Aerial photograph of Oléron
Île d'Oléron (France)
|Area||174 km2 (67 sq mi)|
|Length||30 km (19 mi)|
|Width||8 km (5 mi)|
|Highest elevation||34 m (112 ft)|
|Largest settlement||Saint-Pierre-d'Oléron (pop. 6,687)|
|Population||21,871 (as of 2010)|
|Density||126 /km2 (326 /sq mi)|
|Ethnic groups||French people|
In the 7th and 8th century, the island, along with Ré, formed the Vacetae Insulae or Vacetian Islands, according to the Cosmographia. Vaceti being another name for the Vascones, the reference is evidence to Basque (Gascon) settlement or control of the islands by that date.
It was at Oléron in about 1152 to 1160 that Eleanor of Aquitaine introduced the first 'maritime' or 'admiralty' laws in that part of the world: the Rolls of Oleron. In 1306, Edward I of England granted the island to his son, Edward II, as part of the duchy of Aquitaine.
On 20 March 1586, the island was taken by Agrippa d'Aubigné.
The island has an area of about 174 km2. It is a fertile and well cultivated island on the Atlantic coast of France, that is on the Bay of Biscay.
The climate is generally mild (maritime temperate) with sufficient but not excessive rainfall, but with probably from 3 to 15 days of intense heat in the summer months of July and August, mostly grouped.
- La Brée-les-Bains
- Le Château-d'Oléron
- Le Grand-Village-Plage
- Saint-Georges-d'Oléron (includes Boyardville)
- Saint-Pierre d'Oléron
The island has about 22,000 inhabitants.
Since 1966, the island has been connected to the mainland by a road bridge. With a length of 2,862 m (9,390 ft) between abutments, it was the longest bridge in France at the time of construction. It is now the third one, after the Saint-Nazaire bridge and the Île de Ré bridge. It has been toll-free since 1991.
On the island itself, the easiest way to get around is by car or by bicycle. There are many roads for cars all over the island. The last ten years, a network of 110 kilometers of bicycle paths have been build. These bicycle lanes are mostly car-free, which makes biking a pleasant and safe way to travel.
As a large Atlantic island only 3 kilometres off the Aquitanian coast of France, Oléron is a popular tourist destination for people all over France. There are very few foreign tourists. The months of July and especially August are most crowded, as most French people take their holidays during that time. The island has long beaches, and surfing and horse-riding are catered for. Besides, there are many old buildings scattered around. The campsites are popular with families. Several companies operate boat trips from the town of Boyardville to the nearby Ile d'Aix and past the famous Fort Boyard. The gastronomy is also a tourist attraction as the island has many restaurants specialising in seafood, especially the local oysters. The port towns are most visited by tourists, especially the village of La Cotiniere. This village is the base point for a hundred trawlers who sell their fish every day at 05:00 and 16:00h. La Cotiniere is the first fishing port of the department of Charente-Maritime, and the 8th of France.
- Collins, Roger. "The Vaccaei, the Vaceti, and the rise of Vasconia." Studia Historica VI. Salamanca, 1988. Reprinted in Roger Collins, Law, Culture and Regionalism in Early Medieval Spain. Variorum, 1992. ISBN 0-86078-308-1.
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