October 1901

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October 23, 1901: U.S. General Smith orders Philippine civilian massacre
October 19, 1901: Santos-Dumont wins the 100,000 francs Deutsch Prize
October 16, 1901: Racists outraged after Negro dines at the White House
October 10, 1901: Henry Ford wins history-changing race

The following events occurred in October 1901:

October 1, 1901 (Tuesday)[edit]

Rudyard Kipling
  • Rudyard Kipling's novel Kim, about the life of Irish orphan Kimball O'Hara in British India, was published as a book for the first time and soon became a bestseller. The story had first been printed in monthly installments as a serial in the United States in McClure's Magazine, running from December 1900 to the October 1901 issue, and in the United Kingdom in Cassell's Magazine starting in January 1901. The Macmillan & Co. book in Britain was sold for six shillings a copy.[1] and by Doubleday, Page & Co. in the United States [2]
  • Voters in Connecticut voted overwhelmingly (47,317 to 26,745) to write a new state constitution to replace the one promulgated in 1818. A convention would be held in 1902 and a revised constitution would be drawn, which voters would reject even more overwhelmingly, by a more than 2 to 1 margin (10,377 for and 21,234 against).[3]
  • Born: Partap Singh Kairon, India politician and Chief Minister of the Punjab from 1956 to 1964 (assassinated 1965)

October 2, 1901 (Wednesday)[edit]

HMS Holland 1

October 3, 1901 (Thursday)[edit]

New King Habiibullah Khan
The last "Iron Emir"

October 4, 1901 (Friday)[edit]

  • The American yacht Columbia, owned by American financier J. P. Morgan of the New York Yacht Club and skippered by Charlie Barr, defeated the British yacht Shamrock II, owned by tea magnate Sir Thomas Lipton, in the third of the best-3-of-5 race series to retain the United States' hold of the America's Cup; Shamrock II actually crossed the finish line two seconds ahead of Columbia but, because of the Yacht Racing Association rules that calculated a 43-second time allowance to the Columbia based on the size of both yachts' sails, Columbia was declared the winner by 41 seconds.[13]
  • Born:

October 5, 1901 (Saturday)[edit]

October 6, 1901 (Sunday)[edit]

  • Tzu Hsi, the Empress Dowager of China, began her return to the national capital, departing Xi'an toward the Zhengding to Beijing railway, accompanied by a party of thousands of Imperial officers. Journalist George Ernest Morrison would note that in the journey to reach the train, "the Imperial party traveled in yellows sedan chairs, escorted by a huge bodyguard of cavalry, an enormous suite of officials, eunuchs, servants, and a baggage-train of some 3,000 gaily flagged and caparisoned carts." [15]

October 7, 1901 (Monday)[edit]

October 8, 1901 (Tuesday)[edit]

Patriarch Joachim III

October 9, 1901 (Wednesday)[edit]

Lord Milner

October 10, 1901 (Thursday)[edit]

Alexander Winton
  • Two automobile manufacturers, Alexander Winton of Cleveland and Henry Ford of Detroit, competed against each other at a track in Grosse Pointe, Michigan, in a race that "would set the future of American automobile and tire sales", according to one historian.[24] The meeting at the Grosse Pointe horse racing track, attracted various drivers, but Ford and Winton were the only two who felt that their cars could go the distance in the third and most important race, the $1,000 ten lap, "ten-mile sweepstakes event". The Winton Motor Carriage Company auto was the 40-horsepower Bullet, and Winton was the most successful of race car driver in America. Ford had never raced a car before, and was using the smaller, 26-horsepower Detroit Automobile Company vehicle, but he had one feature in his design, "a spark coil wrapped in a porcelain insulating case fashioned by a dentist",[25] an early version of the spark plug. Heavily favored to win, Winton took the early lead, and was one-fifth of a mile ahead after three miles, particularly because he was on the inside and better at rounding curves and Ford often "shut off power and ran wide on each curve" [26] Ford, however, gradually closed the gap on the straightaways and was catching up by sixth lap. Winton, on the other hand, began to have trouble as the ball bearings in his engine were overheating. After seven miles, Ford passed Winton on the eighth lap, and won with an average speed of 43.5 miles per hour. The upset win not only brought Ford (who would never race again) nationwide fame, but also attracted Detroit investors who wanted to form a new corporation, which would be named the "Henry Ford Company" to capitalize on Ford's celebrity. Despite the loss to Ford, Winton won most of the headlines, because he had broken the world record for the fastest speed to drive a mile, setting a new mark of one minute, 12.4 seconds and an average speed of 49.72 miles per hour.[27]
  • Thousands of spectators in Toronto heard the song O Canada for the first time in their lives, as the band of The Royal Canadian Regiment played the music while troops marched past the visiting Duke of York. O Canada, which would become the Canadian national anthem, had been performed in Quebec since 1880, but had rarely been heard outside of the province because there was no English translation to the French words. Augustus Vogt, the conductor of the Toronto Mendelssohn Choir, was among the listeners and requested Dr. Thomas Bedford Richardson to compose an English language version.[28][29]
  • Laurent Tailhade, editor of the French anarchist newspaper Libertaire, was sentenced to a year's imprisonment and fined 1,000 French francs as punishment for his "incendiary" comments made during the Russian Tsar's visit to France.[30]
  • General Redvers Buller of the British Army said in a speech that he had recommended the surrender of the fortress of Ladysmith during the Second Boer War, making remarks that would lead to his censure and removal from command.[31][32]
  • Born:
  • Died: Lorenzo Snow, 87, President of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints since 1898

October 11, 1901 (Friday)[edit]

  • Bert Williams and George Walker "became the first African-American recording artists" [33] when they sang together for the first of 28 phonograph records under a contract for the Victor Talking Machine Company, including two songs from their popular vaudeville show Sons of Ham— "The Phrenologist Coon" and "All Going Out and Nothing Coming In", as well as "I Don't Like That Face You Wear", "Good Morning, Carrie", "In My Castle on the River Nile", and "Where Was Moses When the Light Went Out?".[34]
  • The county seat of Baldwin County, Alabama was quietly transferred from Daphne, Alabama to Bay Minette, with the loading of courthouse records into wagons in the evening, and the driving of the wagons to the new courthouse the next day. Despite stories that courthouse records were taken in a "raid", prior arrangements were made between the two towns and the operation was carried out without incident.[35]
  • Born: Colonel Masanobu Tsuji, Japanese Imperial Army officer notable for atrocities committed during World War II, including the Bataan Death March of 1942; in the Ishikawa Prefecture. Colonel Tsuji evaded prosecution for war crimes, and became a best-selling author after Allied prosecutions were dropped in 1950, but disappeared during a trip to Laos in 1961

October 12, 1901 (Saturday)[edit]

October 13, 1901 (Sunday)[edit]

  • Count Henri de la Vaulx of France, winner of the previous year's Gran Prix of Ballooning, departed Les Sablettes, near Toulon, on his quest to sail a balloon south across the Mediterranean Sea to French Algeria, in hopes of winning a government defense contract for his experiment in "using balloons between France, Corsica and Algeria in time of war." De La Vauix, accompanied by three other men, took along 75 homing pigeons in order to regularly send back messages about his position over the Sea, and the first one arrived in the evening, bearing a note that said that his airship had made it 50 miles off out to sea by noon, at an altitude of forty feet.[36] After 42 hours, he ran into a storm and was near Port-Vendres when he signaled the French cruiser Du Chayla to bring the crew on board.[37]
  • Born:
    • Edith S. Sampson, American lawyer and circuit judge, who, in 1950, became the first African-American delegate to the United Nations; as Edith Spurlock in Pittsburgh (d. 1979)
    • Albert M. Cole, U.S. Representative for Kansas and Administrator of the U.S. Housing and Home Finance Agency 1953–1959; in Moberly, Missouri (d. 1994)

October 14, 1901 (Monday)[edit]

  • Leonard Wood, the American Military Governor of Cuba, issued an order declaring that December 31, 1901 would be a legal holiday and that elections for the representatives, provincial and departmental governors, and provincial assemblies would be elected. Under the Cuban Constitution, approved by the United States, there would be no direct election of the President, Vice-President or Senators, but voting would be held instead for local electors to an Electoral College.[38]
  • The daily newspaper, the Houston Chronicle published its first edition.[39]
  • The Discovery Expedition to Antarctica, led by Robert Falcon Scott, began the second leg of its journey as RRS Discovery departed from Cape Town, South Africa, toward New Zealand.[40]
  • American promoter Flo Ziegfeld presented his first Broadway play, The Little Duchess, to showcase his common law wife, Anna Held. The play opened at the Casino Theatre in New York and ran for 136 performances.[41]
  • The town of Mackay, Idaho was incorporated.[42]

October 15, 1901 (Tuesday)[edit]

  • Soprano Geraldine Farrar made her operatic debut, as Marguerite in the Berlin production of Charles Gounod's Faust.[43]
  • Nearly five years after he had served as President of the United States, Grover Cleveland came out of retirement to begin service as a member of the Board of Trustees of Princeton University.[44]
  • Henry Lee Higginson, one of the trustees of Harvard University, opened the Harvard Union, one of the first student unions in the United States, for the purpose of creating an inexpensive and democratic alternative to the university clubs that existed on the campus. Initially, the Harvard Union charged an annual membership fee of five dollars, which, as the New York Times would note later, "the great majority of Harvard students can easily afford." At the dedication, Higginson, who had donated the money to construct the Union's building, said, "Like the Arabs, nail open your doors and offer freely to all comers the salt of hospitality." [45]
  • One of the more unusual deaths of a football player during a game happened at Fairmount Park in West Philadelphia in Pennsylvania. David Wark, aged 20, was playing a game involving "two scrub teams" when a punted football lodged in the globe of an electric streetlight. As players lowered the arm of the street lamp, Wark grasped the wet football and was electrocuted.[46]
  • Born: Hermann Abs, German banker who was on the Board of Directors of Deutsche Bank of other German corporations during the Nazi era, and who managed the German economic recovery after World War II, including the rebuilding of Deutsche Bank, for whom he served as Chairman of the Board from 1957 to 1967; in Bonn (d. 1994)
  • Died: Carlos María Fitz-James Stuart, 16th Duke of Alba, 51, Spanish nobleman described as "the leader of Spanish society", suffered a fatal heart attack at his hotel in New York, after having arrived four weeks earlier to watch the America's Cup on board Sir Thomas Lipton's yacht, the Shamrock II. The Duke, who was said to have the largest tract of private property in Spain, had finished hosting a party when he was stricken.[47]

October 16, 1901 (Wednesday)[edit]

  • U.S. President Theodore Roosevelt hosted African American leader and Tuskegee Institute President Booker T. Washington at a private dinner at the White House. "Colored men have been received at receptions and state affairs for many years," the Chicago Tribune observed the next day, "but President Roosevelt is the first to give a private invitation to a negro. Diplomatically and at all state functions no distinction is drawn as to races." [48] Other newspaper publishers and members of Congress, particularly those from the American South, would harshly criticize Roosevelt for having a black person as the sole guest to have the honor to join him, his wife and four children for dinner in his home.[49][50][51] Roosevelt did not invite Washington back during the remaining seven years of his term.[52]
  • The Swedish Antarctic Expedition, led by Professor Otto Nordenskjöld of the University of Uppsala, departed from Gothenburg on the ship Antarctic, captained by Carl Anton Larsen.[53]
  • Police in Italy confirmed that they had captured outlaw Giuseppe Andrea Mussolino, after two years of searching. Mussolino, suspected in at least 25 murders, was captured near Urbino by police who initially were unaware of his identity.[54] Mussolino had escaped from prison in 1899 while serving a 21-year sentence, and then set about to get revenge on everyone who had caused his conviction, killing the trial judge, jurors and prosecution witnesses. On June 1, 1902, he would be sentenced to life imprisonment.[55]
  • French inventor Jean-Luc Krieger set a new world record for greatest distance driven by an electric car without recharging the battery, traveling 307 kilometres (191 mi) from Paris to Châtellerault.[56]
  • Ten of the 46 members of Company E of the Ninth U.S. Infantry were killed, and six wounded, on the Philippine island of Samar by 500 men wielding bolo knives. The Americans were better prepared than Company C had been in the September 28 attack.[57]

October 17, 1901 (Thursday)[edit]

"The Executive Mansion" officially renamed
  • The office of President Roosevelt confirmed that his residence would now officially be referred to as "The White House", which would be printed on all stationery and invitations in place of the previous official name "The Executive Mansion". According to the press report, Roosevelt "readily admitted that he had ordered the change" because "there were 45 executive mansions in the different states of the United States and there was but one White House." [58][59]
  • Joseph F. Smith was ordained as the 6th President of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (LDS Church) one week after the death of President Lorenzo Snow, and would serve for 17 years until his death in 1918.[60]
  • The editor of Neues Leben, a German anarchist newspaper, was sentenced to four months imprisonment after publishing an article expressing his approval of the assassination of U.S. President McKinley.[61]
  • Born:
  • Died:

October 18, 1901 (Friday)[edit]

October 19, 1901 (Saturday)[edit]

  • Brazilian aviator Alberto Santos-Dumont made his third attempt to win the Deutsch Prize of 100,000 French francs, to be awarded to the first person who could successfully fly an airship from the Parc de Saint-Cloud to Paris, circle the Eiffel Tower three times, and return to his starting point within 30 minutes. Piloting his dirigible Airship No. 6, he flew the 12 mile distance to the tower in nine minutes and circled three times, then experienced engine failure on the way back. As thousands of people watched, Santos-Dumont crawled across the dirigible's keel without a safety harness, restarted the engine, and returned, then flew the rest of the way back to his starting point. Aéro-Club de France officials at first tried to deny him the award on the grounds that he had taken 30 minutes and 40 seconds to complete the trip,[64] and after a public outcry (including from Henri Deutsch de la Meurthe himself), relented.[65][66][67] Santos-Dumont endeared himself to the world by donating half of his prize to charity, and distributing the rest between his assistant and his crew.[68]
  • Former U.S. Army Lt. Colonel Alexander O. Brodie, who had been commanded by Colonel Theodore Roosevelt as one of the Rough Riders during the Spanish–American War, was appointed by President Roosevelt as the new Territorial Governor of Arizona.[69]
  • Born:
  • Died:
    • Carl Frederik Tietgen, 72, Danish financier and industrialist who founded Denmark's telegraph company (Store Nordiske Telegraf-Selskab), the telephone company KTAB (Kjøbenhavns Telefon Aktieselskab), the food conglomerate Danisco, the Thingvalla Line and DFDS shipping companies, and the Tuborg Brewery.
    • U.S. Navy Rear Admiral Francis M. Bruce, 64, pioneering naval tactician

October 20, 1901 (Sunday)[edit]

  • Leonora Piper, who had attained international fame as a medium who could communicate with the dead through séance rituals, announced her retirement from the field in a two-and-a-half page article in the New York Herald under the headline "I Am No Telephone to the Spirit World". "I must truthfully say," she wrote to disappointed believers, "that I do not believe that spirits of the dead have spoken through me." Despite her confession, however, she quickly recanted [70] people continued to approach her and she would conduct séances for most of her remaining years, dying in 1950.[71]
  • Born: Adelaide Hall, American jazz singer and entertainer born in Brooklyn, New York (died 1993)

October 21, 1901 (Monday)[edit]

October 22, 1901 (Tuesday)[edit]

General Buller, fired
  • Redvers Buller was relieved of command of the British Army's First Army Corps at Aldershot, as a consequence of his October 10 speech at Westminster, and forcibly retired on half pay. General John French was appointed to succeed Butler.[74][75][76]
  • British Army Lieutenants Harry "Breaker" Morant and Peter Handcock of the Bushveldt Carbineers were arrested for murdering eight Boer civilians and a German missionary and imprisoned while awaiting court martial.[77] Both would be found guilty in 1902 and hanged.
  • The Second International Conference of American States, informally known as the Pan-American Congress, opened in Mexico City with delegates from all of the nations of North, Central and South America.[78][79]
  • The French Chamber of Deputies failed to approve a bill that would have set a minimum wage for miners.[74]
  • The Dallas Public Library, created by the efforts of the Dallas Federation of Women's Clubs in Dallas, Texas, was inaugurated in a ceremony, with a mission of providing books to the city's white children.[80]
  • Born:
  • Died: Frederic Archer, 63, English-born American composer and organist

October 23, 1901 (Wednesday)[edit]

Brig. Gen. Smith
Prime Minister Kuyper
  • In the Philippines, Brigadier General Jacob H. Smith directed Major Littleton Waller of the U.S. Marines to lead a battalion of 300 men to take control of Samar Island, where the American occupation continued to be resisted. According to one historian, General Smith ordered Major Waller to turn Samar into "a howling wilderness" with directions "to kill everyone over ten" years old and to take no prisoners. "I wish you to kill and burn, and the more you kill and burn the better you will please me. I want all persons killed who are capable of bearing arms in actual hostilities against the United States." [81] Over the next three months, more than 50,000 Filipinos would be killed (the population of Samar reportedly "dropped from 312,192 to 257,125") until the surrender of resistance leader Vicente Lukban on February 22, 1902. Major Waller would deliver his first report, that he had burned 165 villages and settlements around Basey.[82]
  • Abraham Kuyper, who had headed the Dutch government since August, made a change in the operation of his cabinet meetings whereby, as one of his biographers would describe it, he "became the first prime minister of the Netherlands" [83] Although there had been a designated "first minister" among the Council of Ministers since the office had been created in 1848, Kuyper broke the tradition of having each of the Ministers rotate the duties of chairing for the cabinet meetings. Kuyper announced that, henceforward, the person given the task of forming the government would be the Chairman of the Council, although the alteration of duties would not be incorporated into the constitution until 1983.
  • Yale University celebrated the bicentennial of its founding, and conferred an honorary doctorate of law on U.S. President Theodore Roosevelt, and degrees to 64 other American and foreign dignitaries, including authors Mark Twain, Nathaniel Hawthorne, Thomas Nelson Page, poet Richard Watson Gilder, and political scientist (and future President) Woodrow Wilson.[84] Also honored were the Marquis Ito former Premier of Japan; aviation pioneer Samuel Pierpont Langley; U.S. Secretary of State John Hay; and U.S. Supreme Court Chief Justice Melville Fuller.[85]
  • Winston Churchill, a freshman British MP in the House of Commons, denounced Britain's involvement in the Boer War as "an unmitigated nuisance and a blunder" in a speech on the floor of Parliament.[86]
  • Died:

October 24, 1901 (Thursday)[edit]

First to survive the plunge

October 25, 1901 (Friday)[edit]

  • Nineteen people were killed in a fast moving fire in the business district on Market Street in downtown Philadelphia, and another 12 seriously burned. The blaze broke out in an eight-story building occupied by the Hunt & Wilkinson furniture and upholstery store, then spread to three neighboring buildings. Many of the victims jumped to their deaths when flames burst out on the fire escape below them. The flames apparently started in the basement at the bottom of a newly installed freight elevator shaft, and spread rapidly up the rest of the structure.[91]
  • The Amalgamated Copper Mining Company fired 8,000 employees in a single day as it curtailed production of mining operations.[74]
  • The ship Helen Miller Gould, described as "the first engine-powered schooner", was destroyed only 19 months after its launch when its gasoline engine caught fire at North Sydney, Nova Scotia and burned all the way down to the waterline.[92]

October 26, 1901 (Saturday)[edit]

  • The death of a five-year-old girl at City Hospital in St. Louis, Missouri was the first of 13 from a contaminated antitoxin distributed by that city's health department, and would lead to the U.S. Congress finally passing the first federal law to regulate medicines, and paved the way for the Pure Food and Drug Act of 1906. Specifically, the young victims had been given shots to treat diphtheria, but the tainted serum had given them tetanus and the new law, which would take effect on July 1, 1902, authorized the U.S. Public Health Service to inspect producers and test their medicines, as well as to require the first expiration dates to be placed on a health product.[93][94]
  • Della Moore, one of the partners in crime of Butch Cassidy's Wild Bunch and girlfriend of gangmember Harvey "Kid Curry" Logan, was arrested in Nashville, Tennessee, after she attempted to deposit thousands of dollars in cash at the Fourth National Bank of Nashville. The teller, suspicious about the stack of currency, consulted a list of serial numbers of stolen bills and confirmed that it the money was part of the $41,000 taken in a train robbery near Wagner, Montana on July 3 and called the city police and Moore, alias "Annie Rogers", was charged with receiving stolen property. She would be acquitted after a trial on June 18, 1902.[95]
  • Russia announced that it had reached an agreement with China on concessions in Manchuria.[74]
  • Died: William A. Holland, 87, American abolitionist

October 27, 1901 (Sunday)[edit]

  • Russia and Iran signed a commercial treaty reducing the tariff on the import of goods imported primarily from Russia (sugar and gasoline) and raising the tariffs on those from the United Kingdom (piece good fabrics) and British India (tea). The secret agreement would not be revealed until shortly before its effective date of February 14, 1903.[96]
  • Born:

October 28, 1901 (Monday)[edit]

  • The U.S. Court of Claims ruled that the states of Maine, New Hampshire, Pennsylvania and Rhode Island were entitled to be reimbursed by the U.S. Treasury Department for interest and expenses that had been made 50 years earlier to the federal government for troop equipment during the American Civil War.[74]
  • The largest and fastest cruiser in the world, HMS King Alfred, was launched by the Royal Navy from the shipyard at Barrow.[98]
  • Mississippi State University, then known as Mississippi A & M, won its first college football game and began a rivalry with the University of Mississippi, defeating "Ole Miss" 17–0.[99] Since 1928, the annual football game of the two teams has been for a trophy known as the "Egg Bowl".
  • Born: Hilo Hattie, native Hawaiian singer and actress, as Clarissa Haili, in Honolulu (d. 1979)
  • Died: Paul Rée, 52, German author, philosopher and confidant of Friedrich Nietzsche, was killed while hiking in the Swiss Alps near Celerina, when he slipped on ice and fell into the Charnadüra gorge

October 29, 1901 (Tuesday)[edit]

Czolgosz executed
  • Convicted presidential assassin Leon Czolgosz was strapped into the electric chair at the Auburn State Prison in Auburn, New York, at 7:00 in the morning, wearing "a neatly pressed suit, soft collar and black tie" [100] as well as dress shoes that he had polished "to a high gloss". Asked if he had any last words to say in the presence of witnesses, Czolgosz said, "I am not sorry for my crime," and then added, "I am awfully sorry that I could not see my father." According to one source, before the electric current was activated, Czolgosz said, "I shot the President and I did it because I thought it would benefit the poor people and for the name of the working people of all nations. I am not sorry for my crime. That is all I have to say.[101] A current of 1,700 volts was administered at 7:12, and Czolgosz was pronounced dead at 7:15.[102]
  • In Amherst, New Hampshire, nurse Jane Toppan was arrested for murdering the Davis family of Boston with overdoses of morphine.[103][104][105]
  • The train conveying the performers of Buffalo Bill's Wild West show was wrecked near Lexington, Virginia, while conveying the troupe from Charlotte, North Carolina to Danville, Virginia, for its last scheduled performance of the season.[106][107] Several of the Lakota Indian performers were killed, as well as 110 horses, and Annie Oakley was seriously injured, putting an end to her career as a talented sharpshooter. Oakley, whose story would be dramatized in the musical Annie Get Your Gun, would undergo five separate operations for her spinal injuries.[108][109]
  • Died: James McGarry, Irish-American saloon operator who was the inspiration for Finley Peter Dunne's character "Mr. Dooley" in Dunne's humorous newspaper column, "The Dooley Papers".[110]

October 30, 1901 (Wednesday)[edit]

First Nobel Prize winner
  • Dr. Emil von Behring was selected to become the very first recipient of the new Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine, as voted by the Nobel Committee members at Sweden's foremost college of medicine, the Karolinska Institutet. Dr. Behring had discovered the antitoxin to cure the disease of diphtheria, and then applied the same principles of blood serum isolation to create a cure for tetanus.[111]
  • In the Battle of Bakenlaagte, Eastern Transvaal Boer Commandos, led by General Louis Botha overwhelmed the British Army No. 3 Flying Column, led by Lieutenant Colonel George Elliot Benson. Under Benson's leadership, the No. 3 column had specialized in night raids against the Commandos. In a rearguard attack, 66 of the British Army were killed (including Lt. Col. Benson), 165 wounded, and 120 taken prisoner.[112] One of the newer techniques employed by the Boers was to ride horses toward the enemy, then "dismounting at close rifle range" to spring the attack.[113]

October 31, 1901 (Thursday)[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Peter Hopkirk, Quest for Kim: In Search of Kipling's Great Game (University of Michigan Press, 1999) p. 27
  2. ^ Jonkers Rare Books: Kim
  3. ^ Register and Manual – State of Connecticut (Peiper Press, 1940)
  4. ^ Richard Compton-Hall, The Submarine Pioneers: The Beginnings of Underwater Warfare (Periscope Publishing, 1983) p. 115
  5. ^ "Royal Navy launches 1st submarine", Information-Britain.co.uk
  6. ^ a b c d The American Monthly Review of Reviews (November 1901) pp. 535–538
  7. ^ "Colonialism, Conflict and Cultural Identity in the Philippines", by Volker Schult, in Nationalism and Cultural Revival in Southeast Asia: Perspectives from the Centre and the Region (Otto Harrassowitz Verlag, 1997) p. 248
  8. ^ "Afghan Specter Alarms England— Death of the Ameer Revives Old Fear of Russian Intrigue in the Buffer State", Chicago Daily Tribune, October 4, 1901, p1
  9. ^ "Habibullah, Amir", in Historical Dictionary of Afghanistan, by Ludwig W. Adamec (Scarecrow Press, 2012) p. 182
  10. ^ Peter Tschmuck, Creativity and Innovation in the Music Industry (Springer, 2012) p. 22
  11. ^ Richard James Burgess, The History of Music Production (Oxford University Press, 2014) p. 19
  12. ^ "Move to Change Name 'Episcopal'— Milwaukee Diocese Asks Convention to Call Church 'American Catholic'", Chicago Daily Tribune, October 4, 1901, p. 1
  13. ^ "Columbia Wins Final Race and Keeps the Cup", Chicago Daily Tribune, October 5, 1901, p. 1
  14. ^ Gregg Mangan, On This Day in Connecticut History (Arcadia Publishing, 2015) p. 22
  15. ^ "The reform predicament", by Dai Angang, in China: How the Empire Fell, Joseph W. Esherick and C.X. George Wei, eds. (Routledge, 2013) p. 21
  16. ^ "A brief history of the Associated Oil Company", by Anthony W. Thompson
  17. ^ Helmut Langerbein, Hitler's Death Squads: The Logic of Mass Murder (Texas A&M University Press, 2004) p65
  18. ^ "14 Go on Trial for Murdering 70,000", Bakersfield (CA) Californian, October 15, 1962, p. 2
  19. ^ "St. Louis-Born Crony of Hitler Gets Life Term", UPI report in Lubbock (TX) Avalanche-Journal, May 24, 1963, p. 7
  20. ^ Eugenia Scarvelis Constantinou, Guiding to a Blessed End: Andrew of Caesarea and His Apocalypse Commentary in the Ancient Church (Catholic University of America Press, 2013) p. 41
  21. ^ "Time Fixed by Brigands Gone— Miss Stone, the Abducted American Missionary, May Already Have Met Fate", Chicago Daily Tribune, October 9, 1901, p. 1
  22. ^ "Ransom Is to Be Paid— If the Kidnapers Do Not Enforce Their Ultimatum Today", Houston Daily Post, October 8, 1901, p. 1
  23. ^ "Army Law in Cape Town— Entire Colony, Including Larger Towns and Seaports, Placed Under Military Control", Chicago Daily Tribune, October 10, 1901, p. 1
  24. ^ Quentin R. Skrabec, Jr., Rubber: An American Industrial History (McFarland, 2013) p. 72
  25. ^ Vincent Curcio, Chrysler: The Life and Times of an Automotive Genius (Oxford University Press, 2001) p. 173
  26. ^ David L. Lewis, The Public Image of Henry Ford: An American Folk Hero and His Company (Wayne State University Press, 1976) p. 18
  27. ^ "Alex Winton's Fast Mile— Cleveland Expert Made the Distance in 1:12 2–5 at Grosse Point", Detroit Free Press, October 11, 1901, p. 1
  28. ^ Peter Kuitenbrouwer and Ashley Spires, Our Song: The Story of O Canada, the Canadian National Anthem (Scholastic Canada, 2015)
  29. ^ "Toronto Welcomes Royalty— Duke and Duchess of Cornwall and York Are Greeted by Vast Crowds", Chicago Daily Tribune, October 11, 1901, p. 3
  30. ^ "Anarchist Sent to Prison", Chicago Daily Tribune, October 11, 1901, p. 3
  31. ^ "Buller in Anger Admits Charges", Chicago Daily Tribune, October 11, 1901, p. 3
  32. ^ "Buller, Sir Redvers Henry", in World Military Leaders: A Biographical Dictionary, Mark Grossman, ed. (Infobase Publishing, 2007) p. 53
  33. ^ Nathan Hurwitz, A History of the American Musical Theatre: No Business Like It (Routledge, 2014)
  34. ^ Tim Gracyk, with Frank Hoffmann, Popular American Recording Pioneers: 1895–1925 (Routledge, 2012) pp. 380–381
  35. ^ Images of America: Baldwin County, by John C. Lewis and Harriet Brill Outlaw (Arcadia Publishing, 2009) p. 14
  36. ^ "Crossing a Sea in an Airship", Chicago Daily Tribune, October 14, 1901, p5
  37. ^ "Balloon Trip over Sea Fails", Chicago Daily Tribune, October 16, 1901, p. 4
  38. ^ Willis Fletcher Johnson, The History of Cuba (Library of Alexandria, 1920)
  39. ^ Patrick Cox, The First Texas News Barons (University of Texas Press, 2009) p. 19
  40. ^ T. H. Baughman, Pilgrims on the Ice: Robert Falcon Scott's First Antarctic Expedition (University of Nebraska Press, 2008) p. 77
  41. ^ Ethan Mordden, Ziegfeld: The Man Who Invented Show Business (Macmillan, 2008) p. 64
  42. ^ Congressional Record, November 14, 2001
  43. ^ Theodore Libbey, The NPR Listener's Encyclopedia of Classical Music (Workman Publishing, 2006) p. 217
  44. ^ Alyn Brodsky, Grover Cleveland: A Study in Character (Macmillan, 2000) p. 114
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  46. ^ "Electrocuted at Football", Chicago Daily Tribune, October 16, 1901, p. 1
  47. ^ "Duke of Alba Is Dead— Spanish Grandee Dies Suddenly in New York", Chicago Daily Tribune, October 16, 1901, p. 3
  48. ^ "Negro White House Guest", Chicago Daily Tribune, October 17, 1901, p1
  49. ^ "Roosevelt Dines a Darkey", Richmond (VA) Dispatch, October 18, 1901, p. 4
  50. ^ "White House Dinner Affair; Iconoclast Teddy Stirs Washington From Center to Circumference; He Dined with a Negro", Charlotte (NC) News, October 18, 1901, p. 1
  51. ^ "President Criticised; Entertainment of a Negro Raises a Storm", New Orleans (LA) Times-Democrat, October 18, 1901, p. 1
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  54. ^ "Italy Captures King of Bandits— Mussolino Made a Prisoner After a Fierce Resistance to Band of Soldiers at Urbino", Chicago Daily Tribune, October 17, 1901, p. 1
  55. ^ "Life Term for Mussolino", Fort Wayne (IN) Daily News, June 12, 1902, p. 1
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  57. ^ "Samar Rebels Kill 10, Wound 6", Chicago Daily Tribune, October 19, 1901, p. 4
  58. ^ "New Title— 'White House' Substituted on the President's Stationery", Pittsburgh Press, October 17, 1901, p. 8
  59. ^ Harvey Rachlin, Lucy's Bones, Sacred Stones, & Einstein's Brain: The Remarkable Stories Behind the Great Objects and Artifacts of History, From Antiquity to the Modern Era (Garrett County Press, 2013)
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  61. ^ "German Anarchist Punished; Editor of Paper in Berlin Sentenced to Prison for Approving Assassination of McKinley", Chicago Daily Tribune, October 18, 1901, p. 1
  62. ^ David Cannadine, Making History Now and Then: Discoveries, Controversies and Explorations (Springer, 2008) p142
  63. ^ Julie Shayne, Taking Risks: Feminist Activism and Research in the Americas (State University of New York Press, 2014) p. 96
  64. ^ "Wins Airship Prize; Loses It on Quibble— Judges Withhold the Deutsch Purse Because of a Technical Delay of Forty Seconds", Chicago Sunday Tribune, October 20, 1901, p. 1
  65. ^ "Paris Is with Santos-Dumont— Public Opinion Declares the Aeronaut Fairly Wins the Deutsch Prize", Chicago Daily Tribune, October 21, 1901, p. 2
  66. ^ "Gives Prize to Santos-Dumont— Committee of Aero Club Vote of 13 to 9 Decides That Terms of Deutsch Test Were Fulfilled", Chicago Daily Tribune, November 5, 1901, p. 1
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  69. ^ "Rough Rider Made Governor of Arizona", Chicago Sunday Tribune, October 20, 1901, p. 4
  70. ^ "Medium Turns Back to Spirits— Mrs. Leonora E. Piper, After Strange Confession, Is Again a Spiritualist", Chicago Daily Tribune, October 24, 1901, p. 4
  71. ^ Leo Ruickbie, A Brief Guide to the Supernatural: Ghosts, Vampires and the Paranormal (Little, Brown, 2012)
  72. ^ Nicholas Grene and Chris Morash, The Oxford Handbook of Modern Irish Theatre (Oxford University Press, 2016)
  73. ^ Diarmuid and Grania: Manuscript Materials, J. C. C. Mays, ed. (Cornell University Press, 2005)
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  81. ^ Daniel Gaido, The Formative Period of American Capitalism: A Materialist Interpretation (Routledge, 2006)
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  85. ^ "Yale's Second Century Ended; Many Honored", Chicago Daily Tribune, October 24, 1901, p. 1
  86. ^ "Calls Boer War British Blunder— Winston Churchill Denounces Military Mistakes in African Campaign", October 24, 1901, p5
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  91. ^ "Nineteen Killed in Eastern Fire", Chicago Daily Tribune, October 26, 1901, p. 5
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  94. ^ "Eleven Killed by Antitoxin", Chicago Daily Tribune, November 2, 1901, p. 1
  95. ^ Michael Rutter, Bedside Book of Bad Girls: Outlaw Women of the Old West (Farcountry Press, 2008) p. 93
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  101. ^ "Czolgosz Dies for His Crime— Makes Gloating Speech in Death Chair— Execution Passes Without a Hitch", Chicago Daily Tribune, October 30, 1901, p. 2
  102. ^ "Czolgosz Electrocuted at 7:12 This Morning", Chicago Daily Tribune, October 29, 1901, p. 1
  103. ^ "Death of Four Is Followed by Nurse's Arrest", Chicago Daily Tribune, October 31, 1901, p1
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  106. ^ "Buffalo Bill's Show Caught in Wreck; 110 Horses Dead", Chicago Daily Tribune, October 30, 1901, p. 2
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