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Olav Scheflo was a member of the Norwegian Labour Party from 1905. After the October Revolution he fought hard to convince the Labor Party to join the Communist International and Scheflo was a Norwegian representative at the second congress of the Comintern in 1920 and was member of the Comintern Executive Committee from 1921 to 1927. Critical towards Stalinism, he left the Norwegian Communist Party in 1928 and rejoined the Labor Party in 1929.
When Leon Trotsky lived in exile in Norway in 1935 and 1936, Scheflo strongly defended him against attacks from both Stalinist and the Norwegian bourgeoisie. However, he would never become a real Trotskyists since he was closer to the Soviet Right Opposition.
Scheflo's autobiography is Den røde tråd i Norges historie (The Red Thread in Norwegian History).