From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
The following events occurred in October 1927:
- 1 October 1, 1927 (Saturday)
- 2 October 2, 1927 (Sunday)
- 3 October 3, 1927 (Monday)
- 4 October 4, 1927 (Tuesday)
- 5 October 5, 1927 (Wednesday)
- 6 October 6, 1927 (Thursday)
- 7 October 7, 1927 (Friday)
- 8 October 8, 1927 (Saturday)
- 9 October 9, 1927 (Sunday)
- 10 October 10, 1927 (Monday)
- 11 October 11, 1927 (Tuesday)
- 12 October 12, 1927 (Wednesday)
- 13 October 13, 1927 (Thursday)
- 14 October 14, 1927 (Friday)
- 15 October 15, 1927 (Saturday)
- 16 October 16, 1927 (Sunday)
- 17 October 17, 1927 (Monday)
- 18 October 18, 1927 (Tuesday)
- 19 October 19, 1927 (Wednesday)
- 20 October 20, 1927 (Thursday)
- 21 October 21, 1927 (Friday)
- 22 October 22, 1927 (Saturday)
- 23 October 23, 1927 (Sunday)
- 24 October 24, 1927 (Monday)
- 25 October 25, 1927 (Tuesday)
- 26 October 26, 1927 (Wednesday)
- 27 October 27, 1927 (Thursday)
- 28 October 28, 1927 (Friday)
- 29 October 29, 1927 (Saturday)
- 30 October 30, 1927 (Sunday)
- 31 October 31, 1927 (Monday)
- 32 References
- Carl Laemmle, President of Universal Studios, made news by transmitting a contract to New York and to London by "photoradio" over a six-hour period, an early form of the fax machine.
- The Pittsburgh Pirates clinched the National League pennant with a 9-6 victory over the Cincinnati Reds.
- Michigan Stadium, with a capacity of 84,401 seats, opened with the University of Michigan beating Ohio Wesleyan, 33-0.
- Born: Tom Bosley, American actor, in Chicago (d. 2010)
- Presbyterian minister Harry Emerson Fosdick delivered a sermon to a national audience for the first time, as NBC Radio began broadcasting the show National Vespers at 5:30 pm Eastern time. Fosdick continued to preach on the radio until 1946.
- The 80th birthday of German President Paul von Hindenburg was celebrated across the German nation.
- Born: F. I. Karpelevich, Soviet mathematician for whom the Gindikin–Karpelevich formula is named (d. 2005);
- Died: Svante Arrhenius, 68, Swedish chemist. He won the Nobel Prize in Chemistry in 1903 for his discovery of the greenhouse effect, outlined in his paper "On the Influence of Carbonic Acid in the Air upon the Temperature of the Ground".
- Died: Austin Peay, 51, Governor of Tennessee since 1922. Austin Peay State University was named in his honor in 1929.
- After General Francisco Serrano announced that he would run against former Mexican President Álvaro Obregón in the 1928 election, President Plutarco Elías Calles ordered Serrano's elimination. General Serrano and 12 of his men were intercepted on the road between Cuernavaca and Mexico City and arrested. After General Claudio Fox arrived, the 13 detainees were executed, on the spot, by the Mexican Army. Obregon's other rival, General Arnulfo Gomez, would be executed the next month. With no competitors, Obregon won the election, only to be assassinated two weeks afterward.
- Carving began on Mount Rushmore, starting with the head of George Washington, as workers began the blasting of granite until a thin layer remained. The likeness of Washington would be ready for dedication on July 4, 1934.
- The International Social Security Association was founded in Geneva.
- Margaret Bevan was elected as the first woman mayor in Great Britain, becoming Lord Mayor of Liverpool.
- Died: John William Boone, 63, blind African-American concert pianist
- Hungarian actor Bela Lugosi played the title role in the premiere of the Broadway production of Dracula. Produced by Horace Liveright, and adapted by John L. Balderston from Bram Stoker's novel, it was a popular and critical success, running for seven months at the Fulton Theatre before going on tour. Lugosi, who was offered the role after Raymond Huntley;s salary demands proved a problem, reprised his role as a vampire on film in 1931 and became a horror movie star.
- Died: Sam Warner, 40, CEO of Warner Bros. Studios, of a mastoid infection, the day before the premiere of the company's film, The Jazz Singer
- At 8:45 pm, The Jazz Singer, starring Al Jolson, was presented for the first time. The Warner Brothers film was shown at the Warner Theater in New York, which had been specially wired for sound with the Vitaphone system. It was the first "talkie", with sound synchronized to the film, although much of it was silent, with title cards, and in cities without the sound system, was seen as another silent movie. The first words heard by the audience were Jolson, as Jakie Rabinowitz, shouting to an orchestra, ""Wait a minute! Wait a minute! I tell ya, you ain't heard nothin' yet!" In keeping with the film's theme of a conflict within a Jewish family, the film premiered after sunset on the eve of the Yom Kippur holiday.
- Born: Antony Grey, English gay rights activist, in Wilmslow (d. 2010)
- Died: Amy Catherine Robbins Wells, 55, wife of science fiction author H. G. Wells. The character of Amy Robbins was portrayed by Mary Steenburgen in the 1979 science fiction film Time After Time, the premise being that Robbins was a 1979 bank employee who married Wells after traveling back to 1895.
- Tommy Loughran, nicknamed The Philadelphia Phantom, became the light heavyweight boxing champion of the world, outpointing Mike McTigue in 15 rounds. Loughran retired in 1929 in order to pursue, unsuccessfully, the heavyweight title.
- The sudden collapse of the Kimberly-Clark factory in Appleton, Wisconsin, killed 9 people and injured 18 others.
- Born: R. D. Laing, Scottish anti-psychiatrist, in Glasgow (d. 1989); and Tony Beckley, English character actor, in Southampton (d. 1980)
- Died: John Shillington "Jack" Prince, 68, British cricketer and bicyclist. He also built tracks for bicycle, motorcycle and sprint car racing.
- The Second 100 Years, the first film in which Stan Laurel and Oliver Hardy received top billing, was released.
- Murderer's Row: The New York Yankees completed a 4-game sweep of the Pittsburgh Pirates in the World Series, with a 4-3 win.
- In what has been described as "the first ever tactic of using downed aircrew as bait to ambush rescue forces", Sandinista guerrillas shot down U.S. Army Air Corps biplane over Nicaragua near Jicaro then ambushed the would-be rescuers, killing four members of the Nicaraguan Guardia Nacional and wounding some of the U.S. Army forces. The two American crewmen, 2d.Lt. Earl Thomas and Sgt. Frank Dowdell, survived the crash but were later executed.
- Born: César Milstein, Argentine scientist, and winner of 1984 Nobel Prize for Medicine; in Bahía Blanca (d. 2002)
- The fire department in Spokane, Washington blamed a house fire on sunlight and a goldfish bowl, reporting that the glass bowl "acted as a lens, focusing the sun's rays to a single point of impact" to set aflame a curtain at the home of Mrs. E. C. Barrett.
- The Mexican Army battled anti-government rebels as the two forces met at Vera Cruz at 3:00 in the afternoon. The fighting lasted until 8:00 pm the next evening, and the insurrection against the Calles government was suppressed.
October 10, 1927 (Monday)
- Spain's National Assembly was allowed to meet by dictator Primo Rivera for the first time since Carnera's ascension to power. The legislature, however, was only allowed to consider measures presented by Carnera.
- Porgy, based on the novel by DuBose Heyward, opened on broadway at the Guild Theatre as a play, eight years before the opera Porgy and Bess, running for 217 performances before going on tour.
- Teapot Dome scandal: The 1922 lease of rights to the Wyoming's Teapot Dome oil field, granted by then U.S. Secretary of the Interior Albert Fall in return for personal favors, was held to be invalid by unanimous decision of U.S. Supreme Court.
- The jazz musical Jazz Mania premiered, with Duke Ellington's band.
- The Palace Museum Library, formerly limited to use by the family and staff of the Emperor of China, was opened to scholars in Beijing.
- The Sidewalks of New York, a musical inspired by the popular 1894 song of the same name and starring Ruby Keeler, opened on Broadway at the Knickerbocker Theatre,
- Born: Dana Elcar, American actor and director, in Ferndale, Michigan (d. 2005); David Dinkins, first African-American Mayor of New York City, in Trenton, New Jersey; Hazel Johnson-Brown, first African-American female to become a general in the United States Army; in West Chester, Pennsylvania (d. 2011)
- Died: Gustave Whitehead, 53, German-American aviation pioneer
October 11, 1927 (Tuesday)
- Pilot Ruth Elder took off from New York in the airplane American Girl, with her co-pilot, George Haldeman, in an attempt to become the first woman to duplicate Charles Lindbergh's transatlantic crossing to Paris. Mechanical problems caused them to ditch the plane 360 miles from land, but they established a new over-water endurance flight record of 2,623 miles.
- Mona McLellan, real name Dr. Dorothy Cochrane Logan, arrived at Folkestone after reportedly breaking Gertrude Ederle's record for swimming the English Channel, with a new time of 13 hours and 10 minutes. For the feat, she won a $5,000 prize from the British newspaper News of the World. Days later, she revealed that her Channel swim had been a hoax, designed to demonstrate the lack of monitoring or verification of record-breaking attempts.
- Born: William J. Perry, U.S. Secretary of Defense 1994-1997, in Vandergrift, Pennsylvania
October 12, 1927 (Wednesday)
- Wright Field, located near Dayton, Ohio, was dedicated for use by the United States Army Air Corps. The land was created from Wilbur Wright Field and an additional acreage, and renamed in Wilbur's honor and that of Orville Wright. The field is now part of the Wright-Patterson Air Force Base.
- Florence Mills, the African-American actress who had become an international superstar while on tour in Europe, made a triumphant return to New York City. She died of a ruptured appendix almost three weeks later, after postponing surgery "to attend to the demands of celebrity" 
- Died: Alonzo M. Griffen, 80, American preacher, died while making an impassioned speech at to the National Spiritualist Association of Churches convention in San Antonio
October 13, 1927 (Thursday)
- "Big Joe" Lonardo, the organized crime boss of Cleveland since 1919, was ambushed along with his brother John after being lured to a barber shop owned by his rival, Joe Porrello, who then declared himself the new Cleveland mob boss. Porrello would be killed in 1930.
- Born: Turgut Özal, Prime Minister of Turkey, 1983–1989 and later President of Turkey, 1989–1993; in Malatya (d. 1993); and Lee Konitz, American jazz composer and alto saxophonist, in Chicago
October 14, 1927 (Friday)
- Dieudonne Costas and Joseph Le Brix became the first persons to fly an airplane across the South Atlantic Ocean, and the first to make an east-to-west transatlantic crossing, departing Saint-Louis, Senegal and arriving in Port Natal, Brazil 21 hours and 15 minutes later, at 11:40 pm local time.
- Born: Roger Moore, English actor, in Stockwell, London
October 15, 1927 (Saturday)
- Oil was discovered in Iraq at 3:00 am the Baba Gurgur fields 50 miles south of Kirkuk, with a gusher that erupted after drilling had reached a depth of 1,500 feet. The strike created the first major oil field in the Middle East.
- Mustafa Kemal, later given the honorific Atatürk (Father of the Turks) began the speech called the Nutuk, for six hours a day over six days, "the primary source for the official Turkish version of the history of the resistance movement" 
- Germany's highest court, the Staatsgerichtshof, declared itself to be the "Guardian of the Constitution" of the Weimar republic
- In a drive-by shooting on Manhattan's Norfolk Street, Louis "Lepke" Buchalter assassinated "Little Augie" Orgenstein, industrial racketeer, and wounded "Legs" Diamond. Lepke and Gurrah Shapiro
- The heart of General Tadeusz Kościuszko (1746–1817), a hero of the American Revolution, was returned to Warsaw in a bronze urn, after having been stored for 90 years in a museum at Rapperswil in Switzerland.
October 16, 1927 (Sunday)
- The first remnant of Peking Man, a tooth, was found by paleontologist Anders Birger Bohlin at Chou K'ou Tien (Zhoukoudian), under sponsorship of Davidson Black, who gave it the scientific name Sinanthropus pekinensis. More remains would be discovered over the next ten years, and reclassified as Homo erectus pekinensis, estimated to be more than 300,000 years old. The specimens would disappear in 1941.
- Born: Günter Grass, German writer, Nobel Prize in Literature laureate 1999, in Langfuhr, Danzig (now Wrzeszcz, Poland); and Roberto Oropeza Martinez, Mexican writer, in Querétaro
- Died: Chester A. Thorne, Tacoma millionaire whose ghost is said to haunt Thornewood, used in the filming of the Stephen King film Rose Red
October 17, 1927 (Monday)
- Ban Johnson, who had founded the American League in 1901, was forced to step down from the post of president of the AL.
- A revision of the constitution of the semi-independent Republic of Lebanon reduced the size of the legislature and gave President Charles Debbas the power to appoint one-third of its members. Lebanon remained a protectorate of France, through a High Commissioner.
- Teapot Dome scandal: The criminal trial of former Interior Secretary Albert B. Fall and former Mammoth Oil chief Harry F. Sinclair began.
- Born: Friedrich Hirzebruch, German mathematician specializing in algebraic geometry, and co-discoverer of the Hirzebruch-Riemann-Roch theorem, at Hamm
October 18, 1927 (Tuesday)
- The Schwartzbard trial began in Paris. Sholom Schwartzbard stood trial for the murder of the Ukrainian statesman Symon Petliura. Schwartzbard had confessed to the murder all along but said he did it to avenge the pogroms in Ukraine
- Born: George C. Scott, American actor, in Wise, Virginia (d. 1999)
- Died: Jacques de Lesseps, 44, French aviator and World War I hero, along with his flight engineer Theodor Chichenko, after their plane disappeared off of the coast of Quebec.
October 19, 1927 (Wednesday)
- Buck v. Bell: Carrie Buck, who had fought all the way to the U.S. Supreme Court to have forced sterilization declared unconstitutional- and lost- was sterilized by Dr. Bell. She was one of 50,000 American women sterilized in accordance with state laws, and the case was cited by Nazi lawyers in the sterilization of 2,000,000 women.
- What would become the border between Singapore and Malaysia was worked out by agreement of the United Kingdom and the Sultan of the State of Johor.
- Born: Pierre Alechinsky, Belgian painter, in Brussels
October 20, 1927 (Thursday)
- The Stamps Quartet, consisting of Odis Echols, Roy Wheeler, Palmer Wheeler, Dwight Brock, first recorded the gospel music bestseller "Give the World a Smile". The upbeat song inspired its own genre of gospel music.
October 21, 1927 (Friday)
- Groundbreaking was held for the George Washington Bridge on both shores of the Hudson River, and one in the river itself. The bridge would open eight months ahead of schedule, in October 1931.
October 22, 1927 (Saturday)
- Abie's Irish Rose closed after a run of 2,327 performances, after having opened on May 23, 1922. At the time, it was the longest running play in Broadway history, and was later passed by Life with Father in 1941.
- Died: Ross Youngs, 30, American baseball outfielder and Hall of Fame member; and Borisav "Bora" Stanković, 51 Serbian Yugoslavian writer
October 23, 1927 (Sunday)
- Following an angry confrontation between Leon Trotsky and Joseph Stalin, Trotsky and Grigory Zinoviev were expelled from the Central Committee of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union.
- Born: Barron Hilton, American hotel operator, in Dallas; Leszek Kołakowski, Polish philosopher, in Radom (d. 2009); Philip Lamantia, American beatnik poet, in San Francisco (d. 2005); and Sonny Criss, American jazz musician, in Memphis (d. 1977)
October 24, 1927 (Monday)
- Mao Zedong formulated his "Three Rules of Discipline" (1.Obey orders 2.Don't take anything from the workers or peasants and 3.Turn over anything taken from others). This was followed by Six Points for Attention on January 25, 1928, with two more added in January 1929.
- The first Model A automobile rolled off the assembly line.
- Born: Barbara Robinson, American children's author (The Best Christmas Pageant Ever), in Portsmouth, Ohio
- Died: S. Davies Warfield, 68, American railroad magnate and philanthropist
October 25, 1927 (Tuesday)
- The Italian luxury liner Principessa Mafalda, with 998 passengers and a crew of 258, was approaching Porto Seguro, Brazil, when its boilers exploded. Nearby ships were able to rescue 963 of the persons who had been on board, but 293 others were missing and presumed to have sunk along with the ship.
- Born: Lawrence Kohlberg, American philosopher and psychologist, in Bronxville, New York (committed suicide 1987); Jorge Batlle Ibáñez, President of Uruguay from 2000 to 2005; in Montevideo (d. 2016); and Barbara Cook, American stage actress, in Atlanta
October 26, 1927 (Wednesday)
- The Schwartzbard trial ended when Sholom Schwartzbard was acquitted on all criminal counts.
- Died: Hermann Muthesius, 66, German architect, in an auto accident
October 27, 1927 (Thursday)
- Queen Wilhelmina of the Netherlands opened the Meuse-Waal Canal in Nijmegen.
- At 5:50 a.m. a ground fault gave way, causing the mine and part of the town of Worthington to collapse into a large chasm located in Ontario, Canada. Nobody was injured in the incident, but the area was evacuated the night before after a mine foreman noticed abnormal rock shifts in the mine.
- Born: Mikhail Postnikov, Soviet mathematician, in Shatura (d. 2004); Dominick Argento, American musician and Pulitzer Prize winner, in York, Pennsylvania; Paul Graf, Canadian biologist credited with saving the aurora trout from extinction, in Steinheim; Patricia Crowther, British witch and promoter of Wicca, in Sheffield; and Jimmy Slyde, American tap dancer, in Atlanta (d. 2008)
- Died: Squizzy Taylor, 39, Australian gangster, after a shootout with a rival; and Edward Guinness, 79, Irish beer brewer
October 28, 1927 (Friday)
- Pan American Airways made the first regularly scheduled international flight by an American airline (and Pan Am's very first flight), with pilot Hugh Wells taking off from Key West, Florida, to Havana, Cuba, in a tri-motor Fokker F-VIII. Passenger service did not begin until January 16, 1928. Pan Am's very last flight would also be international and from a Caribbean island to Florida, as Captain Mark Pyle brought Pan Am Flight 436 from Bridgetown, Barbados to a landing in Miami on December 4, 1991.
- Fox Movietone News presented the first synchronized-sound newsreel, at the Roxy Theater in New York.
- Born: Roza Makagonova, Soviet actress, in Samara, RSFSR (d. 1995)
October 29, 1927 (Saturday)
- The Central Committee of the Communist Party of the USSR adopted the resolution "On the Cleansing of Libraries from Ideologically Harmful Literature", requiring the removal of disapproved books across the Soviet Union.
- Born: Lt. Col. Yuri Nosenko, KGB agent who defected to the United States in 1964, and was imprisoned on suspicion of being a double agent until 1967; in Nikolayev, Ukrainian SSR. (d. 2008)
October 30, 1927 (Sunday)
- Admiral Paul Kondouriotis, the President of Greece, survived an assassination attempt by a 25-year-old waiter. Zafioios Goussies shot President Kondouriotis in the head as the President was leaving a conference of Greece's mayors in Athens.
October 31, 1927 (Monday)
- The drifting ship Ryo Yei Maru was spotted off of Cape Flattery, Washington State. When the American freighter Margaret Dollar arrived, the rescuers found the emaciated bodies of all twelve of the Japanese ship's crew. The ship's engine had failed on December 23, 1926, during a gale, and the men on board slowly died of starvation, with the last one succumbing on May 11. Having drifted 5,000 miles, the ship was towed into Seattle. After a Buddhist funeral ceremony for the 12 men, their bodies were cremated and the vessel was burned.
- Born: Lee Grant, American actress, in New York City
- Michele Hilmes, Hollywood and Broadcasting: From Radio to Cable (University of Illinois Press, 1999) p37
- Waldo, Ronald T. (2013). Pennant Hopes Dashed by the Homer in the Gloamin': The Story of How the 1938 Pittsburgh Pirates Blew the National League Pennant. Jefferson, NC: McFarland & Company, Inc. p. 8. ISBN 9780786472024.
- Robert Moats Miller, Harry Emerson Fosdick: Preacher, Pastor, Prophet (Oxford University Press US, 1985) p385
- Peter Fritzsche, Germans into Nazis (Harvard University Press, 1998) p166; "Million Honor Von Hindenburg on Eightieth Birthday", Milwaukee Sentinel, October, 1927, p2
- Deborah Todd and Joseph A. Angelo, A to Z of Scientists in Space and Astronomy (Infobase Publishing, 2005) p29
- Jurgen Buchenau, The Last Caudillo: Alvaro Obregon and the Mexican Revolution (John Wiley and Sons, 2011); "MEXICO CRUSHES MUTINY!- Gen. Serrano, Revolt Chief, with 13 Aids, Put to Death", Milwaukee Sentinel, October 5, 1927, p1
- Patrick Straub, It Happened in South Dakota: Remarkable Events That Shaped History (Globe Pequot, 2010) pp66-67
- Edmund Jan Osmańczyk and Anthony Mango, Encyclopedia of the United Nations and International Agreements: G to M (Taylor & Francis, 2003) p1134
- "Liverpool Picks 1st Woman Lord Mayor", Milwaukee Sentinel, October 5, 1927, p1
- Eric Nuzum, The Dead Travel Fast: Stalking Vampires from Nosferatu to Count Chocula (Macmillan, 2008) p205
- William Guynn, The Routledge Companion to Film History (Taylor & Francis, 2010) p68; "The Screen: Al Jolson and the Vitaphone" NYT 10.7.27 p24
- Nat Fleischer and Sam Andre, An Illustrated History of Boxing (Citadel Press, 2002) pp195-196
- "9 DEAD IN MILL CRASH; DIG IN RUINS FOR BODIES", Milwaukee Sentinel, October 8, 1927, p1
- Wes D. Gehring, Laurel & Hardy: A Bio-bibliography (Greenwood Publishing Group, 1990) p263 imdb.com
- Leo Trachtenberg, The Wonder Team: The True Story of the Incomparable 1927 New York Yankees (Popular Press, 1995) pp122-123: "NEW YORK BEATS PIRATES 4 TO 3", Spokane Daily Chronicle, October 8, 1927, pII-2
- George Galdorisi and Thomas Phillips, Leave No Man Behind: The Saga of Combat Search and Rescue (Zenith Imprint, 2009) pp24-25
- "Gold Fish Bowl And Sun Join in Starting Blaze", Milwaukee Sentinel, October 10, 1927, p1
- "ROUT REBELS AT VERA CRUZ!", Milwaukee Sentinel, October 11, 1927, p1
- James H. Rial, Revolution from Above: The Primo de Rivera Dictatorship in Spain, 1923-1930 (Associated University Presse, 1986) p114
- Cary D. Wintz and Paul Finkelman, Encyclopedia of the Harlem Renaissance Volume 2 (Taylor & Francis, 2004) p986
- Mark Tucker, Ellington: The Early Years (University of Illinois Press, 1995) p207
- Sharon Chien Lin, Libraries and Librarianship in China (Greenwood Publishing Group, 1998) p60
- Nancy Marlow-Trump, Ruby Keeler: A Photographic Biography (McFarland, 2005) p33
- Lynn M. Homan, et al., Women Who Fly (Pelican Publishing, 2004) p46-47; "RUTH ELDER HOPS OFF!", Milwaukee Sentinel, October 11, 1927, p1
- "London Woman Breaks Ederle Channel Mark", Miami News, October 11, 1927, p1; "Channel Swim Hoax Admitted by Prize Winner", Miami News, October 16, 1927, p1
- Janus Adams, Sister Days: 365 Inspired Moments in African-American Women's History (John Wiley and Sons, 2000) p12
- Ted Schwarz, Shocking Stories of the Cleveland Mob (The History Press, 2010) pp26-28
- James P. Harrison, Mastering the Sky: A History of Aviation from Ancient Times to the Present (Da Capo Press, 2000) p100; Richard Bak, The Big Jump: Lindbergh and the Great Atlantic Air Race (John Wiley and Sons, 2011) pp252-253 "FRENCH FLYERS CONQUER ATLANTIC", Milwaukee Sentinel, October 15, 1927, p.1
- Daniel Yergin, The Prize: The Epic Quest for Oil, Money, & Power (Simon and Schuster, 1991)
- Gareth Jenkins, Political Islam in Turkey: Running West, Heading East? (Macmillan, 2008) p98
- Ellen Kennedy, Constitutional Failure: Carl Schmitt in Weimar (Duke University Press, 2004) p151
- Howard Abadinsky, Organized Crime (Cengage Learning, 2009) p77
- "Heart of Hero Kosciusko Sent Back to Poland", Milwaukee Sentinel, October 16, 1927, p1
- Penny Van Oosterzee, Dragon Bones: The Story of Peking Man (Basic Books, 2000) pp98-100
- Robert Wiggins, The Federal League of Base Ball Clubs: The History of an Outlaw Major League, 1914-1915 (McFarland, 2008) p304
- Martin Sicker, The Middle East in the Twentieth Century (Greenwood Publishing Group, 2001) p74
- Robert Grant and Joseph Katz, The Great Trials of the Twenties: The Watershed Decade in America's Courtrooms (Da Capo Press, 1998) p218
- "French Jurors Free Avenger of Pogrom Dead". Chicago Daily Tribune. October 27, 1927. p. 19.
- Harry Bruinius, Better for All the World: The Secret History of Forced Sterilization and America's Quest for Racial Purity (Random House Digital, Inc., 2006) p1
- Lin Sien Chia, Southeast Asia Transformed: A Geography of Change (Institute of Southeast Asian Studies, 2003) p77
- W. K. McNeil, Encyclopedia of American Gospel Music (Taylor and Francis, 2005) p370
- Sharon Reier, The Bridges of New York (Courier Dover Publications, 2000) pp99-100
- Gabrielle H. Cody and Evert Sprinchorn, The Columbia Encyclopedia of Modern Drama, Volume 1 (Columbia University Press, 2007) p4
- R. J. Overy, The Dictators: Hitler's Germany and Stalin's Russia (W. W. Norton & Company, 2004) p27
- Stuart R. Schram and Nancy Jane Hodes, Mao's Road to Power: From the Jinggangshan to the establishment of the Jiangxi Soviets, July 1927-December 1930 (M.E. Sharpe, 1992) p283
- "Henry Ford Sees First New Type Car Produced; Low, With Graceful Lines, and Fifty-Mile Speed", Milwaukee Sentinel, October 24, 1927, p1
- "LINER SINKS; 880 MISSING", Milwaukee Sentinel, October 26, 1927, p1; "Radio Snaps Tense Story of Last Moments on Liner", Milwaukee Sentinel, October 27, 1927, p2; "LINER DEATHS SET AT 300", Milwaukee Sentinel, October 28, 1927, p1; "293 Is Liner Toll; Rescue Ships in Port", Milwaukee Sentinel, October 29, 1927, p3
- "Early Airlines- Pan American Airways", Flying Magazine (March 1964) p53
- John C. Tibbetts, The American theatrical film: stages in development (Popular Press, 1985) p208
- Evgeny Dobrenko, The Making of the State Reader: Social and Aesthetic Contexts of the Reception of Soviet Literature (Stanford University Press, 1997) p194
- "President of Greece Shot"Milwaukee Sentinel, October 31, 1927, p1
- Bill Gulick, A Traveler's History of Washington (Caxton Press, 1996) pp149-152; "Ship's Log Tells a Grim Story of Starvation Death", Ellensburg (OR) Daily Record, November 2, 1927, p1