Ogoni Nine

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The Ogoni Nine were a group of nine activists from the Ogoni region of Nigeria who opposed the operating practices of the Royal Dutch Shell oil corporation. Their members included outspoken author and playwright Ken Saro-Wiwa, Saturday Dobee, Nordu Eawo, Daniel Gbooko, Paul Levera, Felix Nuate, Baribor Bera, Barinem Kiobel, and John Kpuine[1] (Tripathi, p.189), who were executed by hanging at the 10th of November[2] 1995 by the military dictatorship of General Sani Abacha and buried in Port Harcourt Cemetery.[3]

The executions provoked international condemnation and led to the increasing treatment of Nigeria as a pariah state until General Abacha's mysterious death in 1998. Saro-Wiwa had previously been a critic of the Royal Dutch Shell oil corporation, and had been imprisoned for a year prior to the executions in November 1995.

At least two witnesses who testified that Saro-Wiwa was involved in the murders of the Ogoni elders later recanted, stating that they had been bribed with money and offers of jobs with Shell to give false testimony – in the presence of Shell's lawyer.[4]

See also[edit]


  1. ^ Rowell, Andy (2020-11-10). "Dear Shell: After 25 years, are you finally willing to accept your role in the murder of Ogoni 9?". Oil Change International. Retrieved 2022-10-31.
  2. ^ "No Justice For Widows of Executed Nigerian Ogoni 9 at Hague Court". allAfrica.com. 2022-03-24. Retrieved 2022-10-31.
  3. ^ "Nigeria's Military Leaders Hang Playwright And 8 Other Activists". Deseretnews.com. Deseret News Publishing Company. 1995-11-11. Retrieved 2014-07-07.
  4. ^ The Case Against Shell
  • Salil Tripathi, "Praise the Lord and Buy Insurance", Index on Censorship Volume 34, Number 4, 2005. p.188–192. ISSN 0306-4220.