The Odenwaldschule was a German school located in Heppenheim in the Odenwald. Founded in 1910, it was Germany's oldest Landerziehungsheim, a private boarding school located in a rural setting. Edith and Paul Geheeb established it using their concept of progressive education, which integrated the work of the head and hand. The school went bankrupt and was closed in 2015, following the revelation of numerous cases of sexual abuse of students.
History and educational concept
The Odenwaldschule emerged as part of the reformed education movement at the beginning of the 20th century. It was founded by Paul Geheeb on 14 April 1910. Edith Geheeb's father, the town council member for Berlin, Max Cassirer, who supported the Odenwaldschule from that time onwards, financed the land purchase and the buildings.
Geheeb felt inspired by the sentence "be who you are" (Γένοιο οἷος ἔσσι.) from the Greek poet Pindar. Thus the school should promote the community, personality and self-determined actions. At this point in time there were only 14 students. They were all housed in the Goethehaus.
The founders' concept was originally coined by the fundamentals of the work schools, or example in the introduction of a course system and the dispensation with year groups. All students should be able to co-create, participate and be equally responsible. The Odenwaldschule is a free community, in which the different generations treat each other impartially and can learn from each other, was the school's rules. Children and adolescents should when possible get individual learning stimuli such as intellectual, practical, musical and artistic learning methods. Learning was connected with vocational training. They lived in a mix-age living area, the families, whose head was the teacher and every year they were rearranged differently. Being on first name basis with the teacher belonged to the further characteristics of the school's educational concept, long before the emergence of anti-authoritarian schooling.
In the 1920s the school was internationally recognised and until 1938 teachers from other countries, such as England and the USA, taught there. From 1924 until 1932 the educator Martin Wagenschein worked at the school. In 1934 Paul and Edith Geheeb emigrated to Switzerland with around 25 students and some teachers and formed the Ecole d’Humanité there. In 1939 the Reicharbeitsdienst (Reich Labour Service) requested the takeover of the Odenwaldschule because it contradicted the "concept of the national socialistic schooling community." The school was run by Minna Specht from 1946 to 1951.
After the Second World War, the school's teaching system was reformed many times. In 1963 it became a UNESCO ASPNet project. The school was a member of the Schulverbund Blick über den Zaun (literally: School Union - view over the fence).
Integrated Comprehensive School
The Odenwaldschule was an integrated comprehensive school. It was possible to pass through a joiner or a metalwork vocational course with a state qualification alongside the technical diploma or the full A Level equivalent. It was also possible to do an information technician assistant course or a chemistry technician assistant course alongside the German equivalent to an A Level.
Life at the Odenwaldschule
There was 250 school places. At the end of 2011 there was roughly 200 students at the Odenwaldschule. In 2010 almost half of the students came from the state of Hesse, one fifth came directly from the Bergstraße district, "almost a third were state supported children." Most of them lived at the boarding school in family-like living groups of six to ten people. The average class size was 17 students. Roughly half of the 120 employees were teachers at the school.
For a boarding school place £1,670 (2.370 €) had to be paid (as of the 2012/13 academic year). There was additional fees for vocational courses. External students paid a lower amount.
In 1998 reports from former students were made public, according to which the then at the time headmaster Gerold Becker had sexually abused multiple students from the 1970s to the 1980s. Andreas Huckele, a former student, who went to the Odenwaldschule from 1981 to 1988 and was later protected by the Frankfurter Rundschau with the pseudonym Jürgen Dehmers, had sent two letters to headmaster Wolfgang Harder in June 1998.
The school explained in 1998, the former headmaster had never contradicted "the victim's statements when he had to meet with the board of directors and vacated his functions and duties of the Odenwaldschule's sponsoring organisation". In 1998 the victims of sexual abuse met with the former headteacher Harder and the former SPD-MP Peter Conradi as the vice-president of the sponsoring organisation and agreed on reviewing the abuse cases, but this did not take place.
In the late 1990s, and again in 2010, the school became the center of national attention, when an investigation revealed the sexual abuse of more than 130 pupils by at least 8 teachers in the 1970s and 1980s.
One year late the Darmstadt prosecution service dismissed the penal case review due to statutory limitations. When Jörg Schindler reported about it in the Frankfurter Rundschau in November 1999, Florian Lindermann, the former spokesman for the former students, criticized the coverage as over the top.
In 2010 Margarita Kaufmann, headmistress at the school since 2007, called for a new inquiry into the sex abuse cases. Kaufmann spoke of 33 victims that she knew of and eight teachers that she believed were guilty of sexual assault between 1966 and 1991. In the meantime it was assumed that more than ten teachers were perpetrators. The music teacher Wolfgang Held, who died in 2006, was named as the main perpetrator alongside Becker. The Frankfurter Rundschau daily newspaper reported on 6 March 2010 that there were believed to be between 50 and 100 victims. The Darmstadt prosecution service once more dismissed six of the 13 preliminary proceedings until 2 May 2010. At the end of May 2010 the prosecution service investigated six former teachers and one student. There was no court ruling until the end of 2012.
In a letter sent by Gerold Becker to the Odenwaldschule in March 2010, he asked his victims for forgiveness and renewed his offer to come forward and speak to the victims. Becker died on 7 July 2010 without suffering legal consequences.
The board of directors at the Odenwaldschule initially rejected financial compensation for the victims in a July 2010 letter. In September 2010, however, the board of directors promised financial compensation for 50 former students who were affected. Additionally, there remained further unresolved cases requiring review.
The lawyers Claudia Burgsmüller and Brigitte Tilmann were entrusted with the task of reviewing the sex abuse cases in the early part of 2010. According to the final report from 17 December 2010 at least 132 students were victims of attack by teachers between 1965 and 1998. The lawyers said the documentation was incomplete.
Official school letters, found in archive and reviewed in a dissertation, point to sexual abuse of girls and boys under the management of Paul and Edith Geheeb. However no one contacted the police.
In March 2011 Christian Füller's monograph, entitled Sündenfall. Wie die Reformschule ihre Ideale missbrauchte (literally- The Fall of Man. How the reform school abused its ideals), was published. Füller calls the school, when it was under Becker's management, a "reformed education paradise with a torture chamber in the basement" based on the model of a "aristocratic patriarchy". He speaks of paedophiles and "robbers of childhood", which had systematically taken over the part of the school.
Two months later Tilman Jens, a former student and up until the summer of 2014 a member of the Odenwaldschule's sponsoring organisation, published the book Freiwild. Die Odenwaldschule - Ein Lehrstück von Tätern und Opfern. (literally - Fair game. The Odenwaldschule - a lesson of attackers and victims.) Jens demanded a balanced coverage: contrary to the customs of the constitutional state also innocent people were denounced as assailants or co-assailants. In October 2014 an article of in Deutschlandfunk reported him as saying that even if the film Die Auserwählten (The Favored Few) was filmed at the Odenwaldschule -showing a willingness on the part of school's management to confront the history of misconduct -it failed in previous years to reach further resolutions.
In September 2010 several victims formed a group called Glasbrechen (literally - breaking of glass), with the goal of helping people who had experienced sexual, physical and psychological attacks.
In July 2011 the former headmistress Kaufmann resigned from her office to focus on the review of the sexual abuse cases.
Without any media presence the club Odenwaldschule e.V. with the Altschülervereinigung und Förderkreis der Odenwaldschule e.V. (literally - Association of former students and society for promotion of the Odenwaldschule) formed the foundation "Brücken bauen" (literally - building bridges). According to its charter the foundation carries out and supports measures to aid victims of sexual violence, physical, psychological abuse at the Odenwaldschule.
A fierce critic of the review is Andreas Huckele, known for his book Wie laut soll ich denn noch schreien?, which he wrote under a pseudonym. In his acceptance speech for winning the Geschwister-Scholl-Preis in 2012 he criticized the lack of action taken by the school since the first article was published in the Frankfurter Runschau in 1999.
Teachers and management dismissed because of child pornography
On 9 April 2014 a teacher, who taught and lived there from 2011, had their room searched through by the authorities. The teacher admitted to having downloaded from the internet child pornography before his appointment at the Odenwaldschule. He was immediately dismissed from teaching at the school. The district administrator Matthias Wilkes criticised the school's management because they had not adhered to promised transparency.
After this incident in June 2014, the headmaster Däschler-Seiler handed in his resignation. In July 2014, the sponsoring organisation dismissed the entire management.
Attempts to save the Odenwaldschule
In February 2015, Gerhard Herbert, as chairman of the sponsoring organisation, introduced a new management team consisting of the boarding school's headteacher Sonya Mayoufi, born in 1973, and manager Marcus Halfen-Kieper, born in 1967. The new management team tried to rebuild trust in the Odenwaldschule and put an end to the organisation's failures from the last couple of years. Additionally the school's sponsorship was to be transferred to a foundation and to a not-for-profit private limited company. The new management team should take over the running of the company after they received permission, however the sponsoring organisation dismissed the team on 27 July 2015 after having disputed with them.
Closure of the school
The sponsoring organisation publicly announced on 25 April 2015 that it had not succeeded in securing the finances for the next couple of years, after a large part of the trust founded by banks and former students had been squandered. This meant the definite end of the school. The remaining time until the next academic year was used to gradually disintegrate all school operations and to move the students to other schools, according to Vice District Administrator Schimpf. "The school is where it is now through its own mistakes, its own structures, by turning a blind eye and ducking away, through its own non-action", the head of the management team, Marcus Halfen-Kieper, explained. "We could and should neither try to blame the responsibility for the situation on the media nor the regulators or the politics nor even the victims of sexual assault at the school."
Parents and students fought for keeping the school open. On 30 May 2015, the chairman of the sponsoring organisation resigned after temporarily giving up the reigns to the new management team on 17 May 2015. The school, parents and former students hoped to win over investors for financing the next two academic years by setting up a trust, which would have to be proven for permission to reopen the school. The lack of permission blocked the active acquisition of new students.
On 15 May 2015, the board of directors declared that its financial means for the maintenance of the school had been used up. On 16 June 2015, the sponsoring organisation declared itself bankrupt and in September 2015, the school was permanently closed.
In 2016, the inventory of the school (furniture, tools and also the library) were sold by public auction, the archive was given to a public archive in Darmstadt for preservation. Months later, the buildings were sold to an entrepreneur from Mannheim. Also in 2016, a group consisting of parents and donors who wanted to reopen the school under a new name ("Schuldorf Lindenstein") declared the end of their efforts.
According to the purchaser of the school's buildings, the buildings are planned to be renovated and established as a housing complex, a holiday park and a historical museum following the acquisition of adjacent land. The new amenities are planned to provide space for 300 people and will be named "Wohnpark Ober-Hambach".
- Hans Bethe
- Daniel Cohn-Bendit
- Nigel Dennis
- Amelie Fried
- Klaus Gysi
- Wolfgang Hildesheimer
- Felicitas Kukuck
- Klaus Mann
- Sandra Nettelbeck (daughter of Uwe Nettelbeck)
- Konstantin Neven DuMont
- Rosalinda von Ossietzky-Palm (daughter of Carl von Ossietzky)
- Wolfgang Porsche
- Dankwart Rustow
- Rudolf Ritsema
- Andreas von Weizsäcker (son of Richard von Weizsäcker)
- Oda Schottmüller
Notable staff and teachers
- Und wir sind nicht die Einzigen. Director: Christoph Röhl; Produzenten: Dirk Wilutzky, Anja Wedell; Redakteure: Inge Classen, Udo Bremer. Eine Produktion von Herbstfilm im Auftrag von 3Sat 2011, 85 min
- Geschlossene Gesellschaft.
- Die Auserwählten. Director: Christoph Röhl
- Detmers, Jürgen (2011). Wie laut soll ich denn noch schreien? Die Odenwaldschule und der sexuelle Missbrauch (in German). Rowohlt, Reinbek. ISBN 978-3-498-01332-5.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Odenwaldschule.|
- Dr. Inge Hansen-Schaberg, Erinnerung an Minna Specht Archived 21 October 2008 at the Wayback Machine Philosophical-Political Academy. Retrieved July 19, 2010 (in German)
- "Sonder- und Videomaut". asfinag.at. Retrieved 12 February 2015.
- Jörg Schindler (17 November 1999). "Der Lack ist ab". Frankfurter Rundschau. Retrieved 9 August 2011.
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- Duden. Das große Wörterbuch der deutschen Sprache in zehn Bänden. Mannheim 1999, ISBN 3-411-04743-7, s. v. ahoi
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- Claudia Burgsmüller, Brigitte Tilmann Abschlussbericht über die bisherigen Mitteilungen über sexuelle Ausbeutung von Schülern und Schülerinnen an der Odenwaldschule im Zeitraum 1960 bis 2010 (PDF; 395 kB)
- Matthias Bartsch, Markus Verbeet (2010), "Die Wurzeln des Missbrauchs", Der Spiegel, 19. Juli 2010 (29)
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- "Paradies mit Folterkeller". tagesspiegel.de. undatiert. Retrieved 7 December 2014. Check date values in:
- Tilman Jens im Gespräch mit Joachim Scholl: "Wir haben nicht genau hingeguckt". Odenwaldschule: Tilman Jens beklagt "Hatz" auf nachweislich unschuldige Lehrer. Deutschlandradio Kultur, Radiofeuilleton, 16. Mai 2011, 15.07 Uhr, abgerufen am 17. Mai 2011
- "Deutschlandfunk – Film über Odenwaldschule Stockende Aufklärung". Retrieved 3 October 2014.
- Adrian Koerfer: Erneut versagt die Schule, Frankfurter Rundschau, 17. September 2011
- Satzung des Vereins "Glasbrechen". (PDF; 99 kB) Stand 24. Oktober 2012
- dpa (9 June 2011). "Missbrauchsskandal: Leiterin der Odenwaldschule tritt zurück". zeit.de. Retrieved 7 December 2014.
- Die Stifter. Website der Stiftung "Brücken bauen", abgerufen am 30. April 2013.
- "Sexueller Missbrauch: 7.000 Euro für Opfer der Odenwaldschule". zeit.de. 18 January 2012. Retrieved 7 December 2014.
- Stiftungszweck und Förderrahmen. Website der Stiftung "Brücken bauen", abgerufen am 30. April 2013.
- Jürgen Detmers: Wie laut soll ich denn noch schreien? Die Odenwaldschule und der sexuelle Missbrauch. Rowohlt, Reinbek 2011, ISBN 978-3-498-01332-5
- "Odenwaldschule soll Ferienpark werden". spiegel.de. 20 April 2017. Retrieved 20 April 2017.
- "Odenwaldschule: Familie Weizsäcker bricht Schweigen". Spiegel Online. 27 March 2010. Retrieved 6 October 2015.
- Tobias Büchner. "zero one film: Inhalt". Archived from the original on 5 March 2017. Retrieved 2 October 2014.
- "Film zum Missbrauchsskandal an der Odenwaldschule". 5 July 2014. Retrieved 2 October 2014.