Odessa Soviet Republic
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|Odessa Soviet Republic|
|Одесская Советская Республика|
|Puppet state of Soviet Russia|
Area claimed by the Odessa Soviet Republic
on 1 March 1918
|Capital||City of Odessa|
|Legislature||Council of the People's Commissars|
|Historical era||World War I|
|•||Republic proclaimed||5 January 1918|
|•||Disestablished||13 March 1918|
|Today part of|
Part of a series on the
|History of Ukraine|
The Odessa Soviet Republic (OSR; Ukrainian: Одеська Радянська Республіка; Russian: Одесская Советская Республика) was a short-lived Soviet republic formed on 31 January [O.S. 18 January] 1918 from parts of the Kherson and Bessarabia Governorates of the former Russian Empire.
The republic was proclaimed during the Bolshevik invasion of Ukraine immediately before Bolshevik forces pushed the Ukrainian government out of Kiev and Sfatul Ţării proclaimed the independence of the Moldavian Democratic Republic. The Odessa Soviet's governing body was the Rumcherod, formed in May 1917 shortly after the February Revolution. After its Second Congress, the OSR's Soviet was chaired by Vladimir Yudovsky. He had been installed after a pro-Bolshevik coup d'état organized by the Narkom Nikolai Krylenko.
In January 1918, Yudovsky was appointed Chairman of the local Council of the People's Commissars and formed a government that included Bolsheviks, anarchists and members of the Socialist-Revolutionary Party. The government proclaimed Odessa a free city and pledged allegiance to the Bolshevik government in Petrograd. The following month, the government was liquidated by Mikhail Muravyov and merged with the regional Central Executive Committee Rumcherod.
Political instability meant that the OSR was not recognized by any other government, including Russian Bolsheviks, during its brief existence. The Republic did manage to stop the advancing Romanian Armed Forces at the Dniester and conduct a series of counter-attacks. However, the Republic ceased to exist when it was sacked by German and Austro-Hungarian troops on 13 March 1918, two months after its creation, following the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk between the Central Powers, Ukrainian People's Republic and Petrograd Sovnarkom. The government and army evacuated first to Nikolayev, then to Sevastopol and finally to Rostov-on-Don.
- Mishka Yaponchik, sponsor of the city and anti-bourgeoisie fighter.
- Hungarian–Romanian War of 1919
- Rumcherod, the governing body of the Odessa SR.
- Iona Yakir