Old Anatolian Turkish

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Old Anatolian Turkish
تُركجٔ
Native toSultanate of Rum, Anatolian beyliks
EraArrived in Anatolia late 11th century. Developed into Early Ottoman Turkish c. 15th century[1]
Ottoman Turkish alphabet augmented with ḥarakāt[1]
Official status
Official language in
Karamanid Dynasty flag.svg Beylik of Karaman[2]
Language codes
ISO 639-3
1ca Old Anatolian Turkish
GlottologNone

Old Anatolian Turkish[3] (OAT, Turkish: Eski Anadolu Türkçesi, EAT) is the stage in the history of the Turkish language spoken in Anatolia from the 11th to 15th centuries. It developed into Early Ottoman Turkish. It was written in the Arabic script. Unlike in later Ottoman Turkish, short-vowel diacritics were used.[4]

It had no official status until 1277, when Mehmet I of Karaman declared a firman in order to break the supremacy, dominance and popularity of Persian:[5]

Examples[edit]

Following texts are taken from Turan Fikret's work: "Old Anatolian Turkish: Syntactic Structure" (1996):[7]

  • bizüm delilümüz: "Our proofs."
  • devletlü gişiler: "Fortunate ones."
  • zinhār zinhār: "Never."
  • pīrlikde yigitlenmek rüsvāylıqdur: "It is a shame to act like a young man in old age."
  • bulardan artanı beytü’l mālda qoyalar: "They should put inpublic treasury that which remained from them."
  • birgün bu ilçiyile oturur iken Qısri Büzürcmihre sorar: "One day when he was sitting with this [foreign] ambassador, Chosroes asked Büzürcmihr."
  • Kelām-ı mecīd: "The word of the most glorious (God), the Qoran."
  • dar'ül-harb: "Countries outside of the domain of Islam."
  • Taŋrı aŋa raḥmet itmez: "God does not forgive him."
  • aġırlaŋ aṭaŋuzı anaŋuzı egerçi kāfirse daqı: "Respect your parents even if they are unbelievers."
  • Ne qul kim alam āzāz olsun: "Every slave that I would buy should be freed"
  • ve cāhil gişileri gişi sanma ve hünersüzleri bilür sayma: "And do not consider the ignorant ones the [real] men, and [do not consider] the untalented ones the knowledgeable ones."
  • zinhār işüŋi ṭanışmaqdan ʿārlanma: "Beware, and do neverbe ashamed of learning your job."
  • sen yalan söyleyesi gişi degülsin: "You are not person whowould lie."
  • artuq zaḥmet çeküp artuq ṭamaʿ eyleme: "Do not suffertrouble too much being too greedy."
  • eger sen Taŋrıya muṭīʿ olmayup bunlardan muṭīʿlıq isteyüp bunlara zaḥmet virür iseŋ Taŋrılıq daʿvīsin itmiş olursın: "If you yourself do not obey God and ask these people for obedience [for you] and oppres them, then you are considered assomeone pretending to be God."
  • yaʿnī bir şaḫsuŋ bir sarayda naṣībi olsa andan ol naṣībi ṣatsa ne qadardur bāyiʿyā müşterī bilmese Ebū Ḥanīfeden üç rivāyetdür: "In other words, if someone has a share in a palace and then if he sells it without either seller or buyer knowing the exact value of it, then there are three traditions according to Abû Ḥanîfe."
  • benüm dostlarum beni ġāyet sevdüklerinden baŋa ʿaybum dimezler idi ve düşmānlarum benüm ʿaybumı ḫalqa söylerler idi: "Because my friends liked me very much they did not say my shortcomings to me, [but] my enemies told the peoplemy shortcomings."
  • ben eyittim sübḥān Allāh qırq iki yaşında gişi neçün şöyle içekim nerdübāŋ ayaġın nice urasın bilmeye düşe ve dün buçuġında neçün şöyle yörüye kim şunuŋ gibi vāqıʿaya uġraya: "I said ‘O God why would a person of forty-two drink so much that he can not judge how to put this feet on the steps of a ladder, so he falls, and also why would he walk like that in the middle of the night that he experiences such an incident."

Orthography[edit]

Old Anatolian Turkish Ottoman Turkish
(Kamus-ı Türkî spelling)
Modern Turkish English
گُزلٔر گوزلر Gözler "Eyes"
دَدَ دده Dede "Grandfather"
كُچُك كوچك Küçük "Little"

Alphabet[edit]

Letter Modern Turkish Letter Modern Turkish
ا a, e, i ص s
ب b ض d
پ p ط t
ت t ظ z
ث s ع a
ج c غ ğ, g
چ ç ف f
ح h ق k
خ h ك k
د d ل l
ذ d, z م m
ر r ن n
ز z و o, ö, u, ü, v
ژ j ه h
س s لا la, le
ش ş ى i, y, ı

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b Old Anatolian Turkish at MultiTree on the Linguist List
  2. ^ "Kim Kimdir?� Biyografi Bankas� - FORSNET". Kimkimdir.gen.tr. Retrieved 13 October 2017.
  3. ^ Excerpt from Britannica Entry "..so-called Old Anatolian Turkish.."
  4. ^ Ergin, Muharrem, Osmanlıca Dersleri, BOĞAZİÇİ YAYINLARI, ISBN 975-451-053-9[page needed]
  5. ^ Yazıcı, Tahsin (2010). "Persian authors of Asia Minor part 1". Encyclopaedia Iranica. Persian language and culture were actually so popular and dominant in this period that in the late 14th century, Moḥammad (Meḥmed) Bey, the founder and the governing head of the Qaramanids, published an official edict to end this supremacy, saying that: “The Turkish language should be spoken in courts, palaces, and at official institutions from now on!”CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
  6. ^ Culture and Tourism Ministry Karaman page (in Turkish) Archived August 11, 2014, at the Wayback Machine
  7. ^ Mahsun Atsız, (2020), A Syntactic Analysis on Gonbad Manuscript of the Book of Dede Korkut, p. 190-196