|This article needs additional citations for verification. (October 2008)|
|Old Catholic Mariavite Church|
|Prime bishop||Maria Karol Babi|
|Associations||World Council of Churches
Conference of European Churches
Polish Ecumenical Council
|Region||Poland and France|
|Headquarters||Płock, Republic of Poland|
Płock, Vistula Land
|Separated from||Latin Church of the
|Separations||Catholic Mariavite Church|
|Members||less than 30,000|
|Other name(s)||Old Catholic Church of the Mariavites|
The Mariavite Church was an independent Christian church that emerged from the Catholic Church of Poland at the turn of the 20th century. Initially, it was an internal movement leading to a reform of the Polish clergy.
The denomination was led by Jan Maria Michał Kowalski from the 1920s until 1935 when Kowalski was deposed and a schism resulted in two groups:
- the Mariavite Old Catholic Church, also called Old Catholic Church of the Mariavites, also called the Old Catholic Mariavite Church of Poland was led after 1935 by Maria Filip Feldman in Płock
- the Catholic Church of the Mariavites was led after 1935 by Kowalski in Felicjanow
Old Catholic Mariavite Church was, and still is, the larger of the two groups.
After 1935, the leadership of the smaller group, the Catholic Mariavite Church remained in the hands of Kowalski, and later in the hands of his widow, Maria Izabela Wiłucka-Kowalska.
Catholic Mariavite Church stands away from the ecumenical movement.
- 1 Name
- 2 History
- 3 Relations between Mariavites and Roman Catholics
- 4 Structure of the Mariavite Churches
- 5 Apostolic succession
- 6 See also
- 7 Notes
- 8 References
- 9 Further reading
- 10 External links
Catholic Church in Poland under Russian Empire
In the 19th century, the territory of Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth was divided among the control of three nations. According to the laws of the Russian Empire, which upheld the Russian Orthodox Church as the established church, Polish Catholic religious organizations were illegal. The situation of the Catholic Church was the worst in the Russian Partition.
After the January Uprising in 1863, tsarist authorities forbade the establishment of Polish-national organisations, including religious ones. Many cloisters were dissolved. The Catholic clergy in the Russian Partition were not well educated, in contrast to the priests in the Austrian Partition and Prussian Partition. The only authorized Roman Catholic theological academy in the Russian Empire was the Saint Petersburg Roman Catholic Theological Academy. The priests were often criticized for their inappropriate behaviour and exploitation of the peasants. The Mariavite movement emerged in this difficult situation.
In 1887 Feliksa Kozłowska established a religious order for women following the Rule of St. Clare in Płock. Later to be called the Order of the Mariavite Sisters, at the time it was one among many Roman Catholic religious communities. Despite attempts by the Russians to suppress Polish Catholic organizations, they continued. Kozłowska had been in another Roman Catholic order since 1883, one established by Capuchin friar Honorat Koźmiński.
In 1893 Kozłowska had her first vision. She was said to found the new religious movement of "Mariavitism" on 2 Aug 1893. Kozłowska received several visions between 1893 and 1918 that were gathered in 1922 in the volume entitled Dzieło Wielkiego Miłosierdzia (The Work of Great Mercy), the most important religious work for the Mariavites beside the Bible. In her revelation, Kozłowska received an order to fight with the moral decline of the world, especially with the sins of the clergy.
In her first vision, she was told to organize an order of the priests-Mariavites. This order was to promote the renewal of the spiritual life of the clergy. The most important purpose was to spread the perpetual Eucharistic adoration and the cult of the Perpetual Help of the Blessed Virgin Mary. In their everyday life, the clergy were to return to the Franciscan tradition of an ascetic life: fasting, modesty and simplicity in clothes and life. They recommended frequent confession and communion for the people. Notably, early adherents of the Mariavite renewal represented the elite of Polish clergy of that time. They were young priests who had completed theology studies at the Saint Petersburg Roman Catholic Theological Academy; they were often professors and lecturers at the seminary schools, and held positions as seminary Rectors or as chancery officials.
Attempt to legalize the movement – 1903–1906
For Kozłowska and the Mariavite priests, the newly established movement was generate internal reform of the Church in Poland. Until 1903 the movement was not recognised by the Roman Catholic hierarchy in divided and occupied Poland. That year the provincials of the Mariavite order presented the texts of Kozłowska's revelations and a history of the movement to the local ordinary, Bishop Jerzy Józef Szembek of the Roman Catholic Diocese of Płock, and to the bishops of the Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Warsaw and the Roman Catholic Diocese of Lublin. While the bishops of Warsaw and Lublin refused to accept the case, Szembek accepted the case and started a canonical investigation.
The leaders of the movement were interviewed and the documents were sent to the Holy See. One month later a delegation of Mariavites traveled to Rome to ask the pope to recognise the order. They had to wait for the end of the conclave, during which a new pope would be elected. During this time, they chose Kowalski as the Minister Generalis of the order. At that time, he was considered the most important person of the movement. They presented their case to the newly elected Pope Pius X. In June 1904 another delegation traveled to Rome to express to the Roman Curia the importance of their order's mission.
The final decision was made by the Congregation of the Inquisition in September 1904, one month after the second Mariavite audience. In December 1904, The Holy See ruled against the Mariavites. It said that the revelations of Kozłowska were "hallucinations." The Holy See ordered that the movement be dissolved and forbade any further contact between the priests and Kozłowska. Following the decision, the Mariavite community sent another two delegations to the Holy See. The first, including the Mariavite priest Skolimowski, asked the pope to allow them to gather monthly for their spiritual exercises; the second, a delegation of the "Mariavite people" (i.e., people from parishes where the Mariavites served), described the positive value of the Mariavites' work, especially amongst those living in poverty.
In time the Mariavites decided to disregard the orders of the Holy See. But, Kozłowska accepted the decision of the Holy See and cut herself off from contact with the other nuns and priests of the community. In February 1906 the priests' group informed the Holy See that it was separating from the jurisdiction of the Polish bishops, but it asked its case to be adjudicated by Rome. During this time, the bishop of Płock called the Mariavites heretics. This led to instances of anti-Mariavite persecution. Many clerical members of the movement were suspended from their positions.
In their last letter to the Archbishop of Warsaw, in March 1906, the Mariavites asked for the reversal of the decisions that had been made against them. In April 1906, Pius X promulgated the encyclical Tribus circiter which sustained the decision of the Holy Office about Kozłowska and the Mariavite community. In December 1906, the Catholic Church excommunicated Kozłowska, Kowalski, and all their followers.
Mariavite Church – first period (1906–1921)
The Russian government recognized the Mariavite movement as a "tolerated sect" in November 1906, and recognized it as a separate and independent church in 1912. In 1906 there were about 50,000–60,000 adherents organized into 16 parishes. Five years later, historical sources report 160,000 believers. [speculation?]
The organization of the Mariavite community somewhat resembles Protestant communities, as each member of the congregation has a right to speak about problems. Mariavites were not only active on religious grounds, but they operated many cultural, educational and social activities. They were soon organizing kindergartens, schools, libraries, kitchens for the poor, shops, printing houses, poorhouses, orphanages and factories. Quickly their parishes built many new churches, causing suspicion in the Catholic Church.
In 1911 they finished their main church in Płock, which was called the Sanctuary of Mercy and Charity. They bought 5 square kilometres (1.9 sq mi) of land near Płock which they named Felicjanów after Kozłowska. Since 1906, they practiced the liturgy in the vernacular of Polish, rather than in Latin. Excommunicated from the Catholic Church, they desired reintegration into the historic apostolic succession and recognition of their bishop.
They contacted the Old Catholic Church of the Netherlands through Russian General Alexander Kireev. In 1909 the first Mariavite bishop was consecrated to the episcopate in Utrecht, by the Old Catholic Church of the Netherlands Archbishop Gerardus Gul. In 1919 they officially changed the group's name to the Old Catholic Church of the Mariavites.
The first period of the Mariavite movement ended when Kowalska died in 1921, and the internal reformation movement changed into the development of a new denomination. This period was the most successful time for the Mariavites. They developed many activities for the adherents. Gradually the number of adherents decreased; in 1921 there were officially 43,000 adherents. They created numerous social institutions, built facilities, founded magazines, and published books having to do with the movement.
Archbishop Kowalski (1921–1935)
After Kozłowska died, Kowalski became head of the Church. He had been the closest associate of Kozłowska, staying under her strong influence until her death. The respect for Kozłowska was taken up by Kowalski; quickly he became the only authority of the Mariavites. He initiated several changes within the church to make it more distinct from Roman Catholicism. His innovations were called far-reaching theological and dogmatic Modernism.
The Mariavites' homepage summarizes Kowalski's reforms and innovations:
- 1922Possibility for a priest to be married–1924 –
- 1922Communion under the two species –
- 1929ordination of women, retained in Catholic Mariavite Church –
- 1929ordination of women, abolished in Old Catholic Mariavite Church–1935 –
- 1930Priesthood of the people of God similar to Protestant concept –
- 1930Immediate Communion for just-born baptized infants –
- 1930Removal of the ecclesiastical titles –
- 1930Suppression of the prerogatives of the clergy –
- 1931–1933 – Simplification of the liturgical ceremonies
- 1931–1933 – Simplification of the rules of Lent
- – Reduction of the eucharistic fast
These innovations were controversial, not only to the Roman Catholics, but also to many of the Mariavites. The introduction of marriages among priests and nuns (and sometimes between them) in 1924, and the priesthood of women in 1929, were the most disputed. Kowalski's changes disrupted the connection with the Old Catholics, who were then firmly opposed to the ordination of women. In the 1920s and 1930s, Kowalski was seeking for an ecumenical dialogue with other churches. Kowalski proposed union with the Polish National Catholic Church, and worked to deepen contacts with Eastern Orthodox churches and other Eastern-tradition churches. In the early 1930s, he proposed reconciliation to Roman Catholic bishops. None of these attempts succeeded.
The opposition against "the dictatorship" of Kowalski arose in the Mariavite Church in the 1930s. In October 1934, the bishops and priests demanded changes to the teachings and rules of administration in the Church, but Kowalski refused to make any changes. In January 1935 the General Chapter of the Mariavite Priests (Synod) decided to remove Kowalski from his position. Kowalski and his supporters refused to accept the decision of the General Chapter.
The Church divided. (Kozłowska had prophesied that the Mariavite Church would have a schism, as Christianity had earlier. During this time, nearly 30 percent of adherents left the Mariavite Church and converted back to the Roman Catholic Church.
After 1935 schism
The Kowalski faction moved from Płock to Felicjanów. This village is the headquarters of the Catholic Church of the Mariavites, which has about 3,000 members. The denomination confirmed all the decisions of Kowalski and introduced the public cult of Kozłowska, the Mateczka, the Spouse of Christ and new Redemptrix of the world. Its doctrine has moved beyond that originally encouraged by the foundress. The church is insular and does not participate in the ecumenical movement. Kowalski died in the Dachau concentration camp during World War II. His successor was his wife, Bishop Maria Izabela Wiłucka-Kowalska. From 1946-2005, the head of the Church was Bishop Maria Rafael Wojciechowski. He was succeeded in 2005 by Bishop Maria Beatrycze Szulgowicz.
Feldman led the opposition that attracted the majority of Mariavite adherents. They decided to reverse most of the innovations introduced by Kowalski. They returned to Kozłowska's ideas and rules. The Old Catholic Mariavite Church and is much the larger: as of 2011[update] it had about 23,500 members in Poland, and about 5,000 in France.
Both churches are struggling with a lack of clergy, as most of the priests are aged and young people have not entered the seminary in sufficient number to replace them. The Old Catholic Mariavite Church started many activities in the post-war ecumenical movement. Together with other churches, it has established the Polish Ecumenical Council. It renewed its contacts with other Old Catholic churches.
Mariavite Old Catholic Church – Province of North America
|The factual accuracy of part of this article is disputed. The dispute is about the existence of any verifiable Mariavite congregation in North America. (October 2015)|
A third Mariavite group is the Mariavite Old Catholic Church – Province of North America, founded in the United States in 1930 by Polish immigrants and their descendants. It was long under the direction of Robert R. Zaborowski (1949–2010), and based in Wyandotte, Michigan,having no parishes other than the tiny chapel in the residence in Wyandotte. The Old Catholic Mariavite Church in Europe correctly contends that it has had no official presence in North America.
citation needed] Zaborowski died on 22 November 2010 after a long illness and was buried as a layman.[
Relations between Mariavites and Roman Catholics
Since the 1970s, the Roman Catholic and Old Catholic Mariavite churches have worked at reconciliation. The Polish bishops apologized for the problems that had engendered the beginnings of the Mariavite movement. Their attitude toward Kozłowska changed; they affirmed that she was a woman of great piety and religiosity. In 1972 the Jesuit priest Stanisław Bajko, the secretary of the Polish Episcopate Commission for Ecumenism, studied the revelations of Kozłowska and concluded that they were not discordant with Roman Catholic doctrine. The Mariavites were pleased that the Holy See recognised as true the revelation of Kowalska about the Lord's Grace. They said nota bene took place in Płock, which was for the Mariavites a clear sign that God has repeated this message to the people.
The influence of Kozłowska was seen to be too strong; this is why she was the victim of harsh attacks (called often the incarnation of a devil, as in the satiric article "Where the devil cannot go, there he will send a woman" from 1906). Her activities were criticized by the bishop of Płock as early as 1897. He was concerned that many Mariavites treated her as a living saint. She was treated by Mariavites as a very good and pious person before the condemnation of the pope, but this situation was not unique in Christian history. Kowalski characterized her as "the embodyment [sic] of the Holy Spirit on earth" in his writings.
In 1903 the Archbishop of the Warsaw forbade Roman Catholics in the diocese from observing some otherwise approved devotions of the Roman Catholic rite (e.g. the Adoration of the Most Blessed Sacrament and the Perpetual Help of Our Lady), which were considered most important by the Mariavite faction. He called their devotion to these "excessive" and unnecessary.
As the movement became more visible, it attracted critics. Newspapers published a number of satiric articles and cabarets were laughing at the Mariavites in their songs and plays.[who?] This led to the more violent acts against the Mariavite churches and chapels. The most difficult year was 1906, when in a few places riots and the murder of Mariavites took place. They were generally connected with the problem of ownership, because in many places Mariavite priests with the majority of believers of the parishes wanted to take over the churches, which in many cases the Mariavite believers had built, while according to the law, they were confiscated and claimed to belong to the Catholic Church.
The Church struggled during the Second Commonwealth of Poland. Mariavites were discriminated against, and there were "Mariavite pogroms". The leaders of the Mariavite Church were often sued in court. Kowalski appeared in 20 cases; he was accused of blasphemies against God, the Bible, the Catholic Church, and the sacraments, betrayal of the country (implicit treason), of socialism, communism, theft, frauds, lies, etc. He was blamed for sexual abuses that had taken place in the Płock cloister. In 1931 he was convicted and sentenced to two years in prison, which he served from 1936 to 1938. Newspapers published articles demanding the criminalization of the Mariavite Church.
Because of their recognition by the Russian government, Mariavites were criticized as pro-Russian and pro-socialist. They were suggested to be collaborators with the occupiers. The very early Mariavites became aware of the problems among the workers, and they directed many social activities based on their interpretation of Christianity. For many Poles, "Polishness" was strongly connected with the Roman Catholic faith. Rejection of the faith was equivalent with rejection of nationality.
The history of relations between the Mariavites and Roman Catholics could be divided into two periods. The first was when the Mariavite Church was emerging and forming its institutional shape. This period was full of mutual distrust, suspicions and insults. The worst time was between 1906 and 1911, shortly after separation of the Mariavites, and between 1923 and 1937, when Polish nationalism was ardent.
The second was the post-World War II period, which was affected by two events: the oppression of all churches under decades of Polish anti-religious campaign, and the changes introduced by Second Vatican Council. Those circumstances led to the opening of dialogue and closer connections between Christian denominations. The progress in ecumenical reconciliation between the Old Catholic Mariavite Church and Catholic Church in Poland is now underway. However, the Felicjanów denomination rejects any possibility of the rapprochement with Catholics.
The Papal Palace of Castel Gandolfo has been a site of ecumenical activities. In the 1980s, observations at Vatican Observatory were led by Konrad Rudnicki, a Polish astronomer, priest and professor of the Old Catholic Mariavite Church.
Structure of the Mariavite Churches
Old Catholic Mariavite Church
- 1906Jan Maria Michał Kowalski–1935 –
- 1935Klemens Maria Filip Feldman–1945 –
- 1945Roman Maria Jakub Próchniewski–1953 –
- 1953Wacław Maria Bartłomiej Przysiecki–1955 –
- 1955Jan Maria Michał Sitek–1965 –
- 1965Wacław Maria Innocenty Gołębiowski–1972 –
- 1972Stanisław Maria Tymoteusz Kowalski–1997 –
- 1997Zdzisław Maria Włodzimierz Jaworski–2007 –
- 2007Michał Maria Ludwik Jabłoński–2015 –
- 2015Marek Maria Karol Babi –
organized into three dioceses in Poland with 38 parishes and one province in France with 2 parishes:
- Diocese of Warsaw-Płock with cathedral in Płock
- Diocese of Podlasie-Lublin with cathedral in Cegłów
- Diocese of Silesia-Łódź with cathedral in Łódź
- Province of France (French: Province de France de l'Eglise Vieille-Catholique Mariavite) with cathedral in Paris
Order of the Mariavites in Germany
The Order of the Mariavites in Germany (German: Orden der Mariaviten in Deutschland e.V.) is an Eingetragener Verein type assocition in Germany. Even in 1949, this association was not legally recognized as a sect by Germany. This association is not recognized by either the contemporary Old Catholic Mariavite Church or the Catholic Mariavite Church.
- Kowalski consecrated Marie Marc Fatôme on 4 September 1938 in Felicjanow, Poland
- Fatôme consecrated Marie Paulus Maas on 9 October 1949 in Mannheim, Germany[a]
- Maas consecrated Maria Norbert Szuwart on 31 October 1987 in Cologne, Germany
Mariavite Old Catholic Church – Province of North America
|The factual accuracy of part of this article is disputed. The dispute is about both the consecration of Boryszewski and the consecration of Zaborowski as Mariavite bishops. (October 2015)|
- Prochniewski consecrated Francis Ignatius Maria Boryszewski (1930–1975) on 2, February, 1930
- Robert Ronald John Maria Zaborowski (1972–2010)
Kowalski was consecrated in St. Gertrude's Cathedral, Utrecht, on 5 October 1909, by Old Catholic Church of the Netherlands (OKKN) Archbishop Gerardus Gul of Utrecht, assisted by two OKKN bishops, Jacobus Johannes van Thiel of Haarlem and Nicolaus Bartholomeus Petrus Spit of Deventer, one Catholic Diocese of the Old Catholics in Germany bishop, Josef Demmel of Bonn, and Arnold Harris Mathew. Gul was assisted Union of Utrecht at the consecration by, JJ Van Thiel, J Demmel and MBP Spit.
Kowalski consecrated: Fatome, Feldman, Golebisewski, Prochniewiski, Rostoworowski, Siedleccki, and his wife, Wiłucka-Kowalska.
- According to Der Spiegel in 1949, Maas had impersonated a Catholic priest and occasionally flouted: "It is after all a swindle." Although Maas was investigated by Mannheim police, the prosecutor did not issue an arrest warrant until the Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Freiburg pointed out that Maas violated the 1933 Reichskonkordat by wearing Catholic clerical clothing in public. According to Der Spiegel, Maas wanted to become a priest without a theological education, so he forged his Mittlere Reife, Abitur, and certification as a Roman Catholic theologian; he also used two honorary doctorates that he was not entitled to use in Germany.
- Polska. Główny Urząd Statystyczny (2013-03-28). "Kościół Starokatolicki Mariawitów". Wyznania religijne stowarzyszenia narodowościowe i etniczne w Polsce 2009–2011 (PDF). stat.gov.pl (Warszawa, PL: Zakład Wydawnictw Statystycznych). pp. 44–45. ISBN 9788370275198. Archived (PDF) from the original on 2013-10-08.
- Karski, Karol (2003). "Mariavites". In Fahlbusch, Erwin; et al. The encyclopedia of Christianity 3. Grand Rapids, MI: Eerdmans. pp. 402–403. ISBN 9780802824158.
- "The Old Catholic Mariavite Church". mariawita.pl. Płock, PL: Kościół Starokatolicki Mariawitów. 2015. Archived from the original on 2015-10-25. Retrieved 2015-10-25.
- "Sukcesja Apostolska". mariawita.pl (in Polish). Płock, PL: Kościół Starokatolicki Mariawitów. Archived from the original on 2004-08-30. Retrieved 2015-10-23.
- mpcaillot. "Old Church Catholic Mariavite". Mariavite.org. Retrieved 2010-11-19.
- "Wenn man den Drang in sich spürt". Der Spiegel (in German) 1949 (52): 10 11. 1949-12-22. Archived from the original on 2015-10-24. Retrieved 2015-10-24.
Zuweilen sagte aber Bischof Paulus Maria in gehobener Stimmung selber: 'Es ist ja doch alles Schwindel'.
- Bain, AM Bishops Irregular - an international directory of Independent Bishops 1985.
- Pruter, Karl and J. Gordon Melton. The Old Catholic Sourcebook, New York: Garland Publishers, 1983.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Mariavite Church.|
- The French province of the Old Catholic Mariavite Church
- Order of the Mariavites in Germany
- Catholic Encyclopedia, 1911 entry on Poland with a mention of the nascent schism of the Mariavites