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Stereo, skeletal formula of octopine ((2S)-2-{[(1R)-1-carboxyethyl]amino})
IUPAC name
2-[[1-Carboxyethyl]amino]-5-(diaminomethylideneamino)pentanoic acid[citation needed]
3D model (JSmol)
  • 414 ☒N
  • 389221 (2S)-2-Amino ☒N
  • 97253 (2S)-2-{[(1R)-1-Carboxyethyl]amino} ☒N
MeSH octopine
Molar mass 246.267 g·mol−1
Related compounds
Related alkanoic acids
Related compounds
Except where otherwise noted, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C [77 °F], 100 kPa).
☒N verify (what is ☑Y☒N ?)
Infobox references

Octopine is a derivative of the amino acids arginine and alanine. It was the first member of the class of chemical compounds known as opines to be discovered. Octopine gets its name from Octopus octopodia from which it was first isolated in 1927.[1]

Octopine has been isolated from the muscle tissue of invertebrates such as octopus, Pecten maximus and Sipunculus nudus where it functions as an analog of lactic acid.[2] It is also produced by Agrobacterium and causes crown gall tumor growth in plants.[3]

Octopine is formed by reductive condensation of pyruvic acid and arginine through the action of the NADH-dependent enzyme octopine dehydrogenase (ODH).[4] The reaction is reversible so that pyruvic acid and arginine can be regenerated.

Synthesis octopine.svg


  1. ^ Morizawa, Kiyoshi (1927). "The extractive substances in Octopus octopodia". Acta Scholae Medicinalis Universitatis Imperialis in Kioto. 9: 285–298.
  2. ^ Hockachka, P.; Hartline, P.; Fields, J. (1977). "Octopine as an end product of anaerobic glycolysis in the chambered nautilus". Science. 195 (4273): 72–4. doi:10.1126/science.831256. PMID 831256.
  3. ^ Lippincott, James A.; Lippincott, Barbara B. (1970). "Lysopine and octopine promote crown-gall tumor growth in vivo". Science. 170 (3954): 176–177. doi:10.1126/science.170.3954.176. PMID 17833501.
  4. ^ Smits, Sander H.J.; Mueller, Andre; Schmitt, Lutz; Grieshaber, Manfred K. (2008). "A Structural Basis for Substrate Selectivity and Stereoselectivity in Octopine Dehydrogenase from Pecten maximus". Journal of Molecular Biology. 381 (1): 200–11. doi:10.1016/j.jmb.2008.06.003. PMID 18599075.