Office of Policy Coordination
The Office of Policy Coordination (OPC) was a United States covert psychological operations and paramilitary action organization. Created as an independent office in 1948, it was merged with the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) in 1951.
On June 18, 1948, the United States National Security Council approves NSC 10/2 which created the Office of Special Projects. Frank Wisner from the U.S. Department of State was installed as its 1st Director.
On September 1, 1948, this Office of Special Projects was unveiled as the renamed Office of Policy Coordination or OPC under the authority of the June 18, 1948 National Security Council Document NSC 10/2. The OPC's directors included representatives of the United States Department of State and United States Department of Defense as well as the CIA. Though a unit of the CIA, the OPC Director reported to the State Department.
The OPC was originally known as the Office of Special Projects.
5. As used in this directive, “covert operations” are understood to be all activities (except as noted herein) which are conducted or sponsored by this Government against hostile foreign states or groups or in support of friendly foreign states or groups but which are so planned and executed that any US Government responsibility for them is not evident to unauthorized persons and that if uncovered the US Government can plausibly disclaim any responsibility for them. Specifically, such operations shall include any covert activities related to: propaganda, economic warfare; preventive direct action, including sabotage, anti-sabotage, demolition and evacuation measures; subversion against hostile states, including assistance to underground resistance movements, guerrillas and refugee liberation groups, and support of indigenous anti-communist elements in threatened countries of the free world. Such operations shall not include armed conflict by recognized military forces, espionage, counter-espionage, and cover and deception for military operations.
Amongst the propaganda mission the psywar staff carried out was the funding of the 1954 Hollywood production of George Orwell's "Animal Farm", which should portray communist domination in an allegorical way.
- Miscamble, 199
- Will Brownell and Richard N. Billings, So Close to Greatness: A Biography of William C. Bullitt (NY: Macmillan Publishing, 1987), 299
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- "Foreign Relations 1964-1968, Volume XXVI, Indonesia; Malaysia-Singapore; Philippines: Note on U.S. Covert Action Programs". United States Department of State. Archived from the original on April 28, 2005.
- Marchetti & Marks p.45
- Thomas p.33
- Peter Grose, Operation Rollback (Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 2000)
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- Wilson D. Miscamble, George F. Kennan and the Making of American Foreign Policy, 1947-1950 (Princeton University Press, 1992))
- Evan Thomas, The Very Best Men. The Daring Early Years of the CIA. Simon & Schuster, 2006. (first published in 1995).
- Richard C.S. Trahair, Encyclopedia of Cold War Espionage, Spies, and Secret Operations (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 2004)