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Oeceoclades maculata.jpg
Oeceoclades maculata
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Plantae
(unranked): Angiosperms
(unranked): Monocots
Order: Asparagales
Family: Orchidaceae
Subfamily: Epidendroideae
Tribe: Cymbidieae
Subtribe: Eulophiinae
Genus: Oeceoclades
Type species
Oeceoclades maculata[1]
(Lindl.) Lindl.

Eulophidium Pfitzer

Oeceoclades, collectively known as the monk orchids, is a genus of flowering plants from the orchid family, Orchidaceae. It is related to Eulophia and like that genus is mostly terrestrial in habit. A few species extend into very arid environments, unusual for an orchid.

The genus contains about 40 known species, most of which are narrow endemics to parts of Madagascar with some widespread across much of sub-Saharan Africa and the islands of the Indian Ocean. One species, O. maculata, has become naturalized in Mexico, South America, Central America, the West Indies and Florida.[2][3][4][5] In Florida and several other places, O. maculata is considered an invasive weed.[6][7]

The only consistent morphological character that does not show intermediate forms in either genus and can thus separate Oeceoclades from Eulophia is the presence of two fleshy ridges on the basal part of the labellum (the hypochile). The genus was resurrected by Leslie Andrew Garay and Peter Taylor in 1976 and since then has been affirmed as a monophyletic genus in molecular phylogenetic studies.[8]


Oeceoclades pulchra inflorescence

Species accepted:[2]

See also[edit]


  1. ^ lectotype designated by Lindley, J. Proc. Linn. Soc., Bot. 3: 36 (1859)
  2. ^ a b c Kew World Checklist of Selected Plant Families
  3. ^ Pridgeon, A.M., Cribb, P.J., Chase, M.C. & Rasmussen, F.N. (2009). Epidendroideae (Part two). Genera Orchidacearum 5: 1-585. Oxford University Press, New York, Oxford.
  4. ^ Garay, L. A. and P. Taylor. 1976. The genus Oeceoclades Lindl. Botanical Museum Leaflets of Harvard University 24: 249–274.
  5. ^ Flora of North America, v 26 p 640, Oeceoclades Lindley, Edwards’s Bot. Reg. 18: plate 1522. 1832.
  6. ^ Dave's Garden, PlantFiles: Species, Natural Hybrid Orchid, Monk Orchid, Spotted Oeceoclades Oeceoclades maculata
  7. ^ CABI Invasive Weeds Compendium, Oeceoclades maculata
  8. ^ Bone, R. E., E. Sanz, and S. Buerki. 2014. The transfer of Eulophia beravensis Rchb.f. to Oeceoclades Lindl., a genus with its centre of diversity in Madagascar (Eulophiinae, Orchidaceae). Candollea 69(2): 201-205.
  • Lindley, J.(1832) Edwards's Botanical Register 18: sub t. 1522.
  • Berg Pana, H. 2005. Handbuch der Orchideen-Namen. Dictionary of Orchid Names. Dizionario dei nomi delle orchidee. Ulmer, Stuttgart

External links[edit]