Oda Nobuhide

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Oda Nobuhide
織田 信秀
Statue of Oda Nobuhide at Banshō-ji.jpg
Statue of Oda Nobuhide at Banshō-ji
Head of Oda clan
In office
1538–1551
Preceded byOda Nobusada
Succeeded byOda Nobunaga
Personal details
Born1510 (1510)
Owari Province, Japan
DiedApril 8, 1551(1551-04-08) (aged 40–41)
Ōsu Kannon, Nagoya
Spouse(s)Tsuchida Gozen
ChildrenOda Nobuhiro
Oda Nobunaga
Oda Nobuyuki
Oda Nobukane
Oda Nagamasu
Oda Nobuharu
Oda Nobutoki
Oda Hidetaka
Oichi
Oinu
MotherUnknown
FatherOda Nobusada
RelativesOda Nobuyasu (brother)
Oda Nobumitsu (brother)
Oda Nobutsugu (brother)
Oda Nobuzane (brother)
Lady Otsuya (sister)
Military service
Nickname(s)"Tiger of Owari"
尾張の虎
Allegiance織田氏家紋 oda-mokko.png Oda clan
RankDaimyo
Shugodai
Battles/warsSiege of Anjō castle (1540)
Battle of Azukizaka (1542)
Battle of Kanōguchi (1547)
Battle of Azukizaka (1548)

Oda Nobuhide (織田 信秀, 1510 – April 8, 1551) was a Japanese daimyō and magistrate of the Sengoku period known as the father of Oda Nobunaga, regarded as the first "Great Unifier" of Japan. Nobuhide was a deputy shugo (Shugodai) of lower Owari Province and head of the Oda clan which controlled most of Owari.

Biography[edit]

Oda Nobuhide was born in 1510 in Owari Province, the eldest son of Oda Nobusada, the head of the Oda clan and a shugodai (deputy shugo) of the lower Owari area. Nobuhide became head of the Oda clan when Nobusada died in 1538, and became involved in open warfare as he was confronted to the north by Saitō Dōsan, the daimyō of Mino Province, and to the east by Imagawa Yoshimoto, the daimyō of Mikawa, Suruga, and Tōtōmi provinces.

In 1540, Nobuhide attacked and took Anjō castle, which was held by the Matsudaira clan. He was assisted by Mizuno Tadamasa, his son, Oda Nobuhiro, was installed as the lord of the castle.

In 1542 he defeated Imagawa Yoshimoto at First Battle of Azukizaka. Nobuhide managed to hold his own against his opponents, but was never able to fully unite Owari due to constant internal struggles within Oda clan, which prevented him from achieving a complete victory.

In 1547, Nobuhide was defeated at the Battle of Kanōguchi by Saitō Dōsan.[1]

In 1548, Imagawa defeated Nobuhide in the Second Battle of Azukizaka and continued to expand his territory until 1560.

In 1549, Nobuhide made peace with Dōsan by arranging a political marriage between his eldest son, Oda Nobunaga, and Saitō Dōsan daughter, Nōhime. Dōsan supported the marriage which allowed Nobuhide focus on facing Yoshimoto. In one of his moments of glory, Nobuhide managed to capture Matsudaira Motoyasu (later known Tokugawa Ieyasu), son of Matsudaira Hirotada as a hostage en route to Yoshimoto, and was thus able to gain some footholds into Mikawa.

Nobuhide died unexpectedly in 1551, and his remains are interred in a little-known alley near Osu Kannon temple in Nagoya.[2][3]

Succession controversy[edit]

Nobuhide's eldest son Oda Nobuhiro was illegitimate, and before his death designated the young Nobunaga, his eldest legitimate son, to succeed him as the head of the Oda clan and its small domain.[4][5] Nobunaga, who hardly knew his father and already had a bad reputation as a delinquent in Owari, arrived inappropriately dressed at Nobuhide's funeral and threw incense at the altar of the temple as he cursed his fate. Nobunaga's behavior and reputation resulted in almost all support that Nobuhide's retainers would have given him to disappear. Almost all Oda retainers and Nobunaga's mother Tsuchida Gozen favored his younger brother, Oda Nobuyuki, who was considered to be well-behaved and reputable. As a result, Nobunaga was left with support from Hirate Masahide and his father-in-law Saitō Dōsan, whom he had never met before, and a succession crisis. Many of Nobuhide's relatives and retainers attempted to usurp his heir, and it would take seven years for Nobunaga to consolidate his power within the Oda clan and finally unite Owari Province. Nobunaga eventually conquered most of Japan, beginning his campaign in Owari, and became known as the first of the three "Great Unifiers" of the Sengoku period.[6]

Family[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Turnbull, Stephen (1998). The Samurai Sourcebook. Cassell & Co. p. 211. ISBN 1854095234.
  2. ^ "Oda Nobuhide - SamuraiWiki". wiki.samurai-archives.com. Retrieved 2020-08-23.
  3. ^ Pitelka, Morgan (2016). Spectacular accumulation. University of Hawai'i Press. ISBN 978-0-8248-5736-3.
  4. ^ Sansom, George (1961). A History of Japan, 1334–1615. Stanford University Press. p. 276. ISBN 0804705259.
  5. ^ Titsingh, Isaac. (1834). Annales des empereurs du japon, p. 381.
  6. ^ kato. "Oda Nobuhide". Samurai World (in Japanese). Retrieved 2020-08-23.