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Olaf or Olav (//, //, or British Ōleifr, Anleifr //; Old Norse: Áleifr, Ólafr) is a Scandinavian, German and Dutch given name. It is presumably of Proto-Norse origin, reconstructed as *Anu-laibaz, from anu "ancestor, grand-father" and laibaz "heirloom, descendant". Old English forms are attested as Ǣlāf, Anlāf. The corresponding Old Novgorod dialect form is Uleb.
In Norwegian, Olav and Olaf are historically equally common, but Olav is traditionally used when referring to Norwegian royalty of that name. The Swedish form is Olov or Olof. The name was borrowed into Old Irish and Scots spelled Amlaíb and Amhlaoibh, giving rise to modern Aulay (see also Mac Amhlaoibh and Mac Amhalghaidh (Irish septs)). The name is Latinized as Olaus.
- Olaf Haraldsson Geirstadalf, petty king
- Olaf I of Norway Tryggvason, 969 – 9 September 1000
- Olaf II of Norway, or Saint Olaf, ruled 1015–1030
- Olaf III of Norway, king 1067–1093
- Olaf Magnusson (formerly IV) of Norway, 1103–1110
- Olaf IV of Norway, king 1370 – 23 August 1387; was also Olaf II of Denmark
- Olaf I of Denmark, king 1086–1095
- Olaf II of Denmark was also Olaf IV of Norway
- Olaf of Sweden (disambiguation) (I, II and III)
- Oluf Haraldsen (died c. 1143) was a Danish nobleman who ruled Scania for a few years from 1139
Norse-Gaelic: Not all the following were strictly Norse-Gaels, but simply share one of the most common Norse-Gaelic names.
- Olaf the Black, 13th century Norse king
- Amlaíb Conung (King Olaf), King of Dublin, possibly identical with Olaf the White
- Olaf III Guthfrithson (Emlaíb mac Gofraid), king of Dublin
- Amlaíb Ua Donnubáin (Auliffe O'Donovan), regional Irish king
Of Mann and the Isles:
- Olaf I of Mann, also called Olaf Godredsson (c. 1080–1153)
- Olaf II the Black, also called Olaf Godredsson (1173/4–1237), King of Mann and the Isles 1229–1237.
- Novgorod Republic (in Russia)
- Uleb Ragnvaldsson - son of Ragnvald Ulfsson jarl of Staraja Ladoga (Aldeigjuborg), military leader of Novgorod Republic in conquering of Yugra in 1032.
Septs and clans
- McAuliffe (surname)
- Mac Amhlaoibh and Mac Amhalghaidh (Irish septs)
- Clan Macaulay of Lewis
- Clan MacAulay
- Olav V of Norway, king 1957–1991
- Olaf Fink (1914-1973), American educator and state senator
- Oluf van Steenwinckel (died 1659) was a Danish building master and engineer
- Count Oluf of Rosenborg (1923–1990).
- Erwin Olaf (Erwin Olaf Springveld), Dutch photographer
- Count Olaf, a fictional character and the main antagonist in the series of novels A Series of Unfortunate Events by Lemony Snicket
- Olaf, a fictional character in Jungle Jam and Friends: The Radio Show!
- Olaf the Troll, a fictional character in "Buffy the Vampire slayer teleseries he appears in the episode Triangle, played by Abraham Benrubi