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Oculoplastics, or oculoplastic surgery, includes a wide variety of surgical procedures that deal with the orbit (eye socket), eyelids, tear ducts, and the face.[1] It also deals with the reconstruction of the eye and associated structures.


Oculoplastic surgeons (ophthalmic surgeons) are ophthalmologists (eye physicians) who complete 1–2 years of additional fellowship training following their ophthalmology residency. Members of the American Society of Ophthalmic Plastic and Reconstructive Surgeons (ASOPRS) are the most highly qualified of oculoplastic surgeons in North America. To qualify, members must have passed their American Board of Ophthalmology exams (be board certified) in addition to passing written and oral board examination through ASOPRS. There is an additional requirement of making a significant contribution to the field of oculoplastics, which may take the form of a peer-reviewed publication. Other types of surgeons may be trained in oculoplastic procedures, including plastic surgeons and otolaryngologists.

Oculoplastic procedures[edit]

Oculoplastic surgeons perform procedures such as the repair of droopy eyelids (blepharoplasty), repair of tear duct obstructions, orbital fracture repairs, removal of tumors in and around the eyes, eyelid reconstruction.

Eyelid surgery[edit]

An oculoplastic surgeon performing revisional eyelid surgery.

Entropion, ectropion, ptosis, and eyelid tumors are commonly treated by various forms of eyelid surgery.[2]

Surgery involving the lacrimal apparatus[edit]

Eye removal[edit]

    • An enucleation is the removal of the eye leaving the eye muscles and remaining orbital contents intact.[9]
    • An evisceration is the removal of the eye's contents, leaving the scleral shell intact. Usually performed to reduce pain in a blind eye.[10]
    • An exenteration is the removal of the entire orbital contents, including the eye, extraocular muscles, fat, and connective tissues; usually for malignant orbital tumors.[11]

Orbital reconstruction[edit]


See also[edit]

  1. ^ ""Oculoplastics" EyeMDLink.com". Retrieved September 23, 2006. 
  2. ^ "Eyelid Surgery.". Indiana University Department of Ophthalmology. Archived from the original on April 2, 2007. Retrieved October 19, 2006. 
  3. ^ "Surgery Encyclopedia – Blepharoplasty". 
  4. ^ Marcet MM, Phelps PO, Lai JS (2015). "Involutional entropion: risk factors and surgical remedies.". Current Opinion of Ophthalmology. PMID 26154839. 
  5. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l Cline D; Hofstetter HW; Griffin JR. Dictionary of Visual Science. 4th ed. Butterworth-Heinemann, Boston 1997. ISBN 0-7506-9895-0
  6. ^ Marcet MM, Kuk AK, Phelps PO (2014). "Evidence-based review of surgical practices in endoscopic endonasal dacryocystorhinostomy for primary acquired nasolacrimal duct obstruction and other new indications.". Current Opinion of Ophthalmology. PMID 24979582. 
  7. ^ Cherkunov BF, Lapshina AV. "Canaliculodacryocystostomy in obstruction of medial end of the lacrimal duct." Oftalmol Zh. 1976;31(7):544-8. PMID 1012635.
  8. ^ Indiana University Department of Ophthalmology. "Lacrimal Drainage Surgery (DCR: Dacryocystorhinostomy)." Retrieved August 18, 2006
  9. ^ "Surgery Encyclopedia – Enucleation". 
  10. ^ Cassin, B. and Solomon, S. Dictionary of Eye Terminology. Gainesville, Florida: Triad Publishing Company, 1990.
  11. ^ "Surgery Encyclopedia – Exenteration". 
  12. ^ "Browplasty".