Oil of clove
Oil of clove, also known as clove oil, is an essential oil extracted from the clove plant, Syzygium aromaticum. Clove oil is commonly used in aromatherapy and for flavoring food and some medicines. Madagascar and Indonesia are the main producers of clove oil.
Types and phytochemicals
There are three types of clove oil:
- Bud oil is derived from the flower-buds of S. aromaticum. It consists of 60–90% eugenol, acetyl eugenol, caryophyllene and other minor constituents.
- Leaf oil is derived from the leaves of S. aromaticum. It consists of 82–88% eugenol with little or no eugenyl acetate, and minor constituents.
- Stem oil is derived from the twigs of S. aromaticum. It consists of 90–95% eugenol, with other minor constituents.
Distilled clove oil from buds contains mixed phytochemicals, including as main constituents phenylpropanoids (primarily eugenol), carvacrol, thymol, and cinnamaldehyde, with smaller quantities of polyphenols, carbohydrates, lipids, oleanolic acid, and rhamnetin.
Particularly in South Korea and India, eugenol, a phytochemical extracted from clove oil, is used to relieve toothache. Applied to a cavity in a decayed tooth or tooth socket remaining after extraction, eugenol or clove oil may relieve toothache temporarily. In the United States, the FDA considers eugenol ineffective for treating dental pain, and has downgraded clove oil as an analgesic due to insufficient evidence to rate its effectiveness.
In Australia, clove oil is one of several essential oils implicated with poisoning, mostly of children. In the period 2014-2018, there were 179 cases in New South Wales, accounting for 4% of essential oil poisoning incidents.
- "Clove". Drugs.com. 3 July 2020. Retrieved 27 September 2020.
- "Clove". MedlinePlus, National Library of Medicine, US National Institutes of Health. 24 July 2020. Retrieved 27 September 2020.
Clove oil and eugenol, one of the chemicals it contains, have long been used topically for toothache, but the FDA has reclassified eugenol, downgrading its effectiveness rating. The FDA now believes there isn't enough evidence to rate eugenol as effective for toothache pain.
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