Old Course at St Andrews

Coordinates: 56°20′35″N 2°48′11″W / 56.343°N 2.803°W / 56.343; -2.803
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Old Course

The Old Course's Swilcan Bridge, 2019
Club information
Old Course at St Andrews is located in Fife
Old Course at St Andrews
Location in Fife, Scotland
Old Course at St Andrews is located in Scotland
Old Course at St Andrews
Location in Scotland
Coordinates56°20′35″N 2°48′11″W / 56.343°N 2.803°W / 56.343; -2.803
LocationSt Andrews, Scotland
Established1552 (470 years ago)
Owned byFife Council[1]
Operated bySt Andrews Links Trust
Total holes18
Events hostedThe Open Championship, Alfred Dunhill Links Championship, St Andrews Links Trophy
WebsiteOld Course
Length7,305 yards (6,680 m)
Course record61; Ross Fisher (2017)

The Old Course at St Andrews, also known as the Old Lady or the Grand Old Lady,[2][3][4] is considered the oldest golf course.[5][6] It is a public course over common land in St Andrews, Fife, Scotland and is held in trust by the St Andrews Links Trust under an act of Parliament. The Royal and Ancient Golf Club of St Andrews clubhouse sits adjacent to the first tee, although it is but one of many clubs (St Andrews Golf Club, The New Golf Club, St Regulus Ladies Golf Club and The St Rule Club are the others with clubhouses) that have playing privileges on the course, along with some other non-clubhouse owning clubs and the general public. Originally known as the "golfing grounds" of St Andrews, it was not until the New Course was opened in 1895 that it became known as the Old Course.[7]


The Old Course at St Andrews is considered by many to be the "home of golf" because the sport was first played on the links at St Andrews in the early 15th century.[8] Golf was becoming increasingly popular in Scotland until James II of Scotland banned the game in 1457 because he felt that young men were playing too much golf instead of practising their archery.[9] The ban was upheld by James III, and remained in force until 1502, when James IV became a golfer himself and removed the ban.[10]


In 1552, Archbishop John Hamilton gave the townspeople of St Andrews the right to play on the links. In 1754, 22 noblemen, professors, and landowners founded the Society of St Andrews Golfers. This society would eventually become the precursor to The R&A which is the governing body for golf everywhere outside of the United States and Mexico.[11] St Andrews Links had a scare when they went bankrupt in 1797.[11] The Town Council of St Andrews decided to allow rabbit farming on the golf course to challenge golf for popularity. Twenty years of legal battling between the golfers and rabbit farmers ended in 1821 when a local landowner and golfer named James Cheape of Strathtyrum bought the land and is credited with saving the links for golf.[8]

The course evolved without the help of any one architect for many years, though notable contributions to its design were made by Daw Anderson in the 1850s and Old Tom Morris (1865–1908), who designed the 1st and 18th holes. Originally, it was played over the same set of fairways out and back to the same holes. As interest in the game increased, groups of golfers would often be playing the same hole, but going in different directions.[8]

Influence on modern golf[edit]

Plan of the Golfing course over the links of St Andrews surveyed by order of the Royal St Andrews Golfing Society

The Old Course was pivotal to the development of how the game is played today. For instance, in 1764, the course had 22 holes and the members would play the same hole going out and in with the exception of the 11th and 22nd holes. William St Clair of Roslin as the captain of The Captain and Gentlemen Golfers authorized changes to St Andrews on 4 October 1764.[12] He decided that the first four and last four holes on the course were too short and should be combined into four total holes (two in and two out). St Andrews then had 18 holes and that was how the standard of 18 holes was created.[13] Around 1863, Old Tom Morris had the 1st green separated from the 17th green, producing the current 18-hole layout with 7 double greens and 4 single greens. The Old Course is home of The Open Championship, the oldest of golf's major championships. The Old Course has hosted this major 30 times since 1873, most recently in 2022. The 30 Open Championships that the Old Course has hosted is more than any other course, and The Open is currently played there every five years.

Old Course and Bobby Jones[edit]

Bobby Jones (who later founded Augusta National) first played St Andrews in the 1921 Open Championship. During the third round, he infamously hit his ball into a bunker on the 11th hole. After he took four swings at the ball and still could not get out, he lost his temper and continued the round, but did not turn in his score card, disqualifying himself. However, he did continue to play in the fourth round. Six years later, when the Open Championship returned to St Andrews, Jones also returned. Not only did he win, he also became the first amateur to win back-to-back Open Championships. He won wire-to-wire, shooting a 285 (7-under-par), which was the lowest score at either a U.S. Open or Open Championship at the time. He ended up winning the tournament by a decisive six strokes.

In 1930, Jones returned to St Andrews for the British Amateur.[14] He won, beating Roger Wethered by a score of 7 and 6 in the final match. He subsequently won the other three majors, making him the only man in the history of the sport to win the Grand Slam. Jones went on to fall in love with the Old Course for the rest of his life. Years later, he said "If I had to select one course upon which to play the match of my life, I should have selected the Old Course." In 1958 the town of St Andrews gave Jones the key to the city; he was only the second American to receive the honour (after Benjamin Franklin in 1759). After he received the key, he said "I could take out of my life everything but my experiences here in St Andrews and I would still have had a rich and full life."[15]

Features and hazards[edit]

ESPN has said of the course, "No other golf course has as many famous landmarks as St. Andrews, its 112 bunkers and endless hills and hollows have been cursed for centuries, and many have their own names and legends."[16] In 1949, the last bunker to be filled in on the course was Hull bunker on the 15th fairway.[17]

Hole(s) Name of hazard or feature Type of hazard or feature Notes Image
(Click to expand)
All holes on the course Direction of play Until the 19th century, the Old Course was played in a clockwise direction. Old Tom Morris separated the 1st and 17th greens around 1870. From then, the course was played in an anti-clockwise direction on alternate weeks in order to let the grass recover better.[18] The general method of play now is anti-clockwise, although clockwise play has been permitted on one day each year in recent years. The course is closed on Sundays to let the course rest.[19][20] On some Sundays, the course turns into a park for all the townspeople who come out to stroll, picnic and otherwise enjoy the grounds.
Flags The first (front) nine holes of the course have white flags, while the back nine holes (except the 18th hole) have red flags.
The 18th green has a white flag so that it can seen in front of the red Hamilton Grand building.[21]

7th hole (white flag)
17th hole (red flag)
1 and 18 The Swilcan Burn Water hazard (Watercourse) This waterway flows from St Andrews into St Andrews Bay across the Old Course
The Swilcan Burn
Swilcan Bridge Footbridge This is a small stone bridge spanning the Swilcan Burn.
The bridge is about 30 feet (9.1 m) long, 8 feet (2.4 m) wide and 6 feet (1.8 m) tall.
Originally built at least 700 years ago to help shepherds get livestock across the Swilcan Burn.

The Swilcan Bridge
Grannie Clark's Wynd Footpath A one lane paved public road.[22]
It was once used to haul boats from the town centre down to the West Sands Beach.[22]
Grannie Clark's Wynd
Bunkers The 1st and 18th holes do not have any bunkers.[23][17] However, until about 1840 a large bunker called Halket's bunker was in the middle of the fairway, which was then filled in.[17]
The 1st and 18th holes
1, 9, 17
and 18
Greens The 1st, 9th, 17th and 18th holes have their own greens. All other holes have shared greens.[24]
2 and 17 Cheape's bunker Bunker This bunker is named after Sir James Cheape who bought the golf course from rabbit farmers in 1821.[25]

A later generation of the family sold the golf course onto The Royal and Ancient in 1892, who a year later sold it onto the town of St Andrews.[25]

3 Cartgate bunker Bunker A large bunker protecting the third green.[26]
4 Students' bunker Bunker Three small bunkers about 50 yards short of the green allegedly once popular with students wanting to seduce ladies.[27]
5 The Spectacles bunkers Bunkers Two bunkers positioned either side of the approach to the 5th green.[28]
Seven Sisters Bunkers The Seven Sisters bunkers were excavated after the 1905 Open by removing the gotse.[17]
5 and 14 The Elysian Fields Fairway The fairway between the Beardies bunkers and out of bounds.[26]
6 Nick's bunker Bunker [29]

The 6th bunker
7 and 11 Cockleshell bunker Bunker A large bunker between the 7th and 11th holes.[30][31]
7, 8, 9, 10, 11, and 12 The Loop A group of 6 holes Six crisscrossing holes at the far end of the course.[16]
8 Short Hole bunker Bunker This is the main hazard on the 8th hole.[32]
9 Boase's bunker Bunkers Deep pot bunkers[33]
End hole bunker Bunkers Deep pot bunkers[33]
10 Kruger bunkers Bunkers Built during the Second Boer War when the British were fighting in the Transvaal Republic, whose president was Paul Kruger.
The bunkers are called Mrs Kruger and Kruger's mistress.[34]
11 Hill bunker Bunker [35][20][31]
Strath bunker Bunker Strath bunker is located in the front of the green.[36][31]
Eden bunker Bunker [31]
Shelly bunker Bunker [31]
12 Stroke bunker Bunker It is said that once a ball goes in it, the golfer loses at least one stroke.[37]
Admiral's bunker Bunker Legend has it that an Admiral who fell into it after taking too long a look at a young American woman in a red mini-skirt and white shoes.[38]
13 Walkinshaw bunker Bunker Legend has it that it was named after a local golfer who kept going into it.[39]
Lions Mouth bunker Bunker [26]
Coffin bunkers Bunker A group of three bunkers located in the centre of the 13th fairway. The shape gives the bunkers their name.[40]
14 The Beardies bunkers 4 bunkers Four small bunkers that are said to be difficult to mow, hence the name.[41]
Kitchen bunker Bunker A small pot bunker originally shaped like a coffin.[42]
Benty bunker Bunker [42]
Hell bunker Bunker Golf Monthly said that it is "one of the world’s most notorious golfing hazards". It covers an area of 300 square yards (250 m2) and between 7 feet (2.1 m) and 10 feet (3.0 m) deep.[43][41]
Hell bunker
Grave bunker Bunker [42]
Pulpit bunker Bunker A pot bunker just above Hell bunker. Golf Monthly said it is so named because "you can look down into Hell (bunker)".[43]
15 Miss Grainger's Bosoms 2 Mounds Two prominent mounds on the 15th hole, named for prominent local 19th-century golfer Agnes Grainger.[16] She used to be a member of the St Andrews Ladies’ Putting Club.[44]
Cottage bunker Bunker Refers to Pilmour Cottage, which is now Pilmour House and the Eden Clubhouse.[35]
Rob's bunkers Bunkers [26]
Sutherland bunker Bunker In 1869 a tiny bunker at about 260 yards behind the much bigger Cottage bunker was filled in
but three days later it reappeared. The golfer thought to be responsible for restoring it,
AG Sutherland, later found to be incorrect, had it named after him.
16 Principal's Nose bunkers 4 bunkers Legend has it that the bunkers are named after Mr Haldane, a 19th-century head of St Mary's College who apparently had a prominent nose or that it refers to the front porch of Sir Hugh Playfair's South Street House, which was nicknamed thus.[45]
Principal's Nose bunkers
Deacon Sime bunker Bunker About 30 yards beyond the Principal's Nose cluster.[32]
Grant's bunker Bunker [32]
Wig bunker Bunker [32]
(The Road Hole)
The old railway sheds (part of the Old Course Hotel) Previously railway sheds. [46][21]
Old railway sheds
The Road (Hole) Bunker
(a.k.a. the Sands of Nakajima)[47][48]
Bunker The Herald has called the bunker "The most notorious golf hazard in the world."[48][21]
Road Hole bunker
Scholar's bunker Bunker [35]
The Old Station Road
and stone wall
(out of bounds)
Single-track road [49][21]
Old Station Road & wall
18 Valley of Sin Depression This is an 8 feet (2.4 m) deep depression along the front before the 18th putting green.[50]

The Open Championship[edit]

The Open has been staged at the Old Course at St Andrews 30 times. The following is a list of the champions:

Year Winner Score Notes
R1 R2 R3 R4 Total
1873 Scotland Tom Kidd 91 88 179 This was the first time the Open Championship was played on an 18-hole course. Instead of three rounds of 12 holes, there were two rounds of 18. Kidd won £11.
1876 Scotland Bob Martin 1st 86 90 176 Due to a controversial ruling, Bob Martin finished in a tie for first. In protest, his opponent Davie Strath refused to participate so Martin walked the course and became the Open Champion. He won £10.
1879 Scotland Jamie Anderson 3rd 84 85 169 With this win, Jamie Anderson became the first person to break 170 in the Open Championship. He won £10.
1882 Scotland Bob Ferguson 3rd 83 88 171 This was the third straight Open Championship for Ferguson. He won £12.
1885 Scotland Bob Martin 2nd 84 87 171 The second of Martin's Open Championship wins, he won £10.
1888 Scotland Jack Burns 86 85 171 Burns won after his score was re-added, giving him a one-stroke victory. The winner's share was £8.
1891 Scotland Hugh Kirkaldy 83 83 166 Kirkaldy set the tournament record with his 166. This was also the last Open Championship that was 36 holes. The winner's share was £10.
1895 England J.H. Taylor 2nd 86 78 80 78 322 This was the first Open to be played over two days (36 holes a day) and a total of 72 holes at St Andrews. He shot the first sub-80 rounds at St Andrews. The winner's share was £30.
1900 England J.H. Taylor 3rd 79 77 78 75 309 This open marked the first time the "Great Triumvirate" finished 1-2-3. That was the name given to the three golfers who dominated the game in the late 19th century to the early 20th century. From 1894 to 1914, J.H. Taylor, Harry Vardon, and James Braid combined to win 16 Open Championships. This was Taylor's third of five Open Championships. The winner's share was £50.
1905 Scotland James Braid 2nd 81 78 78 81 318 This was the first Open to be played over three days, with 36 holes on the last day. This was Braid's second of five Open Championships. The winner's share was £50.
1910 Scotland James Braid 5th 76 73 74 76 299 This Open was the last of Braid's five Open Championships. With this win he became the first person to break 300 in a four-round Open at St Andrews, and was the first to win five Open Championships. The winner's share was £50.
1921 United States Jock Hutchison
72 75 79 70 296 PO Born in Scotland, Hutchison was the first American citizen to win the Open Championship with this win. This was also the first time Bobby Jones played St Andrews. He ended up walking off the course after he took four shots to get out of a bunker on the 11th hole. The winner's share was £75.
1927 United States Bobby Jones (a) 2nd 68 72 73 72 285 (−7) This win marked Bobby Jones's first Open championship win at St Andrews, his second straight Open Championship, fourth professional major, and his 7th career major (he was a three-time winner of the U.S. Amateur). As an amateur, Jones received no prize money. Aubrey Boomer and Fred Robson finished in a tie for second, and the winner's and second place share of £75 for first place and £50 for second place were combined and divided into two, so each player earned 62 pounds and 10 shillings.
1933 United States Denny Shute 73 73 73 73 292 (0) PO Shute won the Open title by five strokes in a playoff against Craig Wood. Leo Diegel could have joined them but he whiffed a putt on the 72nd hole, finishing one shot off the lead. The winner's share was £100.
1939 England Dick Burton 70 72 77 71 290 (−2) The 1939 Open was the last Open until 1946 because of World War II. The Royal Air Force used the fairways of the Old Course as runways. Burton held the Claret Jug the longest (7 years), until the tournament resumed in 1946, also at St Andrews. The winner's share was £100.
1946 United States Sam Snead 71 70 74 75 290 (−2) Even though Sam Snead won the first Open Championship to be played since 1939, he still lost money because of the high travel expenses; his winner's share was £150. When taking the train into St Andrews, Sam Snead is quoted for looking out of the window and saying "Say, that looks like an old abandoned golf course" about the Old Course.
1955 Australia Peter Thomson 2nd 71 68 70 72 281 (−7) This was the second of Thomson's three straight Open titles, and five overall. His winner's share was £1,000.
1957 South Africa Bobby Locke 4th 69 72 68 70 279 (−9) Between 1949 and 1957, Locke won the Open title four times. He survived a possible disqualification when he marked his ball on the 72nd green, and played his ball without replacing his ball mark. The R&A decided that because he had a three shot lead, and he didn't gain an advantage, that in the spirit of the game, he should not be disqualified. The winner's share was £1,000.
1960 Australia Kel Nagle 69 67 71 71 278 (−10) This was the 100th anniversary of the Open Championship, although due to wars it wasn't the 100th Open Championship to be played. Arnold Palmer finished second and is credited with returning the Open to the eyes of Americans. The winner's share was £1,250.
1964 United States Tony Lema 73 68 68 70 279 (−9) From 1962 to 1966, Lema won 12 times on tour, but this was his only major. He beat Jack Nicklaus by five strokes, and his winner's share was £1,500.
1970 United States Jack Nicklaus 2nd 68 69 73 73 283 (−5)PO Doug Sanders missed a tough two and a half-foot (0.75 m) putt on the 72nd hole, bogeyed, and ended up tied with Nicklaus. The playoff the next day came down to 18th hole and Nicklaus birdied to win; it was his second Open title and eighth overall major; the winner's share was £5,250.
1978 United States Jack Nicklaus 3rd 71 72 69 69 281 (−7) Nicklaus completed the career Grand Slam (winning all four majors in your career at least once) for the third time making it his third Open Championship. The winner's share was £12,500
1984 Spain Seve Ballesteros 2nd 69 68 70 69 276 (−12) Ballesteros birdied the 72nd hole to win by two. His winner's share was £50,000.
1990 England Nick Faldo 2nd 67 65 67 71 270 (−18) Faldo set the Open championship scoring record shooting 18 under par, winning his second major of the year, his second Open Championship and his fourth overall major. The winner's share was £85,000.
1995 United States John Daly 67 71 73 71 282 (−6)PO Daly defeated Costantino Rocca in a four-hole playoff to win the Open title and £125,000. It was the final Open Championship appearance of Arnold Palmer, and the first for Tiger Woods.
2000 United States Tiger Woods 1st 67 66 67 69 269 (−19) Winning the 2000 Open was Tiger Woods's second consecutive major championship, making him the fifth golfer and the youngest to complete the career Grand Slam. Having won the 2000 U.S. Open at Pebble Beach, he went on to complete the "Tiger Slam" by winning the 2000 PGA Championship at Valhalla Golf Club and the 2001 Masters at Augusta National. Woods did not hit a single bunker the entire tournament, won by eight strokes, and set the new Open Championship scoring record with 19 under par. The winner's share was £500,000.
2005 United States Tiger Woods 2nd 66 67 71 70 274 (−14) Woods' won his 10th major championship; it was the fourth he had won by five or more strokes. It was Jack Nicklaus's last Open Championship. The winner's share was £720,000.
2010 South Africa Louis Oosthuizen 65 67 69 71 272 (−16) On the 150th anniversary of the first Open Championship, Oosthuizen played consistently well, winning the Open title by shooting a 16 under par 272 and winning by seven strokes. Rory McIlroy shot a 63 in the opening round and the winner's share was £850,000.
2015 United States Zach Johnson 66 71 70 66 273 (−15)PO In the 144th playing of the Open Championship, Zach Johnson emerged from a three-man playoff to win the tournament. Tom Watson was given a special exemption by the R & A in order that he could finish his Open career at the Old Course. The tournament finished on Monday due to the extremely high winds that arose during Saturday's round. Johnson defeated Louis Oosthuizen and Marc Leishman in a four-hole playoff. The winner's share was £1,150,000.
2022 Australia Cameron Smith 67 64 73 64 268 (−20) In the 150th playing of the Open Championship, with a final round 64, Smith came from four strokes behind third-round leaders Rory McIlroy and Viktor Hovland to win by one from Cameron Young. Smith's winning score of 268 (20 under par) set a new record for the lowest aggregate over the Old Course in the Open, and tied the championship to-par record, set by Henrik Stenson at Troon in 2016. The winner's share was £2,100,000.[51]
  • Note: Multiple winners of The Open Championship have superscript ordinal designating which in their respective careers.
  • (a) denotes amateur


Hole Name Yards Par Hole Name Yards Par
1 Burn 376 4 10 Bobby Jones 386 4
2 Dyke 453 4 11 High (In) 174 3
3 Cartgate (Out) 397 4 12 Heathery (In) 348 4
4 Ginger Beer 480 4 13 Hole O'Cross (In) 465 4
5 Hole O'Cross (Out) 568 5 14 Long 618 5
6 Heathery (Out) 412 4 15 Cartgate (In) 455 4
7 High (Out) 371 4 16 Corner of the Dyke 423 4
8 Short 175 3 17 Road 495 4
9 End 352 4 18 Tom Morris 357 4
Out 3,584 36 In 3,721 36
Source:[6] Total 7,305 72
Old Course[52]
Tee Rating/Slope 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Out 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 In Total
Par Men/Women 4 4/5 4 4/5 5 4 4 3 4 36/38 4 3 4 4/5 5 4 4 4/5 4 36/38 72/76
SI Men/Women 10/12 6/14 16/8 8/6 2 12/10 4 14/18 18/16 15/13 7/17 3 11 1 9/5 13/9 5/7 17/15
Black M: 73.1 / 132 376 411 370 419 514 374 359 166 347 3336 340 174 316 418 530 414 381 455 357 3385 6721
Blue M: 71.4 / 129 355 395 337 411 514 360 349 154 289 3164 311 164 304 388 523 391 345 436 361 3223 6387
Green M: 69.9 / 125
W: 75.5 / 138
339 375 321 401 454 325 335 145 261 2956 296 150 304 377 487 369 325 426 342 3076 6032

Women's British Open[edit]

Winners of the Women's British Open at the Old Course at St Andrews:

Year Winner Score
2007 Mexico Lorena Ochoa 287 (−5)
2013 United States Stacy Lewis 280 (–8)

Senior Open Championship[edit]

Winners of the Senior Open Championship at the Old Course at St Andrews:

Year Winner Score
2018 Spain Miguel Ángel Jiménez 276 (−12)

Structures overlooking the Old Course[edit]

The following notable structures overlooking the Old Course in a clockwork direction from the north:

See also[edit]


  1. ^ "St Andrews Link Trust appointment". Archived from the original on 13 January 2018. Retrieved 28 December 2020.
  2. ^ "Flawed or fabulous - the Old Lady has unique charm". BBC. 13 July 2010. Retrieved 12 May 2021.
  3. ^ "Bunkers of St Andrews". Golf Monthly. 23 October 2011. Retrieved 12 May 2021.
  4. ^ "McIlroy stands tall after work on short game pays off with 65". The Independent. 8 July 2015. Retrieved 19 February 2013.
  5. ^ "Scottish Golf History – Oldest Golf Sites". Retrieved 19 February 2013.
  6. ^ a b "St Andrews – The Old Course". Archived from the original on 21 September 2012. Retrieved 19 February 2013.
  7. ^ Helen Cook (15 April 2016). St Andrews The Postcard Collection. Amberley Publishing Limited. pp. 136–. ISBN 978-1-4456-4580-3.
  8. ^ a b c "The Old Course Experience – A Brief History of The Links". Retrieved 19 February 2013.
  9. ^ "Acts of Parliament banning golf". National Library of Scotland. Retrieved 27 September 2021.
  10. ^ Andrew Leibs (2004). "Sports and Games of the Renaissance". p. 69. Greenwood Publishing Group,
  11. ^ a b "St Andrews – A Brief History of The Links". Archived from the original on 4 July 2012. Retrieved 19 February 2013.
  12. ^ "1574 St Andrews - the Student Golfer - Scottish Golf History".
  13. ^ Forrest L. Richardson (2002). "Routing the Golf Course: The Art & Science That Forms the Golf Journey". p. 46. John Wiley & Sons
  14. ^ Kelly, Morgan (14 June 2005). "Jones' 1930 feat still stands test of time". USA Today. Retrieved 19 February 2013.
  15. ^ DiMeglio, Steve (15 July 2010). "History, mythology combine at St Andrews, the home of golf". USA Today. Retrieved 19 February 2013.
  16. ^ a b c "St. Andrews' Old tricks". ESPN. 12 July 2005. Retrieved 22 May 2021.
  17. ^ a b c d "Bunkers of St Andrews". Golf Monthly. 8 July 2015. Retrieved 21 June 2021.
  18. ^ "A Step Back In Time – Playing The Old Course In Reverse". Golf Monthly. 2 December 2019. Retrieved 23 August 2021.
  19. ^ Borden, Sam (12 June 2015). "Sundays on the Old Course at St. Andrews: No Golfers Allowed". The New York Times. Retrieved 14 June 2015. Ground staff ask that people avoid greens and bunkers. On Sundays, locals and tourists explore the Old Course at St. Andrews as it enjoys a weekly rest.
  20. ^ a b "The Old Course". National Club Golfer. 2 December 2019. Retrieved 2 June 2021.
  21. ^ a b c d "The Old Course / Features and Evolution at The Home of Golf". R&A Championships. Retrieved 21 June 2021.
  22. ^ a b "Scotland Has a Good Course in History". Los Angeles Times. 12 July 2005. Retrieved 22 May 2021.
  23. ^ "The sands of time: Bunker down for a St Andrews history lesson". The Sydney Morning Herald. 11 July 2010. Retrieved 2 June 2021.
  24. ^ "The Old Course". standrewsopen.com. Retrieved 2 June 2021.
  25. ^ a b "Hole 2". BBC. 6 July 2010. Retrieved 2 June 2021.
  26. ^ a b c d "139th British Open: Old Course card". The Irish Times. Retrieved 2 June 2021.
  27. ^ "Hole 4". BBC. 6 July 2010. Retrieved 2 June 2021.
  28. ^ "Hole 5". BBC. 6 July 2010. Retrieved 2 June 2021.
  29. ^ "A caddie's guide round the home of golf". The Independent. 18 April 2009. Retrieved 21 June 2021.
  30. ^ "The seventh and 11th green with Shell Bunker in the centre during the 1984 Open Championship". University of St Andrews. Retrieved 2 June 2021.
  31. ^ a b c d e "The Templates: Eden". The Fried Egg. 9 October 2018. Retrieved 4 June 2021.
  32. ^ a b c d "The Old Course at St. Andrews - Pictures". liveabout.com. Retrieved 2 June 2021.
  33. ^ a b "Hole 9". BBC. 6 July 2010. Retrieved 2 June 2021.
  34. ^ "Hole 10". BBC. 6 July 2010. Retrieved 2 June 2021.
  35. ^ a b c "The Old Course". Glenderran Guest House. Retrieved 21 June 2021.
  36. ^ "144th Open: A guide to playing the St Andrews Old Course". Sky Sports. Retrieved 21 June 2021.
  37. ^ "Hole 12". BBC. 6 July 2010. Retrieved 2 June 2021.
  38. ^ "Sr Andrews Old Course". Evalu18 Ltd. Retrieved 2 June 2021.
  39. ^ "Hole 13". BBC. 6 July 2010. Retrieved 2 June 2021.
  40. ^ "Hole 6". BBC. 6 July 2010. Retrieved 2 June 2021.
  41. ^ a b "Hole 14". BBC. 7 July 2005. Retrieved 2 June 2021.
  42. ^ a b c "Eclectic 18 UK – Hole No. 14: "Long," The Old Course at St. Andrews". The Fried Egg. 22 October 2019. Retrieved 4 June 2021.
  43. ^ a b "7 Of Golf's Most Famous Bunkers". Golf Monthly. 28 July 2017. Retrieved 2 June 2021.
  44. ^ "The Old Course: Funny names, horrible places". Golf Monthly. Retrieved 2 June 2021.
  45. ^ "Hole 16". BBC. 6 July 2010. Retrieved 21 June 2021.
  46. ^ "'Road Hole' to be extended at St. Andrews". Irish Independent. 16 October 2009. Retrieved 21 June 2021.
  47. ^ "Hideki Matsuyama buries memory of 'Sands of Nakajima' with historic Masters win". The Scotsman. 12 April 2021. Retrieved 21 June 2021.
  48. ^ a b "Has golf's most notorious bunker become a shallow of its former self? St Andrews hazard has been moved away from green and lowered by 2ft". The Herald (Glasgow). 5 December 2002. Retrieved 21 June 2021.
  49. ^ "What makes a road hole one of the most iconic holes in all of golf?". Golf Magazine. Retrieved 21 June 2021.
  50. ^ "Hole 18". BBC. Retrieved 2 June 2021.
  51. ^ "St. Andrews set to break attendance record for British Open". Associated Press. St. Andrews, Scotland. 26 April 2022. Retrieved 30 April 2022.
  52. ^ "The Old Course scorecard". Retrieved 2 October 2021.

External links[edit]