Odeon Cinemas

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Odeon Cinemas Limited
TypeSubsidiary
IndustryEntertainment
Founded1928; 93 years ago (1928)
FounderOscar Deutsch
HeadquartersLondon, England, UK
Number of locations
122 (United Kingdom)
11 (Ireland)
Area served
United Kingdom, Ireland and Norway
Key people
Mark Way (Group chief executive officer)
ParentOdeon Cinemas Group
(AMC Entertainment Holdings, Inc)
Websitewww.odeon.co.uk
www.odeoncinemas.ie

Odeon, stylised as ODEON, is a cinema brand name operating in the United Kingdom, Ireland and Norway, which along with UCI Cinemas and Nordic Cinema Group is part of the Odeon Cinemas Group subsidiary of AMC Theatres. It uses the famous name of the Odeon cinema circuit first introduced in Great Britain in 1930.

The first Odeon cinema was opened by Oscar Deutsch in 1928, in Brierley Hill, Staffordshire (now West Midlands), although initially called "Picture House". The first cinema to use the Odeon brand name was Deutsch's cinema at Perry Barr, Birmingham in 1930. Ten years later Odeon was part of the Rank Organisation who continued their ownership of the circuit for a further sixty years. Through a number of sales and acquisitions in the early 2000s the company was purchased by Terra Firma, which merged Odeon and UCI Cinemas to form Odeon UCI Cinemas Group. Most UCI cinemas then took the Odeon brand name in 2006. Terra Firma/UCI sold the company to AMC Theatres in November 2016. Ironically, UCI was originally formed through the merger of AMC UK and Cinema International Corporation in 1989.

As of 2016, Odeon is the largest cinema chain in the United Kingdom by market share (although the Irish cinemas were also included within this figure).[1][2][3]

On 17 March 2020, Odeon temporarily closed its theatres due to the COVID-19 pandemic.[4]

History[edit]

Establishment[edit]

One of the former Odeon cinemas in Leeds. This is now a Sports Direct branch.

Odeon Cinemas was created in 1928 by Oscar Deutsch. Odeon publicists liked to claim that the name of the cinemas was derived from his motto, "Oscar Deutsch Entertains Our Nation",[5] but it had been used for cinemas in France and Italy in the 1920s, and the word is actually Ancient Greek ᾨδεῖον, Ōideion, meaning "a place for singing".[6] The word "Nickelodeon" was coined in 1888 and was widely used to describe small cinemas in the United States starting from 1905.

The first cinema opened by Deutsch was located in Brierley Hill, Staffordshire, England in 1928.[7] The building has long since been demolished, but as of 2006, the former UCI cinema (built in the 1980s as an AMC multiplex) at the Merry Hill Shopping Centre in Brierley Hill was refurbished as an Odeon cinema. However, its style is more functional than that of original Odeon cinemas.

The first cinema that opened under the Odeon brand was in 1930, located in Perry Barr, Birmingham.[8][9] It was designed by Harry Weedon using maritime-inspired Art Deco architecture. The frontage was remodelled following damage sustained during the Second World War and, having been a bingo hall, has since been converted into a conference venue.

Expansion[edit]

In 1932, Deutsch acquired more sites and planned construction of a chain of cinemas; commissioning Weedon to design his future buildings,[10] with five opening in 1933.[11] Each Odeon cinema had a character different from most other cinemas in the UK, often having a unique and spectacular interior.

George Coles was also one of their principal architects, remodelling a partially complete assembly hall in Portslade and designing his first purpose-built cinema in Upper Wickham Lane, Welling, Kent which opened on 22 October 1934 and closed on 22 October 1960. It is currently a bingo club in the Mecca chain. It featured central linear lighting, a feature that became characteristic of his work. 15 other Odeon cinemas opened in 1934.[11]

In 1935, Deutsch commissioned John Maltby (1910–80), a professional photographer, to photograph every cinema in the Odeon chain at that time. The resulting collection, of internal and external photographs, is held in the public archive of English Heritage and can be seen online. 13 more Odeon cinemas opened in 1935. The same year, United Artists took a stake in the company for a nominal sum plus the supply of its films to the chain.[11]

In 1936, 35 more Odeons opened and in 1937, the Odeon Leicester Square opened in Leicester Square, London, which became the chain's flagship cinema. Another 35 Odeons also opened in 1937, with the chain concentrating on bigger cities. They also took over County Cinemas and George Singleton Cinemas in Scotland. Odeon Theatres Limited was formed to consolidate the chain of 250 cinemas into one public company.[11]

In 1938, Deutsch sold an interest in the business to J. Arthur Rank, who was in the process of forming the Rank Organisation. In 1939, they acquired most of the small UK cinema operations of Paramount Pictures, including key sites in Birmingham, Glasgow, Leeds, Liverpool and Newcastle upon Tyne.[11]

By the time of Deutsch's death in December 1941, the chain had 258 cinemas throughout Britain, including 142 specially built.[12] After his death, his wife sold his shares to Rank, giving Rank control of both Odeon and the rival Gaumont-British chain, which the Rank Organisation had acquired earlier in the year.[11] In July 1942, Odeon acquired a second tranche of the Paramount chain, including the Paramount Theatre in Tottenham Court Road, later renamed the Odeon Tottenham Court Road.[13]

In 1948, Rank merged the management and booking operations of Odeon and Gaumont.

In 1953, Odeon brought 3D films, widescreen and CinemaScope to the UK. The Odeon Marble Arch showed Bwana Devil in 3D in March 1953.[14] Later in the year, Odeon showed Tonight We Sing in widescreen at the Odeon Leicester Square[15] and demonstrated CinemaScope at the Odeon Tottenham Court Road to the trade and to the public with The Robe at the Odeon Leicester Square.[13][11]

In January 1959, Rank restructured its exhibition operation and combined the best Gaumonts and the best Odeons for a new "Rank" release,[11] while the rest of their cinemas were given a new "National" release. With the continuing decline in attendance and cinema numbers, the National release died on its feet and henceforth there were two release patterns, Rank and ABC. There was no reason to perpetuate the Gaumont name, and in towns that lost their Odeon, the Gaumont was usually renamed Odeon within a couple of years of the latter's closure. Even so, the Gaumont name continued to linger until, in January 1987, the last Gaumont, in Doncaster, was renamed Odeon.

A smaller number of Odeon cinemas opened in the post-war years (Odeon Marble Arch and Odeon Elephant & Castle being notable instances), but many single-screen cinemas either closed, sub-divided into smaller screens or were converted into other uses, such as bingo. In 1965, Odeon opened their first multiplex converting their site in Nottingham into a twin-screened cinema.[16] In 1989, they built their first multiplex with an 8-screen site in Stoke-on-Trent.[11]

International expansion[edit]

In 1944, Rank acquired a 50% interest in a Canadian chain and built Odeon cinemas there. It partnered with Hoyts in Australia in 1945, and bought chains in Ireland, New Zealand and South Africa in 1946. By 1956, Rank Odeon had expanded to the West Indies, British Malaya and Ceylon and had interest in 585 cinemas overseas.[11] In 1957, they opened a cinema in New York City.[17]

Odeon eventually operated a wholly owned Canadian subsidiary, Odeon Theatres (Canada) Ltd., with more than a hundred cinemas in Canada, coast-to-coast. The head office of Odeon Theatres of Canada was in Toronto, and later, the north Toronto suburb of Willowdale. This business was sold in 1978 to the Canadian Theatres chain and became Canadian Odeon Theatres, then was sold again in 1984 to Cineplex Corporation, forming Cineplex Odeon, then later became known as Loews Cineplex Entertainment.

It also owned fifty percent of an Australian subsidiary, Greater Union Organisation, based in Sydney, with dozens of cinemas across Australia. The Rank Organisation's share of Greater Union Organisation was sold to Amalgamated Holdings Ltd., an Australian company, also in 1984. Greater Union is now known as Event Cinemas.

Present day[edit]

Since the turn of the century, Odeon has undergone a series of sales after the Rank Group needed cash injections to reduce their debt, firstly to Cinven which merged Odeon with Cinven's ABC Cinemas. In 2004, the chain was purchased by Terra Firma and merged with United Cinemas International to produce the largest cinema chain in Europe.[18] As a condition of the merger (imposed by the Office of Fair Trading), Odeon's Newcastle upon Tyne, Sutton Coldfield, Poole, Quinton, Hemel Hempstead and Bromley cinemas were sold to Empire Cinemas. Many smaller, older cinemas such as Odeon Grimsby on Freeman Street were closed to keep market-share within legal limits. The remaining UCI cinemas, including Thefilmworks brands, were rebranded as Odeon from 4 November 2005.

An Odeon Cinema at Intu Merry Hill, Brierley Hill, West Midlands

UCI cinemas in Ireland have also joined the Odeon chain, and while they initially retained the UCI brand name, evidence of the merger became apparent, for example when booking tickets by credit card, the name "Odeon" appeared. The Odeon in-house film review magazine, Onscreen, was now also distributed in the UCI cinemas, retaining the Odeon logo font throughout. In August 2007, UCI launched a new Irish website with an identical layout to odeon.co.uk. This website stated that the Irish cinemas were sold to an Irish group, Entertainment Enterprises, in September 2006. This transaction went unreported in the Irish media. It also stated that the cinemas remained part of the Odeon chain under a management contract. Rank/Odeon previously ran cinemas in Ireland (including the flagship, the Savoy Cinema in O'Connell Street) until 1982, when they were purchased by Ward Anderson. In April 2008, Entertainment Enterprises announced that it purchased the Irish assets of Storm Cinemas, and as with the existing UCI chain, would be contracting the running of the cinemas to Odeon. On 31 May 2011, Odeon announced that it had bought back the UCI chain in Ireland (including the Storm Cinemas-branded locations) from Entertainment Enterprises.[19] Odeon rebranded all of its Irish cinemas under the Odeon brand during 2012; the first rebranded cinema reopened on 27 March 2012.[20]

In 2007 Odeon acquired ten cinemas in Italy.[21] It is now the largest cinema chain in Europe.[22] In March 2012, the Odeon and UCI Cinemas Group under Terra Firma's control reported a £70 million loss for the year 2011, as posted on Companies House.

Terra Firma announced in February 2015 that it planned to sell Odeon and UCI Cinemas for around £1 billion.[23]

In April 2015, the company agreed to sell its cinemas in Gerrards Cross, Esher, Muswell Hill and Barnet to its smaller rival Everyman Cinemas for £7.1 million.[24]

In July 2016, the company was bought for $921 million by the American company AMC Theatres, which is owned by Chinese conglomerate Wanda Group. The deal received approval from the European Commission on 17 November 2016,[25] and was completed on 30 November 2016.[26]

In 2018 AMC Theatres bought Norwegian chain SF Kino and renamed it Odeon Kino.

On 17 March 2020, Odeon closed all of its theatres due to the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic.[4]

On 11 December 2020, Odeon reveals they are losing $125 million a month and emergency funds are slowly running out.[27]

Ban on Universal Pictures films[edit]

On 29 April 2020 Odeon Cinemas announced a ban of all films distributed by Universal Pictures after the latter announced that it would skip releasing some films in cinemas and distribute them directly on streaming and on demand services.[28] Adam Aron, chief executive of AMC Theatres, said that the ban would apply to all 1,000 outlets worldwide after the coronavirus lockdown.[28]

Rank Screen Advertising[edit]

They also ran their own advertising company, called Rank Screen Advertising, in competition with the UK market leader Pearl & Dean, which it eventually overtook. Rank Screen Advertising was later rebranded as Cinema Media before being taken over by Carlton Communications and became Carlton Screen Advertising. In 2008, Odeon, along with rival chain Cineworld, bought back the company and today it is known as Digital Cinema Media.

Services[edit]

The company operates a website and mobile apps for iOS and Android, allowing customers to book tickets in advance of performances. They ceased a telephone booking service in 2014. They run their own Guest Service Centre, based in Stoke-on-Trent, sharing the building with the cinema, but operated separately. The company has a support office in Manchester, and a smaller office in London.

"Limitless" is a nationwide scheme, where, on a twelve-month contract basis, allows members to see regular (not 3D) screenings as often as they want for a monthly fee.[29]

Odeon offers premium services for customers who are 18 years or older. It provides a fine dining experience and a gallery, offering a premium service, at six locations.[30]

Controversies[edit]

Refusals to screen certain films[edit]

In 2008, Odeon made a controversial move by refusing to screen Rambo on any of its UK screens, blaming it on "commercial differences".[31] In 2010 Odeon proposed a boycott of Tim Burton's Alice in Wonderland at its cinemas in the UK, Ireland and Italy, over a plan by Disney to show the film for a shorter period to allow it to release the film on DVD earlier.[32] Following individual negotiations with Disney, Odeon, Cineworld and Vue reached agreements.[33]

Public customer complaint[edit]

On 24 August 2012, a customer named Matt Pledger posted a complaint on Odeon's Facebook wall about his experience with the cinema, citing high ticket prices, high food prices, inattentive staff, sound bleeding through from the cinema next door, and displaying adverts on how piracy was killing film.[34] The complaint eventually went viral, with over 275,000 'Likes' and over 23,000 comments as of 3 September 2012, as well as receiving attention from the national media,[35][36][37] including a programme feature on BBC Radio 4.[38]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Grater, Tom (7 January 2016). "Odeon regains UK market lead from Cineworld". Screen International.
  2. ^ Ritman, Alex (26 February 2015). "European Cinema Chain Odeon & UCI to Be Put Up for Sale for $1.55 Billion (Report)". The Hollywood Reporter.
  3. ^ "UK's Cheapest Cinemas Revealed". Vouchify.co.uk. 17 August 2019. Retrieved 31 August 2019.
  4. ^ a b "Coronavirus: Odeon, Vue and Cineworld shut UK cinemas". BBC News. 17 March 2020.
  5. ^ "Feature: The legacy of Oscar Deutsch's cinemas | Arts critics | guardian.co.uk Arts". www.theguardian.com. Retrieved 30 May 2020.
  6. ^ "Odeon". Oxford English Dictionary. Retrieved 20 December 2012.
  7. ^ Keith Farley. "The Coming of the 'Talkies' and the 'Super' Cinemas". Wolverhamton History & Heritage Site. Archived from the original on 27 September 2012. Retrieved 20 December 2012.
  8. ^ Gorst, Thom (1995). The Buildings Around Us. Taylor & Francis. ISBN 0-419-19330-8.
  9. ^ "20th Century to the present". Digital Handsworth. Archived from the original on 9 April 2013. Retrieved 20 December 2012.
  10. ^ "Cinema History For Sale at First Odeon". Birmingham Evening Mail. 11 August 1998. Archived from the original on 5 November 2013. Retrieved 20 December 2012.
  11. ^ a b c d e f g h i j "65 Years of Odeon". Variety. 8 May 1995. p. 58.
  12. ^ Jonathan Glancey (18 May 2002). "The mogul's monuments: How Oscar Deutsch's Odeon cinemas taught Britain to love modern architecture". The Guardian. Retrieved 20 December 2012.
  13. ^ a b "Odeon Tottenham Court Road". Cinema Treasures. Retrieved 21 June 2021.
  14. ^ "Odeon Marble Arch". Cinema Treasures. Retrieved 21 June 2021.
  15. ^ Allen Eyles. Odeon Cinemas 2: From J. Arthur Rank to the Multiplex. 2005: British Film Institute Publishing. page 40
  16. ^ "Odeon Nottingham". Cinema Treasures. Retrieved 21 June 2021.
  17. ^ "Movieland". Cinema Treasures. Retrieved 21 June 2021.
  18. ^ "About Us and Our Cinema History". Odeon Cinemas. Retrieved 26 February 2020.
  19. ^ Lynch, Suzanne (1 June 2011). "Butler brothers sell nine Irish cinemas to Odeon ICI". The Irish Times.
  20. ^ "About Us and Our Cinema History". Odeon Ireland. Retrieved 20 December 2012.
  21. ^ Wendy Mitchell (19 June 2007). "UCI Italia buys 10 cinemas from Cinestar Italia". Screen Daily. Retrieved 20 December 2012.
  22. ^ Georg Szalai (15 August 2012). "Odeon UCI Cinemas Second-Quarter Loss Narrows". The Hollywood Reporter. Retrieved 20 December 2012.
  23. ^ Johnston, Chris (25 February 2015). "Odeon cinemas set to go on sale for £1bn". BBC News. Retrieved 25 February 2015.
  24. ^ Armstrong, Ashley (20 April 2015). "Everyman raises £20m to snap up four cinemas from Odeon". The Telegraph. Retrieved 28 October 2015.
  25. ^ "AMC Theatres' Odeon & UCI Acquisition Gets EU Approval". The Hollywood Reporter. Retrieved 27 November 2016.
  26. ^ Lieberman, David (30 November 2016). "AMC Theatres Becomes World's No. 1 Chain As Odeon & UCI Deal Closes". Deadline. Retrieved 1 December 2016.
  27. ^ "Odeon cinema owner warns it's running out of cash". BBC News. 11 December 2020. Retrieved 11 December 2020.
  28. ^ a b Sweny, Mark (29 April 2020). "Odeon bans all Universal Pictures films as studio skips cinema releases". The Guardian. Retrieved 29 April 2020.
  29. ^ "Limitless Membership Scheme". Retrieved 21 August 2016.
  30. ^ "ODEON cinemas Gallery". Retrieved 22 February 2017.
  31. ^ Gibson, Owen (7 March 2008). "Not coming to a screen near you". The Guardian. Retrieved 24 October 2013.
  32. ^ "Alice in Wonderland will not be shown in Odeon cinemas". BBC News. 22 February 2010. Retrieved 24 October 2013.
  33. ^ "Odeon reverses Alice in Wonderland boycott". BBC News. 25 February 2010. Retrieved 24 October 2013.
  34. ^ "Dear Odeon, I went..." Facebook. Retrieved 7 November 2012.
  35. ^ Alice Jones (31 August 2012). "Alice Jones: Please don't kill the magic of the movies – Commentators – Voices". The Independent. Retrieved 7 November 2012.
  36. ^ "Odeon Facebook rant goes viral". The Periscope Post. 31 August 2012. Retrieved 7 November 2012.
  37. ^ Steven Vass (1 September 2012). "The multiplex backlash". Herald Scotland. Retrieved 7 November 2012.
  38. ^ "BBC Radio 4 – You and Yours, How do you rate your cinema?, Is the cinema value for money?". BBC Radio. Retrieved 7 November 2012.

Further reading[edit]

  • Eyles, Allen (2002) Odeon Cinemas; Vol. 1: "Oscar Deutsch Entertains Our Nation". London : Cinema Theatre Association ISBN 0-85170-813-7
  • Eyles, Allen (2005) Odeon Cinemas; Vol. 2: From J. Arthur Rank to the Multiplex. London : Cinema Theatre Association ISBN 1-84457-048-7

External links[edit]