Okinawan cuisine

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Okinawa soba and Gōyā chanpurū with a tap of local Orion beer

Okinawan cuisine (沖縄料理, Okinawa ryōri) is the cuisine of the Okinawa Prefecture of Japan. The cuisine is also known as Ryūkyūan cuisine (琉球料理, Ryūkyū ryōri), a reference to the Ryukyu Kingdom.[1] Due to differences in culture, historical contact between other regions, climate, vegetables and other ingredients, Okinawan cuisine differs from mainland Japanese cuisine.

History[edit]

Okinawan cuisine incorporates influences from Chinese cuisine and Southeast Asian cuisine due to its long history of trade. The sweet potato, introduced in Okinawa in 1605, became a staple food in Okinawa from then until the beginning of the 20th century. An article about Okinawan food written by Kikkoman states that Goya (bitter melon) and Nabera (luffa or towel gourd) were "likely" introduced to Okinawa from Southeast Asia. Since Ryukyu had served as a tributary state to China, Ryukyuan cooks traveled to Fujian Province to learn how to cook Chinese food; Chinese influence seeped into Okinawa in that manner. The same Kikkoman article states that the method of distillation of awamori likely originated from Siam (Thailand) and traveled to Okinawa during the 15th century. After the lord of the Kagoshima Domain invaded the Ryukyus, Okinawan cooks traveled to Japan to study Japanese cuisine, causing that influence to seep into Okinawan cuisine.[2]

Okinawa was administered by the United States after World War II, during which time various canned foods were popularized. American hamburger shops entered into the Okinawa market earlier than on the mainland. It was during this period that Okinawans became familiar with Americanized food culture. The cuisine has evolved in modern times, especially because of the American military presence on Okinawa since the end of World War II.[1]

Character[edit]

Besides vegetables and fruits, the influences of southern and southeastern Asia are evident in Okinawan cuisine in its use of herbs and spices, such as turmeric, used in Okinawa more often than in mainland Japan, but less frequently than other tropical island cuisines.[3] Okinawan cuisine's condiments consist mainly of salt, miso, bonito flakes (katsuobushi) or kombu. Compared to mainland diets, Okinawan dishes do not use as many kinds of mushroom.[citation needed]

Despite being surrounded by the sea, Okinawans eat relatively little seafood compared to other maritime cultures. Fish and other seafood products were traditionally difficult to preserve in the high temperatures of the Okinawan islands. Additionally, the islands are surrounded by relatively few fish species. The primary preparations of fish are pickling in salt (shio-zuke), dried, grilled, simmered in soy sauce (nitsuke), and as kamaboko, a processed seafood product typically made from white fish. Sashimi is served in Okinawa, but is limited by the inability to retain freshness due to high temperatures on the islands. Sashimi, unlike on the main islands of Japan, is not part of a full course meal.[1]

Okinawans make salad, soup, or tempura using seaweeds like mozuku and hijiki. Okinawan cuisine frequently uses kombu (kelp), not only in making soup stock, but also in preparing braised dishes, stir fried dishes and so on. Although it is not cultivated in the region, Okinawa is one of the largest consumers of kombu in Japan.[citation needed]

Okinawan staple foods are traditionally potatoes, such as sweet potato or taro root, but they are substituted to rice or wheat flour, then Okinawans developed original dishes such as taco rice.

After the end of the occupation, they still have original food cultures, and Americanized foods are frequently eaten in their diets. But, Okinawan people do not consume dairy foods so much, such as milk and cheese. Bread is not so popular as a staple food.

Traditional vs modern[edit]

The vast majority of calories consumed from traditional Okinawan cuisine (more than 60 percent) is from the Okinawan sweet potato.[4] The traditional Okinawan cuisine is a high-carbohydrate diet of about 80% carbohydrates.[4] Traditional Okinawan cuisine consists of an abundance of green and yellow vegetables, bitter melon and various soy products.[5] The high legume content from traditional Okinawan cuisine mainly originates from soybean-based products such as tofu.[6]

Fish only makes up a very small part of traditional Okinawan cuisine, as little as 1% compared to 90% plant-based foods.[7] Less than 1% of the traditional Okinawan cuisine is meat, dairy and eggs.[4][7] The traditional Okinawan cuisine contains three servings of fish a week on average, seven daily servings of vegetables and two servings of tofu.[4][8] Pork is eaten in traditional Okinawan cuisine but only in small amounts.[6][9][10]

Following World War II, western influences changed the food habits of Okinawan cuisine. Milk, meat, egg and grain intake greatly increased.[4] According to Dan Buettner:

Okinawans doubled their rice consumption, and bread, virtually unknown before, also crept in. Milk consumption increased; meat, eggs, and poultry consumption increased more than seven-fold. Between 1949 and 1972 Okinawans’ daily intake increased by 400 calories. They were consuming more than 200 calories per day more than they needed — like Americans. Cancers of the lung, breast, and colon almost doubled.[4]

Modern Okinawan cuisine has high intake of pork with just about every part of the pig being used for food.[11]

Ingredients[edit]

Common Okinawan dishes[edit]

Main dishes[edit]

Side dishes[edit]

Alcoholic beverages[edit]

Sweets[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c "沖縄料理" [Okinawan Cuisine]. Nihon Daihyakka Zensho (Nipponika) (in Japanese). Tokyo: Shogakukan. 2013. OCLC 153301537. Archived from the original on August 25, 2007. Retrieved 2013-07-15.
  2. ^ Ishige, Naomichi. "Food Forum Okinawa Archived 2008-05-17 at the Wayback Machine." Kikkoman. Retrieved on November 30, 2009.
  3. ^ Beare, Sally (2006). 50 secrets of the world's longest living people. New York: Marlowe & Co. ISBN 9781569243480.
  4. ^ a b c d e f "Why Japan’s longest-lived women hold the key to better health". Bluezones.com. Retrieved 6 February 2021.
  5. ^ "A high-carb diet may explain why Okinawans live so long". BBC.com. Retrieved 6 February 2021. Retrieved 6 February 2021.
  6. ^ a b Willcox, Donald Craig; Scapagnini, Giovanni; Willcox, Bradley J. (2014). "Healthy aging diets other than the Mediterranean: A Focus on the Okinawan Diet". Mechanisms of Ageing and Development. 136: 136–162. doi:10.1016/j.mad.2014.01.002. PMC 5403516. PMID 24462788.CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  7. ^ a b "The Okinawa Diet: Eating and Living to 100". Bluezones.com. Retrieved 6 February 2021.
  8. ^ "The Okinawa diet – could it help you live to 100?". The Guardian. Retrieved 6 February 2021.
  9. ^ D. Craig Willcox; et al. (2009). "The Okinawan Diet: Health Implications of a Low-Calorie, Nutrient-Dense, Antioxidant-Rich Dietary Pattern Low in Glycemic Load". Journal of the American College of Nutrition. 28 (4): 500S–516S. doi:10.1080/07315724.2009.10718117. PMID 20234038. S2CID 2520190.
  10. ^ "Okinawa, Japan". Bluezones.com. Retrieved 6 February 2021.
  11. ^ "Pork Culture". Okinawa Island Guide. Retrieved 6 February 2021.
  12. ^ a b c Takagi, Rin (2020). Traditional Cuisine of the Ryukyu Islands: A History of Health and Healing. Tokyo: Japan Publishing Foundation for Culture. ISBN 9784866581316.