October 1965

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The following events occurred in October 1965:

October 1, 1965 (Friday)[edit]

The spot where Ahmad Yani was shot and killed on Oct 1, 1965, during an attempted coup in Indonesia
  • Members of the 30 September Movement assassinated six Indonesian Army generals in an abortive coup d'état.[1] Other victims included the 5-year-old daughter of General Abdul Harris Nasution, shot by mistake.[2] The movement also kidnapped First Lieutenant Pierre Tendean, mistaking him for General Nasution. At 7:00 a.m., Radio Republik Indonesia broadcast a message from Lieutenant-Colonel Untung Syamsuri, commander of Cakrabirawa, the Presidential guard, stating that the 30 September Movement, an internal army organization, had taken control of strategic locations in Jakarta, with the help of other military units, in order to forestall a coup attempt by a 'General's Council' aided by the Central Intelligence Agency, intent on removing President Sukarno on 5 October, "Army Day".[3] Sukarno took up residence in the Bogor Palace, while Omar Dhani and D.N. Aidit, implicated in the coup, fled the country. Led by Suharto, commander of the Army's Strategic Reserve, the army regained control of all the installations previously held by forces of the 30 September Movement.[4]
  • The first telephone conversation between two undersea habitats took place when the aquanauts of the American SEALAB II spoke for 16 minutes with the French oceanauts living in the bathyscaph commanded by Jacques Cousteau. SEALAB II was 2,205 feet beneath the Pacific Ocean off of the coast of La Jolla, California, while Cousteau and his crew were 330 feet below the harbor of Monte Carlo, Monaco. Oceanographer Rick Gregg, who could speak French, did most of the talking for the Americans, while French team leader Andre Leban spoke English. According to the UPI account, "The aquanauts and oceanauts had some difficulty understanding one another because the concentration of helium in the atmosphere they breathe made their voices sound like Donald Duck, according to one observer." [5]
  • Died:

October 2, 1965 (Saturday)[edit]

  • The Indonesian Army regained control of Halim Air Force Base after a short battle, effectively ending the 30 September Movement within two days.
  • Monsignor Harold Robert Perry became the first African-American Roman Catholic bishop of the 20th Century, as Pope Paul VI named him one of the two auxiliary bishops of the Archdiocese of New Orleans.[6] From 1875 to 1900, the Bishop of Portland, Maine, had been James Augustine Healy, a mixed-race priest who was a Negro under the laws of his home state of Georgia.[7]
  • Soviet Communist Party First Secretary Leonid Brezhnev, the de facto leader of the Soviet Union, was given an official Soviet government position when he was returned to the 16 member Presidium of the Supreme Soviet. Brezhnev had been the President of the Presidium, the Soviet Union's head of state, from 1960 to 1964 before replacing Nikita Khrushchev as Party First Secretary. The Presidium also fired Pyotr Lomako from his jobs as Chairman of the State Planning Committee and Deputy Premier, in an apparent move to shift to more productive industrial management.[8]
  • The Los Angeles Dodgers won the National League pennant as pitcher Sandy Koufax hurled his 26th win of the season in a 3 to 1 defeat of the Milwaukee Braves on the second to the last day of the season. Going into the 161st game of the 162 game NL season, the Dodgers had a 95-65 and the San Francisco Giants were two games behind at 93-67. While the Giants beat the Cincinnati Reds, 3-2, the Dodgers win left the Giants two games out of first place with only one game left to play.[9]
  • Died: Oskar R. Lange, 61, Polish economist and diplomat

October 3, 1965 (Sunday)[edit]

  • U.S. President Lyndon B. Johnson signed the Immigration and Nationality Act of 1965 which ended quotas based on national origin. Johnson chose to hold the signing on Liberty Island in New York Harbor, next to the Statue of Liberty. As one historian would observe fifty years later, "the law changed the face of America. The major source countries of immigration radically shifted from Europe to Latin America and Asia. The number of immigrants tripled by 1978. It made the country the highly diverse, multinational, multiethnic, multicultural American nation of immigrants that it is today." [10] Johnson said in a speech, "from this day forth those wishing to immigrate to America shall be admitted on the basis of their skills and their close relationship to those already here. This is a simple test, and it is a fair test. Those who can contribute most to this country--to its growth, to its strength, to its spirit--will be the first that are admitted to this land. The fairness of this standard is so self-evident that we may well wonder that it has not always been applied. Yet the fact is that for over four decades the immigration policy of the United States has been twisted and has been distorted by the harsh injustice of the national origins quota system.... Today, with my signature, this system is abolished. We can now believe that it will never again shadow the gate to the American Nation with the twin barriers of prejudice and privilege." [11]
  • Fidel Castro announced that Che Guevara had resigned his government position on April 1 and had left Cuba to fight for the revolutionary cause abroad.[12][13]
  • Died: Zachary Scott, 51, American film and stage actor, of a brain tumor.

October 4, 1965 (Monday)[edit]

  • Pope Paul VI made the first visit ever by the Roman Catholic Pontiff to the United States, appearing for a Mass before 90,000 people at New York's Yankee Stadium and making a speech at the United Nations, as well as meeting with U.S. President Johnson.[14][15][16][17]
  • Eighty-seven people were killed and ten seriously injured when the last three coaches of a South African Railways commuter train derailed near Durban, South Africa. Most of the victims on the were black; one white railway employee who ran to the scene was beaten to death by angry survivors.[18][19]
  • The United States began bombing of Cambodia, despite that nation's neutrality in the Vietnam War, to attack Viet Cong guerrillas who crossed the border from South Vietnam.[20] Records released in 2000 would show that between October 4, 1965 and August 15, 1973, there would be 2,756,941 tons of bombs dropped in 230,516 separate missions.[21]

October 5, 1965 (Tuesday)[edit]

  • The American satellite "Orbital Vehicle 1" was launched westward into orbit from Vandenberg Air Force Base in California, becoming the first manned object in space to orbit the Earth from west to east, counter to the rotation of the planet. Since the launch of Sputnik in 1957, all Soviet and American satellites had been sent on an east-west trajectory or, in the case of those sent from Vandenberg into polar orbit, fired southward.[22]
  • Born:

October 6, 1965 (Wednesday)[edit]

October 7, 1965 (Thursday)[edit]

  • Seven Japanese fishing boats were sunk off Guam by super typhoon Carmen, and 209 people were killed.[29]
  • The Soviet Lunik 7 lunar probe landed on the Moon on target, but with such force that it was destroyed. The Soviet space agency had no comment, but the director of Britain's Jodrell Bank Observatory, Sir Bernard Lovell, said that all radio signals from the moon ceased at 2208 UTC, and that he speculated that the craft's retrorockets failed to fire completely.[30] The Tass news agency said the next day that the craft "reached the surface of the Moon at 1:08.24 [Moscow time October 8] in the area of the Ocean of Storms west of Kepler crater... some operations, however, were not carried out in accordance with the program and need additional development." Lovell responded that the probe should not be regarded as a failure and commented that "The Russians have obtained extremely valuable data from this. For the first time they have been able to slow down a capsule prior to landing on the Moon." [31]
  • Retired U.S. Army Lieutenant General Leslie R. Groves, who had overseen the Manhattan Project, revealed to reporters that President Franklin Roosevelt had discussed the possibility of dropping the first atomic bomb on Germany. The occasion was a White House meeting in December 1944, after the December 15 German counter-attack against the Allies. "The President said he was concerned that the Battle of the Bulge might upset the war in Europe," Groves said, "and remarked that maybe this would force us to use the bomb against Germany.... I told him that it would be very difficult to changer our plans and gave my reasons," which included that the bomb would not be ready until August 1945; that if the bomb's atomic reaction failed, the Germans would be able to figure out the components and structure from the debris; that German buildings were more solidly constructed than those in Japan; and that there were no B-29 bombers in the European theater of operations. Groves said that he spoke out because of "irresponsible criticism that the United States hesitated to drop the bomb on an enemy which happened to be white-skinned." [32]
  • Died: Jesse Douglas, 68, American mathematician

October 8, 1965 (Friday)[edit]

  • Following the failed 30 September Movement coup attempt, the Indonesian Army instigated the arrest and execution of communists which would last until March.[33][34]
  • The International Olympic Committee admitted East Germany and West Germany as separate members, ending the prior practice after World War II of having the athletes of the two opposing nations compete together as one Germany team.[35]
  • The 619-foot high Post Office Tower, at the time the tallest building in London, was officially opened by Prime Minister Harold Wilson.[36][37]
  • Prime Minister Ian Smith of Rhodesia, British Prime Minister Harold Wilson, and Arthur Bottomley of the Commonwealth of Nations broke off negotiations in London on a course of action for Britain's last major colony in Africa to become independent, with major disagreement about the issue of majority rule.[38] Smith's position, as described by Chicago reporter Arthur Veysey, was that "the 225,000 white Rhodesians say one-man, one-vote would doom them. They say such an election would be decided on racial lines and the four million Africans would swamp the whites who have been running things, in Britain's name, for 42 years.[39]
  • The 20th Helicopter Squadron became the first U.S. Air Force cargo helicopter unit to deploy to South Vietnam, operating CH-3C helicopters. It supported Air Force Special Operations "Pony Express" covert operations, primarily in Laos.[40]
  • U.S. President Johnson entered the Bethesda Naval Hospital in Bethesda, Maryland and was expected to remain hospitalized for two weeks for gall bladder surgery.[41] During his 14 day stay in Bethesda, the President conducted White House official business and press conferences from his hospital bed.[42][43]
  • The U.S. House of Representatives voted 245-138 to pass the Highway Beautification Act, legislation requested by Lady Bird Johnson, the President's wife, and largely written under her direction. The Senate had passed the bill on September 16.[44] President Johnson would sign the bill, which restricted outdoor advertising, particularly billboards, on October 22.
  • The U.S. Army's 173rd Airborne Brigade Combat Team launched the first major American attack on the "Iron Triangle" in South Vietnam, a concentration of Viet Cong guerrillas in an area only 12 miles from Saigon.[45]

October 9, 1965 (Saturday)[edit]

  • The first peripheral nerve stimulation (PNS) surgery to relieve chronic pain was performed on a person. Dr. Patrick D. Wall and Dr. William H. Sweet implanted a pairs of silastic split-ring platinum electrodes around the ulnar and medium nerves in a patient identified as a 26-year-old woman with clinical presentation consistent with a complex regional pain syndrome." [46]
  • At a nursing home in Seriate, Italy, eight elderly women died and another seven were seriously injured after they all 15 had been given seemingly routine injections of a "heart tonic" as part of their regular treatment. The deaths all happened within two hours after they were given the shots.[47]

October 10, 1965 (Sunday)[edit]

  • The first group of Cuban refugees to depart the country since Fidel Castro had announced the right to leave, departed from the port of Camarioca to travel to the U.S.[48] The 16 people arrived at Key West the next day on the cabin cruiser MMM, a boat piloted by a crew of four Florida-based Cuban exiles.[49]
  • General Suharto was appointed by Indonesia's President Sukarno to form the Indonesian Army's new secret police force, "Operational Command for the Restoration of Security and Order", KOPKAMTIB, an acronym for Komando Operasi Pemulihan Keamanan dan Ketertiban. With the power to suppress political opposition, Suharto would use his position to gradually dismantle Sukarno's regime and to install the "New Order" that he would use as President.[50]
  • In elections for the 450 member Meclis, the Parliament of Turkey, the Justice Party (Adalet Partisi) led by Süleyman Demirel gained majority control, winning 82 additional seats for 240 overall.[51]
  • Voters in East Germany were allowed for the first time to choose among multiple candidates, as a new system was implemented where "for the first time, more candidates than posts are listed", although few wished to exercise that option.[52] People voting had the choice of folding a printed list of local candidates and depositing it into a ballot box, or asking to step into a voting booth for the opportunity to strike out the names of any candidates whom they did not like. The official National Front nominees were listed at the top of the ballot, and the names of non-Front alternates followed (more than 45,000 in all across the country), and an alternate could only be elected if more than 50 percent of the voters struck out the name of a National Front member. All 204,407 of the Front nominees were elected, and few voters chose to be seen using a booth.
  • After the 24-day strike against of New York City newspapers was settled the night before, and the New York Daily News and the New York Journal-American (as well as the neighboring Long Island Press) published their first editions since September 16, while the New York Times and the New York World-Telegram resumed the next day. During the first days of October, the New York Herald-Tribune, which had resigned from the Publishers Association in late September, had been the only daily newspaper published in the city.[53]
  • Drat! The Cat!, one of the least successful Broadway musicals of the decade, opened at the Martin Beck Theatre. With music by Milton Schafer and lyrics by Ira Levin, the production featured stars Lesley Ann Warren, Elliott Gould, Charles Durning, Jane Connell, and Beth Howland, but closed after only eight performances.[54]
  • Born: Chris Penn, American actor, in Los Angeles, California (died 2006)
  • Died:
    • Katsuo Okazaki, 68, former Japanese Foreign Minister and the Japanese Consul-General in Nanjing during the Nanking Massacre in 1937
    • Herbert Kennedy Andrews, 61, English composer and organist, died while performing at the dedication of a new organ at Trinity College, Oxford.
    • George Tucker, 37, American jazz musician, one day after suffering a fatal cerebral hemorrhage while performing in a concert.

October 11, 1965 (Monday)[edit]

  • Per Borten, a farmer in Sør-Trøndelag County in central Norway and leader of the Farmer's Party that finished in fourth place in parliamentary elections, was appointed the new Prime Minister of Norway by King Olav V. Borten, "the man nobody expected to get the job" [55] conceded that he was selected as the new premier because members of the two largest parties of the anti-Socialist coalition, the Conservatives and Liberals, did not trust each other and had considered him to be neutral.
  • The French coaster MV Nerée sank 10 nautical miles (19 km) off Cherbourg, with the loss of six of her 25 crew.[56]
  • Born: Juan Ignacio Cirac Sasturain, Spanish physicist, in Manresa, Catalonia

October 12, 1965 (Tuesday)[edit]

  • The Vinland map, which indicated that the Vikings commanded by Leif Eriksen had visited North America centuries before the explorations of Christopher Columbus, was placed on public display at the Beinecke Rare Book and Manuscript Library at Yale University, on the occasion of Columbus Day. The map, re-discovered in 1957 and described by some scholars as "the most exciting cartographic discovery of the century", had been donated to Yale by alumnus Paul Mellon.[57][58][59]
  • The U.N. General Assembly voted, 107 to 2, to call on the United Kingdom to "use force, if necessary" to prevent Rhodesia from making a threatened unilateral declaration of independence as a white minority ruled nation. South Africa, which was ruled by its white minority, and Portugal, which still had colonies in Africa, were the only nations to vote against the resolution.[60]

October 13, 1965 (Wednesday)[edit]

October 14, 1965 (Thursday)[edit]

October 15, 1965 (Friday)[edit]

  • The Vatican ecumenical council of bishops voted, 1,763 to 250, to accept a declaration stating that the Jewish race could not be blamed for the crucifixion of Jesus Christ. "On the Church's Attitude Toward Non-Christians" was approved for promulgation by Pope Paul VI as a decree that would be binding upon all members of the Roman Catholic Church worldwide. The document also spoke out against any attempts to describe Jewish people as "rejected" or "accursed" by God. An AP report commented that "Probably no document had aroused so much controversy at the 4-year-old council. Never before has any general council in 20 centuries of Catholicism taken such positive stands on the Jewish and other non-Christian religions.[66]
  • Mikhail Sholokhov of the Soviet Union, best known as the author of the novel Tikhy Don published in English as And Quiet Flows the Don) was announced as the recipient of the 1965 Nobel Prize for Literature.[67]
  • Guitarist Jimi Hendrix signed a three-year recording contract with Ed Chaplin, receiving $1 and 1% royalty on records with Curtis Knight.[68] The agreement would later cause continuous litigation problems for Hendrix with other record labels.

October 16, 1965 (Saturday)[edit]

  • Police found a girl's body on Saddleworth Moor near Oldham in Lancashire, which was quickly identified as that of 10-year-old Lesley Ann Downey, who had disappeared on December 26, from a fairground in the Ancoats area of Manchester.[69] Ian Brady, who had been arrested a week earlier for murdering a a 17-year-old boy, was charged along with his girlfriend Myra Hindley for Lesley's murder.[70]
  • On the penultimate day of the New York World's Fair, a time capsule was lowered 50 feet into the ground, containing 117,000 pages of microfilmed records from 1940 to 1965, as well as 45 other objects [71] The capsule, buried ten feet away from another capsule placed for the 1939 New York World's Fair, is not scheduled to be opened until the year 6939 AD. Among the objects included were "credit cards, a bikini, contact lenses, birth control pills, tranquilizers, a plastic heart valve, a pack of filter cigarettes, an electric toothbrush, and a heat shield from Apollo 7", as well as photographs of Andrew Wyeth paintings, a Henry Moore sculpture, microfilms of a book by Ernest Hemingway, poetry by Dylan Thomas and Robert Frost, a tape of a Danny Kaye television show, records by the Beatles, Joan Baez and Thelonious Monk, and photographs of celebrities from the 1940s, 1950s and 1960s.[72]
  • Anti-war protests drew 100,000 in 40 cities in the U.S. and around the world.[73][74]
  • At Longshoreman's Hall in San Francisco, "A Tribute to Dr. Strange", described as "the first psychedelic rock concert",[75] was performed, with the groups Jefferson Airplane, The Marbles and The Great Society performing.

October 17, 1965 (Sunday)[edit]

  • The first successful American attack on a North Vietnamese surface-to-air missile (SAM) site was accomplished when four A-4 Skyhawk attack bombers struck a site near the Kép airfield northeast of Hanoi.[76][77]
  • The New York World's Fair at Flushing Meadows, New York, observed its last day. Rides remained open until 2:00 in the morning on Monday. During its 1964 and 1965 runs, it attracted more than 50,000,000 admissions. At the same time, the fair had a deficit of over $35,000,000.[78] As a result of its financial losses, some of the projected site park improvements had failed to materialize.[79][80]
  • An Avianca Airlines DC-3 plane with 12 passengers at a crew of three was arriving at Bucaramanga, Colombia, in a flight from Bogotá. As it was approaching, a 21-year old pilot, who had been awarded his license only two months earlier, was taking off from the same airport in a Piper Super Cub and collided with the DC-3. Both airplanes came down in the residential neighborhoods of Las Terrazas and El Jardin [81][82]
  • Seven coal miners at Clinchfield Coal Company's Mars No. 2 mine were killed in a fire.[83]
  • Died: Enrico Piaggio, 60, Italian industrialist who created the Vespa scooter.

October 18, 1965 (Monday)[edit]

  • David J. Miller of Syracuse, New York, a 22-year old man protesting the Vietnam War, became the first person to be arrested under the new federal law that made defacement of a selective service information card punishable as a crime. Miller, who described himself as "a Catholic pacifist", was photographed burning his draft card on October 15 during an anti-war rally in New York City by the Catholic Worker Movement.[84] Miller was located by the FBI in Hooksett, New Hampshire, asked to produce his draft card, and charged when he failed to produce it.[85]
  • With secret approval given by President Johnson on September 21,[86] American troops took the Vietnam War into neighboring Laos as part of Operation Shining Brass, losing six men.[87]
  • The Indonesian government outlawed the Communist Party of Indonesia.
  • Born: Curtis Stigers, American jazz vocalist and saxophonist, in Boise, Idaho

October 19, 1965 (Tuesday)[edit]

October 20, 1965 (Wednesday)[edit]

October 21, 1965 (Thursday)[edit]

October 22, 1965 (Friday)[edit]

October 23, 1965 (Saturday)[edit]

  • Died: Ernst Hechler, 57, German bomber pilot and U-boat commander in World War II[97]

October 24, 1965 (Sunday)[edit]

October 25, 1965 (Monday)[edit]

  • The Soviet Union declared its support of African countries if Rhodesia unilaterally declared independence.

October 26, 1965 (Tuesday)[edit]

October 27, 1965 (Wednesday)[edit]

October 28, 1965 (Thursday)[edit]

The Gateway Arch in St Louis, topped out on October 28
  • In St. Louis, Missouri, the 630-foot (190 m)-tall inverted catenary steel Gateway Arch was topped out, as Vice President Hubert Humphrey observed from a helicopter, and an opening ceremony, originally scheduled for October 17, was held. A time capsule, containing the signatures of 762,000 students and others, was welded into the keystone before the final piece was set in place.[99] A Catholic priest and a rabbi prayed over the keystone,[100] a 10 short tons (9.1 t), 8-foot-long (2.4 m) triangular section.[101]
  • Mehdi Ben Barka, a Moroccan politician, was kidnapped in Paris and never seen again.
  • The Moel-y-Parc transmitting station, the tallest structure in North Wales, began transmissions of BBC 405-line TV in addition to ITV, obtaining its signal from an SHF link on the Great Orme which picked up the signal from Llanddona on Anglesey.
  • Born: Francisco Domínguez Brito, Attorney General of the Dominican Republic (2006–2010), in Santiago de los Caballeros

October 29, 1965 (Friday)[edit]

Moors murderers Ian Brady and Myra Hindley
  • Ian Brady and Myra Hindley appeared in court and were charged with the murders of Edward Evans (17), Lesley Ann Downey (10), and John Kilbride (12).
  • An 80-kiloton nuclear device was detonated at Amchitka Island, Alaska as part of the Vela Uniform program, code-named Project Long Shot.

October 30, 1965 (Saturday)[edit]

October 31, 1965 (Sunday)[edit]

  • Died: Jan Kowalewski, 73, Polish cryptologist, intelligence officer, engineer, journalist and military commander

References[edit]

  1. ^ Crouch, Harold (1978), The Army and Politics in Indonesia, Politics and International Relations of Southeast Asia, Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, ISBN 0-8014-1155-6. p101
  2. ^ Ricklefs, M.C. (1982) A History of Modern Indonesia, MacMillan. ISBN 0-333-24380-3. p. 281.
  3. ^ Roosa, John (2006). Pretext for Mass Murder: The September 30th Movement and Suharto's Coup d'État in Indonesia. Madison, Wisconsin: The University of Wisconsin Press. ISBN 978-0-299-22034-1. p 35
  4. ^ "Coup Attempts Rock Indonesia; Sukarno Reported in Control", Spokane (WA) Spokesman-Review, October 2, 1965, p1
  5. ^ "Phones Link Sealab Crews of 2 Nations", Chicago Tribune, October 2, 1965, p7
  6. ^ "Modest Negro Bishop Native of Lake Charles", Lake Charles (LA) American-Press, October 3, 1965, p1
  7. ^ "Name Negro Bishop; 1st of Century in U.S.", Chicago Tribune, October 3, 1965, p1
  8. ^ "Brezhnev Attains Higher Status in Reshuffle", Chicago Tribune, October 3, 1965, p4
  9. ^ "Dodgers Win Pennant as Koufax Beats Milwaukee", Chicago Tribune, October 3, 1965, p2-1
  10. ^ Margaret Sands Orchowski, The Law that Changed the Face of America: The Immigration and Nationality Act of 1965 (Rowman & Littlefield, 2015) pp39-40
  11. ^ "Remarks at the Signing of the Immigration Bill, Liberty Island, New York, October 3, 1965" UC-Santa Barbara American Presidency Project
  12. ^ "Guevara Quit: Castro", Chicago Tribune, October 4, 1965, p2
  13. ^ History of Cuba: Che's Farewell Letter to Fidel Castro. Accessed 12 January 2014
  14. ^ "Pope Paul Arrives In America— First Ponitff To Visit U.S.", Odessa (TX) American, October 4, 1965, p1
  15. ^ "POPE FLYING BACK HOME— Urges End to War; Sees President", Chicago Tribune, October 5, 1965, p1
  16. ^ "90,000 Join Pontiff at Stadium Mass", Chicago Tribune, October 5, 1965, p5
  17. ^ Anne Stensvold, Religion, State and the United Nations: Value Politics (Routledge, 2016) p102
  18. ^ "81 Perish In Africa Train Crash", Fresno (CA) Bee, October 5, 1965, p1
  19. ^ "Train Death Toll Climbs to 86", Pasadena (CA) Independent, October 8, 1965, p12
  20. ^ Patricia Marchak, No Easy Fix: Global Responses to Internal Wars and Crimes Against Humanity (McGill-Queen's University Press, 2008) p101
  21. ^ Yuki Tanaka and Marilyn B. Young, Bombing Civilians: A Twentieth-Century History (The New Press, 2013)
  22. ^ "Launch First Rocket to Orbit West to East", Chicago Tribune, October 6, 1965, p
  23. ^ Dirk C. Gibson, Serial Murder and Media Circuses (Greenwood Publishing Group, 2006) p65
  24. ^ David Smith, with Carol Ann Lee, Evil Relations: The Man Who Bore Witness Against the Moors Murderers (Random House, 2012)
  25. ^ "Brady, Ian Duncan, and Hindley, Myra", in The Encyclopedia of Kidnappings by Michael Newton (Infobase Publishing, 2002) p35
  26. ^ Stats.Football.Co.UK
  27. ^ Richard Cox, et al., Encyclopedia of British Football (Taylor & Francis, 2002) p294
  28. ^ "The Netherlands and the Law of the Sea", by Harm M. Dotinga and Alfred H.A. Soons, in The Law of the Sea: The European Union and Its Member States (Martinus Nijhoff, 1997) p401
  29. ^ "Jap Boats Missing with 200 Crewmen", Bridgeport (CT) Post, October 8, 1965, p19
  30. ^ "Hints Luna 7 Destroyed as It Hit the Moon— British Expert Says Signals Stopped", Chicago Tribune, October 8, 1965, p10
  31. ^ "Russia Admits Soft Landing on Moon Fails— But Luna 7 Rocket Reached Its Surface", Chicago Tribune, October 9, 1965, p11
  32. ^ "Plan to Drop 1st A-Bomb on Germany Told— Groves Says F.D.R. Feared Stalemate", Chicago Tribune, October 8, 1965, p22
  33. ^ Adrian Vickers, A History of Modern Indonesia (Cambridge University Press, 2005)
  34. ^ Victor M. Fic, Anatomy of the Jakarta Coup, October 1, 1965: The Collusion with China which Destroyed the Army Command, President Sukarno and the Communist Party of Indonesia (Yayasan Obor Indonesia, 2005) p260
  35. ^ "IOC Decides Key Issues", Long Beach (CA) Independent, October 9, 1965, p1
  36. ^ "London's Tallest Building Opened", San Antonio Express and News, October 9, 1965, p1
  37. ^ BT Archives. Accessed 12 January 2014
  38. ^ "Rhodesia Talks End in Disagreement", Glasgow Herald, October 9, 1965, p1
  39. ^ "Rhodesian Independence Conference Collapses", Chicago Tribune, October 9, 1965, p11
  40. ^ Chinnery, Philip D., Vietnam: The Helicopter War, Annapolis, Maryland: Naval Institute Press, 1991, ISBN 978-1-55750-875-1, pp. 55-58.
  41. ^ "LBJ SURGERY 'COMPLETE SUCCESS'", Bridgeport (CT) Post, October 8, 1965, p1
  42. ^ "LBJ WORKS FROM HOSPITAL BED", San Mateo (CA) Times, October 9, 1965, p1
  43. ^ "Johnson Visits Wounded Marines in Hospital, Goes to White House", Chicago Tribune, October 22, 1965, p1
  44. ^ "'Beautify Highways Bill Passed After Rough Session in House", Bridgeport (CT) Post, October 8, 1965, p1
  45. ^ "Iron Triangle", in The A to Z of the Vietnam War, by Edwin E. Moïse (Scarecrow Press, 2005) p193
  46. ^ Konstantin V. Slavin, Peripheral Nerve Stimulation (Karger Medical and Scientific Publishers, 2011) p3
  47. ^ "8 Women Die After Heart Tonic Shots", Chicago Tribune, October 10, 1965, p2
  48. ^ "1st Boatload of Cuba Refugees Due Today", Chicago Tribune, October 11, 1965, p5
  49. ^ "16 Refugees from Cuba Land in Florida, Chicago Tribune, October 12, 1965, p17
  50. ^ "Suharto", in Historical Dictionary of Indonesia, by Audrey Kahin (Rowman & Littlefield, 2015) p445
  51. ^ "Turks' Justice Party Heads for Landslide", Chicago Tribune, October 11, 1965, p1A-4
  52. ^ "East German Voters Snub Ballot Right", Chicago Tribune, October 11, 1965, p4
  53. ^ "Publication Resumed by 3 Papers in N.Y.", Chicago Tribune, October 11, 1965, p2
  54. ^ Peter Shelley, Gwen Verdon: A Life on Stage and Screen (McFarland, 2015) p102
  55. ^ "Farmer Takes Reins of Norway Tomorrow", Chicago Tribune, October 10, 1965, p2
  56. ^ "Four Drown as Ship Sinks" The Times (London). Tuesday, 12 October 1965. (56450), col D, p. 9.
  57. ^ "Map Proves Norse Explored America— Chart Predates Voyages of Columbus", Chicago Tribune, October 11, 1965, p1A-12
  58. ^ "Who's Eriksen, Italians Ask— Yale Map Stirs a Storm Also in New York, Chicago Tribune, October 12, 1965, p3
  59. ^ Simon Garfield, On the Map: A Mind-Expanding Exploration of the Way the World Looks (Penguin, 2013) p99
  60. ^ "U.N. Urges Use of Force in Rhodesia", Chicago Tribune, October 13, 1965, p1
  61. ^ "Tshombe Is Ousted as Premier— Kasavubu Names Ex-Katanga Aide His Successor", Chicago Tribune, October 14, 1965, p14
  62. ^ "Dr. Paul Müller." (PDF). Nature. 208 (5015): 1043–4. December 1965. doi:10.1038/2081043b0. ISSN 0028-0836. PMID 5331547. Retrieved 2012-11-24. 
  63. ^ "DODGERS CHAMPS ON SANDY'S FASTBALL", Chicago Tribune, October 15, 1965, p3-1
  64. ^ "Koufax Cinches Series", Pasadena (CA) Independent, October 15, 1965, p1
  65. ^ "Randall Jarrell, Poet, Killed By Car in Carolina." The New York Times 15 October 1965.
  66. ^ "Declaration on Jews OK'd 1,763 to 250— Holds Them Blameless for Crucifixion", Chicago Tribune, October 16, 1965, p7
  67. ^ "'Don River' Writer Wins Nobel Prize— Split Decision by Judges Hinted", Chicago Tribune, October 16, 1965, p3
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