.[19]
  • An earthquake of 8.3 magnitude occurred off the coast of Alaska, but caused no significant damage.[20]

October 10, 1900 (Wednesday)[edit]

  • The Wright Glider No. 1 was wrecked after the Wright Brothers put it through its third test. The glider was tethered to a wooden derrick and controlled with various cables, but a 30-mile per hour gust tore the apparatus. After the crash, the Wrights abandoned the derrick as unsafe and, eight days later, flew on the rebuilt glider without restraints, a giant step forward in manned flight.[21]
  • Born: Helen Hayes, American actress, in Washington, D.C. (d. 1993).

October 11, 1900 (Thursday)[edit]

October 12, 1900 (Friday)[edit]

October 13, 1900 (Saturday)[edit]

  • Major General Leonard Wood, U.S. Military Governor of Cuba, met with Major Walter Reed in Havana and gave the authorization for further funding of experiments to establish that yellow fever was spread by the mosquito Aedes aegypti. One author has described this as "one of the most important meetings in the history of medicine".[25]

October 14, 1900 (Sunday)[edit]

  • In Chicago, Ban Johnson of baseball's American League announced that the 8-team circuit was going to challenge the established National League. Franchises in Indianapolis and Kansas City were replaced by Baltimore and Washington, and the Minneapolis team would move into Philadelphia. The AL's other teams were in Boston, Chicago, Cleveland, Detroit and Milwaukee. The Baltimore and Milwaukee teams would soon move into New York and St. Louis, while the AL began raiding the NL rosters.[26]
  • Born: W. Edwards Deming, the "Father of Quality Management", in Sioux City, Iowa (d. 1993)

October 15, 1900 (Monday)[edit]

  • Symphony Hall, the first building designed by an acoustical engineer (Wallace Clement Sabine), opened in Boston.[27]
  • Questionnaires were sent to every physician in Germany in the first attempt to make a study on the prevalence of cancer.[28]
  • Mark Twain returned to the United States after almost ten years living abroad in Europe.[29]
  • Alexander McKenzie, operator of the Alaska Gold Mining Company, was arrested by U.S. marshals. McKenzie, a North Dakota politician who had arrived on July 19, had secured the appointment of a federal judge in hopes of having exclusive control of the gold fields, just long enough to make a fortune.[30]
  • Born: Mervyn LeRoy, award-winning film director, in San Francisco (d. 1987)

October 16, 1900 (Tuesday)[edit]

  • Britain and Germany signed an agreement in London, providing that they would oppose the partition of China into spheres of influence. The "Yangtze Agreement", signed by Lord Salisbury and Ambassador Hatzfeldt, was an endorsement of the Open Door Policy proposed by the United States for free trade in China.[31]
  • Pierre Giffard founded L'Auto-Velo, later referred to simply as L'Auto, the first daily publication devoted exclusively to automobiles and cycling.[32]
  • Queen Wilhelmina of the Netherlands announced her engagement to Duke Hendrik of Mecklenburg-Schwerin. They were married on February 7, 1901, and Prince Hendrik served as consort until his death in 1934.[33]
  • Born: Edward Ardizzone, painter, printmaker and author, in Haiphong (d. 1979)

October 17, 1900 (Wednesday)[edit]

  • Bernhard von Bülow became the fourth Chancellor of the German Empire, after his appointment by Kaiser Wilhelm I. The former Foreign Secretary succeeded Prince Chlodwig Hohenlohe, who resigned because of his age (81) and health. Hohenlohe would die on July 6, 1901.[34]
  • The anthracite coal miners strike in Pennsylvania ended after one month, with the companies agreeing to a 10 percent raise for all miners.[35]

October 18, 1900 (Thursday)[edit]

  • The Wright Brothers began their first untethered glider flights at Kitty Hawk, after concluding that restraining the glider with cables had hindered their research on controlled flight. In six days of untethered tests, ending on October 23, Wilbur and Orville perfected control of unpowered flight.[36]
  • The Brooklyn Superbas (later the Brooklyn Dodgers) won the only Chronicle-Telegraph Cup, beating the Pittsburgh Pirates 6 to 1 to win Game Four of the best-of-five series. Brooklyn had clinched the National League pennant, and Pittsburgh finished in second place, and the Pittsburgh Chronicle Telegraph sponsored a post-season series. All of the games were played in Exposition Park in Pittsburgh.

October 19, 1900 (Friday)[edit]

  • Max Planck presented, to the Physical Society of Berlin, what is now called Planck's law of blackbody radiation,[37] described as "a discovery that opened the way to the development of the quantum theory and provided the initial formulation for that theory".[38]

October 20, 1900 (Saturday)[edit]

  • Itō Hirobumi became Prime Minister of Japan for the fourth and final time, taking over from Yamagata Aritomo. Ito, who had been Japan's first Prime Minister from 1885 to 1888, served until May 10, 1901.[39]
  • Born: Wayne Morse, United States Senator from Oregon from 1945 to 1969, one of the first opponents in Congress of the Vietnam War; in Madison, Wisconsin (d. 1974)

October 21, 1900 (Sunday)[edit]

  • Captain George W. Biegler, commanding a force of 19 men, defeated 300 Filipino insurgents in battle at Loac, and was later awarded the Medal of Honor for bravery.

October 22, 1900 (Monday)[edit]

October 23, 1900 (Tuesday)[edit]

  • Cornelius L. Alvord, Jr., was revealed to have been the perpetrator of the largest bank robbery, up to that time, in American history. Alvord, a teller at the First National Bank of New York (now part of Citibank) had embezzled more than $700,000 from the bank over a period of six years. By contrast, Butch Cassidy's largest bank robbery, committed the month before, netted less than $33,000. Alvord, one of the great white collar criminals of his day, was arrested six days later in Boston.[42] He served eight years in Sing Sing prison and died on September 10, 1912, in Stockport, New York.[43]

October 24, 1900 (Wednesday)[edit]

October 25, 1900 (Thursday)[edit]

  • The Chosen dynasty renamed the Korean peninsula as the Empire of Korea (Taehan Cheguk), by imperial proclamation.[46]
  • The Transvaal Colony was annexed to Britain.[47]

October 26, 1900 (Friday)[edit]

  • Two months after fleeing from Beijing to Xian, the Empress Cixi re-established the Imperial Court to rule China.[48]

October 27, 1900 (Saturday)[edit]

  • Jimmy Governor, Australian mass murderer, was captured after a three-month manhunt. His brother and partner in crime, Joe Governor, was killed while trying to elude capture on October 31. Jimmy, who had murdered nine people (including four children) was hanged in 1901.[49]
  • The vaudeville team of Joe and Myra Keaton was appearing at a matinee show at the Wonderland Theater in Wilmington, Delaware, when they decided to bring their five-year-old son on stage. Joseph Frank Keaton, nicknamed "Buster", was instructed to simply sit at the side and stare at this parents, and the theater manager, William Dockstader, told the parents that the child had been a distraction to the act. Days later, however, Dockstader allowed the child to appear in the Keaton family show because there would be children in the audience. This time, Joe made Buster Keaton part of continuing comedy sketches about a mischievous child and an exasperated father, and the child began a career of making theater (and, later, film) audiences laugh. [50]

October 28, 1900 (Sunday)[edit]

  • Queen Victoria issued the Letters Patent to create the Office of Governor-General of Australia as well as Instructions to our Governor-General.[51]
  • The last event of the 1900 Paris Olympics took place. In the gold medal game of the Olympic rugby competition, France beat Britain 27–8.

October 29, 1900 (Monday)[edit]

  • An explosion at the Tarrant & Company pharmaceutical warehouse destroyed two city blocks in New York, killing 38 people and injuring more than 200. At about 12:45 pm, thirty minutes after a fire began on the upper floors, a blast that leveled the seven-story building at 275 Washington Street, and destroyed eight surrounding stores.[52]

October 30, 1900 (Tuesday)[edit]

  • "76,295,220": William R. Merriam released the results of the 1900 United States Census. There were 74,627,907 in the forty-five states, and another 1,667,313 in the Territories, the District of Columbia, and stationed overseas. An additional 134,158 American Indians were not included in the total. Mr. Merriam added, "The figures of the population are the result of a careful computation by means of the latest tabulating machines.[53]
  • Born: Ragnar Granit, Finnish neuroscientist, recipient of the 1967 Nobel Prize in Medicine, in Vantaa; (d. 1991)

October 31, 1900 (Wednesday)[edit]


  1. ^ Stuart Ball, Winston Churchill (NYU Press, 2003), pp21–22
  2. ^ The Statistician and Economist (1901–1902) (L.P. McCarty, 1902), p381
  3. ^ "Helen Keller At Radcliffe"
  4. ^ Venus Green, Race on the Line: Gender, Labor and Technology in the Bell System, 1880–1980 (Duke University Press, 2001), p276
  5. ^ The City of Detroit, Michigan, 1701–1922 (S.J. Clarke Publishing Company, 1922), pp819–820
  6. ^ Clayton Edwards, A Treasury of Heroes and Heroines: A Record of High Endeavour and Strange Adventure, from 500 B.C. to 1920 A.D. (Frederick A. Stokes Company, 1920), pp278–281
  7. ^ Benedict Anderson, Under Three Flags: Anarchism and the Anti-colonial Imagination (Verso, 2005) pp224
  8. ^ Jerrold Northrop Moore, Edward Elgar: A Creative Life (Oxford University Press, 1999), pp.330–331
  9. ^ Michael Salman, The Embarrassment of Slavery: Controversies Over Bondage and Nationalism in the American Colonial Philippines (University of California Press, 2001), pp46–47
  10. ^ "The Story of Mentryville"
  11. ^ R. Floyd Clarke, "A Permanent Tribunal of International Arbitration: Its Necessity and Value", The American Journal of International Law (April 1907) pp382–88
  12. ^ William B. Provine, The Origins of Theoretical Population Genetics (University of Chicago Press, 2001), pp58–59
  13. ^ "End of a Losing Season", Chicago Tribune, October 7, 1900, p19
  14. ^ http://www.zetapsichapter.org/zeta_psi_website_003.htm
  15. ^ Marie-Claire Bergère, Sun Yat-sen (translated by Janet Lloyd, Stanford University Press, 2000), pp 93–95
  16. ^ Edward G. Steward, Quantum Mechanics: Its Early Development and the Road to Entanglement (Imperial College Press, 2008), pp36–42
  17. ^ Richard Gilson, The Cook Islands, 1820–1950 (Victoria University Press) pp103–104
  18. ^ "From France to Russia By Balloon", American Monthly Review of Reviews (May 1901), pp609–611
  19. ^ Embassy of France in Washington
  20. ^ "Historic Earthquakes" USGS
  21. ^ Fred Howard, Wilbur and Orville: A Biography of the Wright Brothers (Courier Dover Publications, 1998), p50
  22. ^ http://www.cctv.com/english/TouchChina/China20th/20020510/100069.html
  23. ^ "Names for Hall of Fame", New York Times, October 13, 1900, p7
  24. ^ Robert McKenna, The Dictionary of Nautical Literacy (McGraw-Hill Professional, 2003), p163
  25. ^ Stephen L. Ossad, "The Frustrations of Leonard Wood", ARMY Magazine (September 2003)
  26. ^ Glenn Stout and Richard A. Johnson, Red Sox Century: The Definitive History of Baseball's Most Storied Franchise (Houghton Mifflin Harcourt, 2005), pp6–7
  27. ^ Bryan H. Bunch, The History of Science and Technology: A Browser's Guide to the Great Discoveries, Inventions, and the People who Made Them, from the Dawn of Time to Today (Houghton Mifflin Harcourt, 2004), p450; [1]
  28. ^ Isabel dos Santos Silva, Cancer Epidemiology: Principles and Methods (IARC, 1999), p386
  29. ^ Everett H. Emerson, Mark Twain: A Literary Life (University of Pennsylvania Press, 2000), p255
  30. ^ http://www.jsu.edu/depart/english/robins/alask/ercapnom.htm
  31. ^ "Yangtze Agreement", Historical Dictionary of the British Empire (Greenwood Publishing Group, 1996), pp1176
  32. ^ Stephen L. Harp, Marketing Michelin: Advertising & Cultural Identity in Twentieth-century France (JHU Press, 2001), p20
  33. ^ "Diary For October", The Review of Reviews, November 15, 1900, p430
  34. ^ Stanley Shaw, William of Germany (BiblioBazaar, LLC, 2007), pp166–167
  35. ^ "Diary For October", The Review of Reviews, November 15, 1900, p430
  36. ^ Alan Axelrod, Profiles in Audacity: Great Decisions and How They Were Made (Sterling Publishing Company, 2006), pp100–101
  37. ^ Edward Uhler Condon and Halis Odabasi, Atomic Structure (CUP Archive, 1980), p16
  38. ^ Pat Langley, et al., Scientific Discovery: Computational Explorations of the Creative Processes (MIT Press, 1987), p47
  39. ^ "Diary For October", The Review of Reviews, November 15, 1900, p430
  40. ^ Edward S. Mihalkanin, American statesmen: Secretaries of State From John Jay to Colin Powell (Greenwood Publishing Group, 2004), p470
  41. ^ Edward S. Mihalkanin, American statesmen: Secretaries of State From John Jay to Colin Powell (Greenwood Publishing Group, 2004), p484
  42. ^ "Note Teller Steals $700,000 From Bank", New York Times, October 24, 1900, p1
  43. ^ "Cornelius Lansing Alvord, Jr., Is Dead", The Syracuse Herald, September 11, 1912, p11
  44. ^ W. D. Rubinstein, Twentieth-Century Britain: A Political History (Macmillan, 2003), pp7–9
  45. ^ Harold E. Raugh, "Buller, Redvers", The Victorians at War, 1815–1914: An Encyclopedia of British Military History (ABC-CLIO, 2004), p64
  46. ^ "Korea-Japan Relations: The Dokdo Issue From the Korean Perspective", by LIM Tai Wei
  47. ^ Grant, Neil (1993). Chronicle of 20th Century Conflict. New York City, New York: Reed International Books Ltd. & SMITHMARK Publishers Inc. pp. 18–19. ISBN 0-8317-1371-2.
  48. ^ Bruce A. Elleman, Modern Chinese Warfare, 1795–1989 (Routledge, 2001), p135
  49. ^ Toby Creswell and Samantha Trenoweth, 1001 Australians You Should Know (Pluto Press Australia, 2006), p199
  50. ^ Marion Meade, Buster Keaton: Cut to the Chase (Open Road Media, 2014)
  51. ^ William Harrison Moore, The Constitution of the Commonwealth of Australia (G. Partridge & Co., 1902), pp368–373; UPP Australia website
  52. ^ "Death and Havoc Follow Explosion", New York Times, October 30, 1900, p1
  53. ^ "Population is 76,296,220", New York Times, October 31, 1900, p3
  54. ^ Lord Rodger of Earlsferry, The Courts, the Church and the Constitution: Aspects of the Disruption of 1843 (Edinburgh University Press, 2008), p98