Old Roman Catholic Church in Europe
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|Leader||Jerome Lloyd OSJV|
|Founder||Arnold Harris Mathew|
|Origin||29 December 1910|
|Separated from||Old Catholic Church
[according to whom?]
|Branched from||Old Catholic Church|
The Old Roman Catholic Church in Europe (ORCCE), also known as the Old Roman Catholic Church, is a communion of local churches in the Old Roman Catholic and Ultrajectine tradition in Europe, headquartered in Brighton. It is Tridentine, in other words uses the Tridentine Mass.
The ORCCE regards itself as a Catholic church of the Western tradition following the Roman Rite. It has fellowship with other ecclesiastical bodies internationally through inter-communion agreements and international ecumenical bodies; the World Council of Churches through the International Council of Community Churches).[not verified in body]
The church's apostolic succession is through Arnold Harris Mathew's lineage and traced back to Roman Catholic bishops. Roman Catholic commentators and the 1983 Code of Canon Law have stated that sacraments administered by Old Catholics are sacramentally valid[a] and Roman Catholics may fulfill their Holy Day of Obligation by attending Mass celebrated by an Old Roman Catholic priest if unable to attend a Roman Catholic Mass.[disputed (for: RCC 1983 CIC canon 1248 §1) ] [clarify]
Old Catholic theology views the Eucharist as the core of the Christian Church. From that perspective the Church is a community of believers. All are in communion with one another around the sacrifice of Jesus Christ as the highest expression of the love of God. Therefore, the celebration of the Eucharist is considered the experience of Christ's triumph over sin and that the defeat of sin consists in bringing together that which is divided.
It is believed that, through communion, differences between people are reconciled and that which was scattered is brought together. In Old Catholic theology "Church" means reconciliation. "Church" means the restoration of broken relations between God and humanity and humanity with each other. clarify][
The ORCCE believes in unity in diversity.[buzzword] As a result, different beliefs and practices are found in its churches than in the RCC or the Eastern Orthodox churches. For example, [clarify] Old Roman Catholics often refer to an excerpt from Vincent of Lérins' Commonitorium: "... all possible care must be taken, that we hold that faith which has been believed everywhere, always, by all."(p132) as a basis for discerning and [clarify] For this reason the ORCCE is different from the Utrecht Union (UU) and it neither ordains women nor condones same-gender marriage.
The mission of the church:
- Theological reform: to preserve and continue the orthodox Catholic Faith according to the principles found in Scripture, Tradition and Reason. "Real theological reform should consist in communicating to all men the teachings of Jesus Christ, as they are collected in the Scriptures and recorded in the universal tradition of the Church - a tradition, which also belongs to all the members of the Church. It is the duty of pastors and scholars to explain them, and it is the duty of each member to study the explanation, which appear to them wisest and most useful."
- Ecclesiastical reform: Old Roman Catholics are engaged in restoring the true conceptions of pastor, bishop, synod, council, ecclesiastical authority, and even infallibility according to ancient traditions. "The Church has been called from its very beginning a simple 'church' and it has been regarded in its universality, since the time when the question of universality arose, as a Christian 'republic'. The episcopal see of Rome was not long in attaining a certain priority. Rome being the capital of the empire; but it was merely a priority of honour, and not of jurisdiction."
- Union of the Christian Churches: A better understanding generally has already been reached as to the respects in which the Christian Churches ought to be one, and those in which they ought to remain distinct and all. "When all are one in loving one another, in working together for the social well-being, in banishing from their theology every trace of anthropomorphism and politics, in becoming more spiritually-minded after the pattern of Christ, and in establishing the reign of God in every individual conscience, then the union in question will be very near being declared."
In the late 1990s a group of mainly disaffected Anglo-Catholic clergy and laity, disappointed with the then small growth of the Continuing Anglican movement in Great Britain and ignorant of the pre-existing Old Roman Catholic presence in the United Kingdom, approached the Old Catholic Church of the United States (OCCUSA) under the primacy of Archbishop Robert Gubala, petitioning for the creation of a missionary province to re-establish an Old Catholic presence in the United Kingdom. In 2000, after the Rt Revd Robert McBride was consecrated, the English Catholic Church (ECC) became autonomous and in communion with the OCCUSA.
In 2006, the English Catholic Church changed its name to the Old Catholic Church in Europe (OCCE). The OCCE was incorporated in 2006 in the United Kingdom and dissolved in 2009.
In 2009 the dissolved OCCE changed its name to the Old Roman Catholic Church in Europe (ORCCE). ORCCE was incorporated in 2011 in the United Kingdom. ORCCE and in 2011 was received into full communion with the ORCCLR but later left this jurisdiction.
On 14 August 2012, two prelates, representing two groups of canonical Old Roman Catholicism in the United Kingdom, the ORCCGB's Douglas Lewins and the ORCCE's Jerome Lloyd, met and discussed how to effect a more structured and united presentation of the Old Roman Catholic faith and tradition. They agreed to mutually recognize their common inheritance and cooperate between the two groups.
On 29 November 2012, both Monsignor Lewins and Monsignor Lloyd signed the "Walsingham Declaration" intercommunion agreement and the foundation document of the Old Roman Catholic Council of Europe.
Recognition of ordinations
There are instances where Old Roman Catholic orders derived from Mathew have been affirmed by theologians, canonists and even representatives of the Holy See.
In 1915, Berghes participated in the Protestant Episcopal Church in the United States of America (PECUSA) consecration of Hiram Richard Hulse.   Anglican Communion bishops stated in 1920 Lambeth Conference resolution 27 and 1958 Lambeth Conference resolution 54 that they do not regard the Old Catholic Church in Great Britain, its extensions overseas, and "'episcopi vagantes' who call themselves either 'Old Catholic' or 'Orthodox,' in combination with other names" "as properly constituted Churches, or recognise the orders of their ministers."
Archbishop Frederick Gilbert Linale of the ORCCGB, third in succession from Carfora (via Marchenna and Shelley) obtained a declaration from Rome confirming the validity of his orders in 1962.[better source needed][disputed (for: Linale was ordained in 1966) ] Then in January 1982, Archbishop Romolo Carboni, Apostolic Nuncio to Italy, wrote to the Cardinal Prefect of the Council for the Public Affairs of the Church, asking him to look into the Apostolic succession of Linale. This task was given to Monsignor Annibale Ilari, who had access to the Vatican Archives. In his 1983 report to the Cardinal Prefect, Ilari ended with the conclusion:
I have attached a brief scheme of succession which ties Mgr Linale to the Supreme Pontiffs Benedict XIII, Benedict XIV and Pius IX, with the aim of assuring him that his lineage truly links him to the See of Peter.
The Old Catholic Church of British Columbia (OCCBC), whose orders are derived from Mathew through Ernest W. Jackson like the ORCCLR, was, c. 2006 – c. 2007, a probationary member of the UU's International Old Catholic Bishops' Conference (IBC); the union accepted the validity of their orders.[contradictory] The Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Quebec, in a public statement, which included an apology made for miscategorizing Father Claude Lacroix, acknowledged the [clarify] and stated that OCCBC's certificates of baptism "may be accepted for the inscription of children to First Communion and Confirmation program" in the Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Quebec. It also stated that when "Roman Catholics marry before an ordained minister belonging to another religious denomination, as in the case of the [... OCCBC], their marriage is invalid from a religious point of view."
In 2002, Cardinal Édouard Gagnon investigated the documentation of Bishop André Letellier's episcopal orders and consecration.[third-party source needed] Letellier was consecrated on 23 May 1968 by Archbishop André Leon Zotique Barbeau of the Catholic Charismatic Church of Canada.[b] Gagnon commented that, "nothing allows me to doubt the validity of episcopal ordination of Mgr André Letellier by Archbishop André Barbeau and that of Archbishop Barbeau by Archbishop Ignatius Charles Brearley, Primate of the Church of the 'Old Catholics' having its seat in England. The ordinations of the 'Old Catholics' are generally considered to be the same as those of Orthodox bishops."
Despite critics,[who?] there is incontrovertible evidence that the apostolic succession of Mathew originating from the OKKN, has been consistently considered "valid" by Vatican officials and Roman Catholic canon lawyers and theologians,[a] irrespective of the excommunication of Mathew by Pius X. But in all such cases it has been assumed[who?] that orthodox praxis and intention has been concurrent with each ordination/consecration and the cases of particular affirmation have only been of individuals known to be conservative in Catholic doctrine. In all above cases too, only the Roman Pontifical was used for the Rite of Consecration, other liturgies are not therefore affirmed.[why?] [according to whom?] Similarly, though the canonical principles[which?] above may be applied to other scenarios,[how?] the conclusions rely inherently on orthodox Catholic praxis and [according to whom?]
It is generally suggested[according to whom?] that Roman Catholics may fulfill their Holy Day of Obligation by attending Mass celebrated by an Old Roman Catholic priest if unable to attend a Roman Catholic Mass.[disputed (for: RCC 1983 CIC canon 1248 §1) ] [clarify]
The ORCCE does not regard itself as the sole expression of traditional Old Roman Catholicism in Western Europe and has relations and dialogue with similar traditionalist Old Catholic and Independent Catholic jurisdictions internationally.
Remaining true to the Declaration of Utrecht, the ORCCE feels that the possibility of reunion with the Holy See would require discussion and agreement on the understanding and practice of the Petrine Ministry necessarily different from that promulgated as dogma by the Roman Church during the First Vatican Council. 
The ORCCE has followed with interest the 2008 establishment of the Union of Scranton by the Polish National Catholic Church (PNCC), currently consisting of the PNCC and the Nordic Catholic Church for Old Catholic churches disaffected with the Utrecht Union. The theological framework of the Union of Scranton is being reviewed by the ORCCE hierarchy. However, the historical theological differences that developed between Old Catholicism (Utrecht Union) and Old Roman Catholicism (Mathew) which became visible in 1910 may provide some issues.
The ORCCE hierarchy hopes, after achieving a wider and more cohesive consensus of feeling and desire amongst other Old Roman Catholic jurisdictions, to approach the Orthodox Patriarchates of Antioch and Alexandria for clarification and praxis regarding the existing intercommunion agreement extant since 1911 that has never been formally retracted by either party.[disputed (for: repudiated by Gregory IV) ]
The ORCCE prays for the day when such discussions and agreements can be made that Christ's Church may be united once more on earth and actively encourages member congregations to participate in ecumenical activities and partnerships. At the international level citation needed][
Members of the ORCCE clergy believe that there is a need for the pastoral care of people those who wish the Tridentine Mass in Latin or in the vernacular.
clarify] and makes arrangements with other Christian groups and community organizations. The positive feature of such innovative partnerships is that resources are not wasted and clergy assert that sharing resources creates a linkage of people with ministry.[
Religious services are often held in private homes reflecting the house churches of ancient Rome. However, wherever possible, public spaces e.g. places of worship belonging to other denominations, may often be used. The ORCCE mission in Brighton, UK broadcasts Masses daily over the internet for those unable to attend a service physically. The ORCCE predominantly uses the Gregorian Rite, often referred to as the Tridentine Rite, for the occasional offices as well as the 1570 Breviary and Mass with pre-1955 rubrics e.g. the traditional Rites of Holy Week without the alterations instituted by Pius XII.
ORCCE clergy sometimes travel considerable distances to small congregations.[examples needed] Whilst time consuming and personally exhausting for individual clergy, this ministry demonstrates a real need for a responsive chaplaincy and reflects needs that are not being met by mainstream denominations.
clarify] and prejudice from the more established denominations, ORCCE missions continue to grow slowly.[quantify] The ORCCE missions bring the Gospel to people from very different backgrounds.[examples needed][
ORCCE clergy express their commitment to a real ministry and a ministry working with real people. Clergy have collectively asserted that they will not have relations with those who believe that a solely Internet church is adequate or appropriate as a means of knowing the Risen Christ.
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College of Bishops
• The Most Revd Msgr Jerome Lloyd OSJV, Metropolitan of Europe (UK), Archidioecesis Britannia
• The Most Revd Msgr Martin Charlesworth, Dioecesis Haemus, Provincia Europa
Notes and references
- Arnold's 1928, p. 16. The 1917 9th edition of William Addis and Thomas Arnold's A Catholic Dictionary states that "Dutch Jansenists [...] have retained valid orders, the celibacy of the clergy, the Mass and other services in Latin. They are known in Holland as old-Roman (oud-Roomsch), for they profess to be not only Catholics but Roman Catholics, and they acknowledge the Pope as the visible head of the Church" and also stated that, after reading their prayer-book, popular catechism, hymn-book, and Ordinary of the Mass, the author was "unable to discover any trace of heresy in these books". By the 1957 16th edition, A Catholic Dictionary was revised and did not retain these statements. The 1957 16th edition contains the preface from the 1948 15th edition which stated that the 1917 Code of Canon Law, "which came into force in 1918, has demanded a revision or rewriting of a very large number of articles. Since that date there have been new regulations for Papal elections, the settlement of the Roman Question, many important Encyclical letters, [...] all of which have involved alterations and corrections in the text."(vi) The 1931 1st edition of Donald Attwater's The Catholic Encyclopaedic Dictionary, states that Old Catholic churches "are now to all intents and purposes a Protestant and Modernist body. [...] The Jansenist Church of Holland is now reckoned an Old Catholic church. Their orders and sacraments are valid." Konrad Algermissen wrote, in Christian Denominations, that "As a fundamentally pantheistic movement it cannot be reckoned among the Christian faiths. Nevertheless the Liberal Catholic Church has received valid orders from the Old Catholic Church and performs its ordination ceremony with the greatest ritual exactness. This fact shows with what ease the Old Catholic Church dispenses its valid consecration. In America, for instance. The American Catholic Church, The Old Catholic Church in America, The North American Old Roman Catholic Church, have all received valid episcopal consecration from the Old Catholic Church."(p363) In 1928, The Far East magazine, answered an inquiry concerning the validity of orders conferred in the NAORCC. The magazine article mentions Carfora favorably and states that: "these orders are valid...".
William Whalen wrote, in the 1958 1st edition and 1966 2nd edition of Separated Brethren:
While no official pronouncement has been made by the Vatican concerning the validity of Old Catholic orders, we have no reason to doubt that they are valid. The apostolic succession does not depend on obedience to the see of Peter but rather on the objective line of succession from apostolic sources, the proper matter and form, and the proper intention. This means that Old Catholic priests are probably true priests with the full powers of the priesthood although they would be exercising these powers unlawfully. Likewise Old Catholic bishops are bishops in the apostolic succession. [...] Rationalism infected the movement from the beginning and together with nationalism turned Old Catholicism into a brand of liberal Protestantism, though closer to Anglicanism than to evangelical Protestantism.(p204)(p204)
"Catholics may receive the Eucharist, penance, or anointing from sacred ministers of Catholic denominations whose Holy Orders are considered valid by the Roman Catholic Church. This includes all Eastern Orthodox priests, as well as priests of the Old Catholic or Polish National Church."
- André Barbeau had been consecrated by Charles Brearley,[i] who had been consecrated by Matthew Cooper,[i] who had been consecrated by James Bartholomew Banks, who had been consecrated by Frederick Samuel Willoughby,(p23) who had been consecrated by Mathew.(p19)
- This person is not found in Brandreth.
- Williams, Bernard Mary (1922). A summary of the history, faith, discipline and aims of the Old Roman Catholic Church in Great Britain. [s.l.]: [s.n.] (published c. 1924). p. 23. OCLC 315302080.
- "Antioch & Alexandria". orcce.webs.com. Old Roman Catholic Church. Archived from the original on 2012-11-14. Retrieved 2014-06-04.
- Addis, William E; Arnold, Thomas (1917) [first published 1803]. "Jansenist Church of Holland". In Scannell, T. B. A Catholic dictionary: containing some account of the doctrine, discipline, rites, ceremonies, councils, and religious orders of the Catholic Church (9th ed.). London: Kegan Paul, Trench, Trubner. p. 482. OCLC 4372765. Retrieved 20 August 2013.
- Addis, William E; Arnold, Thomas (1957) [first published 1803]. "Jansenist Church of Holland". In Scannell, T. B; et al. A Catholic dictionary: containing some account of the doctrine, discipline, rites, ceremonies, councils, and religious orders of the Catholic Church (Rev. 16th ed.). St. Louis: Herder. vi, pp. 471–472. OCLC 5024753. Retrieved 20 August 2013.
- Attwater, Donald, ed. (1931). "Jansenist Church of Holland, The". The Catholic encyclopaedic dictionary. New York: Macmillan. p. 279. OCLC 3266961.
There orders and sacraments are valid.Also "Old Catholics, The". The Catholic encyclopaedic dictionary. p. 373.
[...] they are now to all intents and purposes a Protestant and Modernist body. [...] The Jansenist Church of Holland is now reckoned an Old Catholic church. Their orders and sacraments are valid.Please note there are several later revisions of this work.
- Algermissen, Konrad (1945). "Opposition to rationalist and nationalist tendencies". Christian Denominations. Translated by Joseph W Grundner. St. Louis, MO; London: Herder Book. pp. 345–368. LCCN 45005798. Retrieved 20 August 2013.
- The Far East (American ed.). Omaha: St. Columban's Foreign Mission Society: 16. Jan 1928. OCLC 60380780. Missing or empty
- Whalen, William J (1958). Separated brethren: a survey of non-Catholic Christian denominations in the United States (1st. ed.). Milwaukee: Bruce Pub. LCCN 57013118. Retrieved 2 October 2013.
- Whalen, William J (1966) [first published 1958]. Separated brethren: a survey of non-Catholic Christian denominations in the United States (2nd rev. ed.). Milwaukee: Bruce Pub. Retrieved 2 October 2013.
- Whalen, William J (1972) [first published 1958]. Separated Brethren: a survey of Protestant, Anglican, Orthodox, Old Catholic, and other denominations in the United States (Rev. and enl. ed.). Huntington: Our Sunday Visitor. ISBN 0879738413. Retrieved 2 October 2013.
- Doyle, Thomas P (1983). Rights and Responsibilities: a Catholic's guide to the new code of canon law. New York: Pueblo Publ. p. 44. ISBN 091613458X.
- Huels, John M. (1997). The Pastoral Companion: a canon law handbook for Catholic ministry (3rd ed.). p. 335.
The principal condition is that these sacraments can be received only from validly ordained ministers. These are ministers who belong to 'churches that have preserved the substance of the Eucharistic teaching, the sacraments of orders, and apostolic succession'. This would include all Eastern non-Catholic churches, the Polish National Church, Old Catholic, and Old Roman Catholic. Occasionally, a bishop in apostolic succession may validly ordain a priest, even if his church is not recognized in this category.
- Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith; Ratzinger, Joseph; Bertone, Tarcisio (2000-08-06). Dominus Iesus. Vatican City. n.17 and fn.59. Archived from the original on 2000-11-09. Retrieved 2013-08-20.
- Arx, Urs von. Written at Bern. "The Nature of the Church and its Mission". utrechter-union.org. Utrecht: Utrechter Union der Altkatholischen Kirchen. Archived from the original on 2012-10-27. Retrieved 2014-05-25.
- White, James F. (1979) . The Cambridge movement : the ecclesiologists and the gothic revival (reissue ed.). Cambridge [u.a.]: Cambridge University Press. pp. 48–49. ISBN 0521067812.
- This article incorporates text from a work in the public domain: Vincent of Lérins; Heurtley, Charles A., trans. (1955) [1894 by various publishers]. "The Commonitory of Vincent of Lérins, for the antiquity and universality of the catholic faith against the profane novelties of all heresies". In Schaff, Philip; Wace, Henry. Sulpitius Severus, Vincent of Lerins, John Cassian. A select library of the Nicene and post-Nicene fathers of the Christian Church. Second series. 11 (Reprint ed.). Grand Rapids: B. Eerdmans. pp. 127–130. OCLC 16266414 – via Christian Classics Ethereal Library.
- Brusca, Charles T. "Old Roman Catholic Church: in the history Of the One True Catholic and Apostolic Church". orcclatinrite.org. London, ON: Old Roman Catholic Church Latin Rite Archdiocese of Canada and the United States. Archived from the original on 2009-07-31. Retrieved 2014-05-26.
- "Old Catholic Church in Europe Limited". companieshouse.gov.uk (database record). London: United Kingdom. Companies House. Company number: 05953534. Retrieved 2014-06-05.
- "Old Roman Catholic Church in Europe Limited". companieshouse.gov.uk (database record). London: United Kingdom. Companies House. Company number: 07872020. Retrieved 2014-06-05.
- Conference of bishops of the Anglican Communion (1920). Encyclical letter from the bishops, with the resolutions and reports. 6th Lambeth Conference, 5 July – 7 August 1920. London: Society for the Promotion of Christian Knowledge. pp. 34, 154–156. OCLC 729498943.
- Resolution 54. 9th Lambeth Conference, 1958. London: Anglican Communion Office. Archived from the original on May 16, 2007. Retrieved 25 March 2014.
- "Episcopal succession of the Old Roman Catholic Church in GB". oldromancatholic.org.uk. Archived from the original on June 23, 2012. Retrieved 2014-06-04.
- Platt, K (16 May 2006). "Schism, Apostasy, Anglican Orders and Ecumenism". Archived from the original on 26 August 2006. Retrieved 20 August 2013.
- Carboni, Romolo (1982-01-09). [to Cardinal Prefect of the Council for the Public Affairs of the Church] (letter). 1490/82.[non-primary source needed]
- Ilari, Annibale (1983-08-02). [to ] (letter).[non-primary source needed]
- "The Old Catholic Church of British Columbia & The Union of Utrecht of the Old Catholic Churches (Utrecht Union)". oldcatholicbc.com. Vancouver, BC: The Old Catholic Church of BC. Archived from the original on 2014-06-04. Retrieved 2014-06-04.
- Pelletier, Jean (2010). Rectification with respect to the communiqué by the Chancery Office on the Old Catholic Church of B.C. and the Reverend Claude Lacroix, a priest of this Church (PDF). Québec, QC: Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Quebec. Archived (PDF) from the original on 2014-03-29. Retrieved 2013-08-20.
- Brandreth, Henry R. T (1987) [First published in 1947]. Episcopi vagantes and the Anglican Church. San Bernardino, CA: Borgo Press. ISBN 0893705586.
- Gagnon, Édouard (2002-05-06). À qui de droit (letter) (in French). Montreal.[non-primary source needed] Translated in Gagnon, Édouard. "To whom it may concern". thedegree.org.
After having studied the documentation about Mgr André Letellier and his predecessors in episcopal succession, I am convinced that he has been validly consecrated a bishop. It is not my intention to rule on the reports of the organization, incorporated under the name of Catholic Charismatic Church of Canada with the Conference of Catholic Bishops of Canada and of Québec. But nothing allows me to doubt the validity of episcopal ordination of Mgr André Letellier by Archbishop André Barbeau and that of Archbishop Barbeau by Archbishop Ignatius Charles Brearley, Primate of the Church of the 'Old Catholics' having its seat in England. The ordinations of the 'Old Catholics' are generally considered to be the same as those of Orthodox bishops. I have known Archbishop Barbeau for more than 60 years since our time at the Grand Seminary of Montreal. I have had little contact with him thereafter, having exercised my ministry far from here. But he has always been known to me as a man of prayer, a mystic. And I think that his disciples are also, above all, men of prayer.[dead link][third-party source needed]
- "Daily Mass Online apostolate". dailymass.co.uk. Brighton: The Old Roman Catholic Church in Europe.