Oglala Lakota County, South Dakota
|Oglala Lakota County, South Dakota|
Indian Health Service Hospital at Pine Ridge Indian Reservation
Location within the U.S. state of South Dakota
South Dakota's location within the U.S.
|Named for||Oglala Lakota people|
|Seat||None (de jure)|
Hot Springs (de facto)
|Largest community||Pine Ridge|
|• Total||2,097 sq mi (5,431 km2)|
|• Land||2,094 sq mi (5,423 km2)|
|• Water||2.8 sq mi (7 km2), 0.1%|
|• Density||6.85/sq mi (2.64/km2)|
|Time zone||Mountain: UTC−7/−6|
|Footnotes: Hot Springs in neighboring Fall River County serves as administrative center for county|
Oglala Lakota County, known as Shannon County until May 2015, is a county in the U.S. state of South Dakota. The population was 13,586 at the 2010 census. Oglala Lakota County does not have a functioning county seat; Hot Springs in neighboring Fall River County serves as its administrative center. The county was created as a part of the Dakota Territory in 1875, although it remains unorganized. Its largest community is Pine Ridge.
The Wounded Knee Massacre occurred in Oglala Lakota County in 1890.
The county was originally named for Peter C. Shannon, Chief Justice of the Dakota Territory Supreme Court. Until 1982, Shannon County and Washabaugh County, South Dakota, were the last unorganized counties in the United States. Although it was organized and received a home rule charter that year, the county, as noted above, contracts with Fall River County for its Auditor, Treasurer, and Registrar of Deeds.
On November 4, 2014, voters in the county voted by a margin of 2,161 to 526 to rename Shannon County to Oglala Lakota County. The name change was ratified by the state legislature on March 5, 2015. May 1, 2015 was proclaimed by the governor as the official day for renaming the county.
Oglala Lakota County lies on the south side of South Dakota. Its south boundary line abuts the north boundary line of the state of Nebraska. The Cheyenne River flows northeastward along the northwest boundary of Oglala Lakota County. The White River flows northeastward through the central part of the county. The county terrain is composed of arid rolling hills spotted with small mountain crests, oriented NE-SW. The terrain slopes to the northeast; its highest point is on the south boundary line, close to the SW corner, at 3,619' (1103m) ASL. The county has a total area of 2,097 square miles (5,430 km2), of which 2,094 square miles (5,420 km2) is land and 2.8 square miles (7.3 km2) (0.1%) is water.
National protected area
- Badlands National Park (part)
- Alkali Lake
- Denby Lake
- Lee Lake
- Oglala Lake
- Two Lance Lake
- Wakpamani Lake
- White Clay Lake
|US Decennial Census|
As of the 2000 United States Census, there were 12,466 people, 2,785 households, and 2,353 families residing in the county. The population density was 6 people per square mile (2/km²). There were 3,123 housing units at an average density of 2 per square mile (1/km²). The racial makeup of the county was 4.51% White, 0.08% Black or African American, 94.20% Native American, 0.02% Asian, 0.05% Pacific Islander, 0.22% from other races, and 0.91% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 1.42% of the population.
There are 2,785 households out of which 51.70% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 35.40% were married couples living together, 36.40% had a female householder with no husband present, and 15.50% were non-families. 13.20% of all households were made up of individuals and 3.00% have someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 4.36 and the average family size was 4.72.
The county population contained 45.30% under the age of 18, 10.60% from 18 to 24, 25.60% from 25 to 44, 13.80% from 45 to 64, and 4.80% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 21 years. For every 100 females there were 99.60 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 95.60 males.
The median income for a household in the county was $20,916, and the median income for a family was $20,897. Males had a median income of $25,170 versus $22,594 for females. The per capita income for the county was $6,286. About 45.10% of families and 52.30% of the population were below the poverty line, including 60.80% of those under age 18 and 36.00% of those age 65 or over.
The counties surrounding Oglala Lakota County are predominantly Republican, but, like most Native American counties, Oglala Lakota is heavily Democratic, giving over 75 percent of the vote to every Democratic presidential nominee in every election back to 1984, making it one of the most Democratic counties in the United States. No Republican has carried the county in a presidential election since 1952.
- Red Shirt
- Sharps Corner
There are no townships. The county is divided into two areas of unorganized territory: East Shannon and West Shannon.
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- "Find a County". National Association of Counties. Archived from the original on May 31, 2011. Retrieved June 7, 2011.
- "Dakota Territory, South Dakota, and North Dakota: Individual County Chronologies". Dakota Territory Atlas of Historical County Boundaries. The Newberry Library. 2006. Retrieved March 30, 2015.
- "South Dakota Legislative Manual" (PDF). South Dakota Secretary of State. 2005. p. 597. Retrieved March 30, 2015.
- The other four SD counties entirely on reservations are Corson, Dewey, Todd, and Ziebach.
- United States counties by per capita income
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- David Montgomery, "Shannon County no more: Voters approve name change", Argus Leader, November 5, 2014.
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