Oenothera elata

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search
Oenothera elata
Oenothera elata hookeri 3.jpg
ssp. hookeri
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Plantae
(unranked): Angiosperms
(unranked): Eudicots
(unranked): Rosids
Order: Myrtales
Family: Onagraceae
Genus: Oenothera
Species: O. elata
Binomial name
Oenothera elata

Oenothera elata is a species of Oenothera known by the common name Hooker's evening primrose or tall evening primrose. Subspecies include hookeri, hirsutissima, longisima, jamesii, villosa and elata.[1] It is native to much of western and central North America. The plants are quite tall, especially the hookeri subspecies, native to California, which can reach about 1.8 meters (6 feet) height.[2] The plants are found along roadsides, in moist meadows, or woodland, from sea level up to 9,000 ft (2,700 m) in elevation.[3]


The stout, usually reddish stem has many long, narrow leaves, above a basal rosette. At its top is a large, open cluster of 2- to 4-inch wide yellow flowers with 4 large petals and protruding yellow stamens and 4-branched pistil, often covered in sticky pollen. The fragrant flowers open at dusk and wilt the next morning, turning orange or red.[3]


The Zuni people apply a poultice of the powdered flower of the hookeri subspecies and saliva at night to swellings.[4]



  1. ^ Oenothera elata on the United States Department of Agriculture
  2. ^ "Botanica. The Illustrated AZ of over 10000 garden plants and how to cultivate them", p. 612. Könemann, 2004. ISBN 3-8331-1253-0
  3. ^ a b Laird R. Blackwell (2002). Wildflowers of the Eastern Sierra and Adjoining Mojave Desert and Great Basin. Lone Pine Publishing. ISBN 978-1-55105-281-6. 
  4. ^ Camazine, Scott; Bye, Robert A. (1980). "A Study Of The Medical Ethnobotany Of The Zuni Indians of New Mexico". Journal of Ethnopharmacology. 2: 365–388 [377]. doi:10.1016/s0378-8741(80)81017-8. PMID 6893476. 

Further reading[edit]

Raven, Peter; Dietrich, Werner; Stubbe, Wilfried (Autumn 1979). "An Outline of the Systematics of Oenothera Subsect. Euoenothera (Onagraceae)". Systematic Botany. 4 (3): 242–252. doi:10.2307/2418422. JSTOR 2418422. 

Dietrich, Werner; L. Wagner, Warren (1987). "A New Combination and New Subspecies in Oenothera Elata Kunth (Onagraceae)". Missouri Botanical Garden Press. 74 (1): 151–152. doi:10.2307/2399273. JSTOR 2399273. 

External links[edit]