Proto-Indo-Aryan language

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Proto-Indo-Aryan (sometimes Proto-Indic) is the reconstructed proto-language of the Indo-Aryan languages of South Asia.[1] It is intended to reconstruct the language of the Proto-Indo-Aryans. It is descended from Proto-Indo-Iranian and Proto-Indo-European.[2] It is a Satem language.[3]

History[edit]

Main article: Indo-Aryan languages

Proto-Indo-Aryan is meant to be the predecessor of Old Indo-Aryan (1500–300 BCE) which is directly attested as Vedic and Classical Sanskrit. Indeed, Vedic Sanskrit is very close to Proto-Indo-Aryan. [4]

The Prakrits are also similar to Proto-Indo-Aryan.[citation needed]

Today, several Modern Indo-Aryan languages are extant.

Differences from Vedic[edit]

Despite the great archaicity of Vedic, the other Indo-Aryan languages preserve a small number of archaic features lost in Vedic.

The common consonant cluster kṣ /kʂ/ of Vedic and later Sanskrit has a particularly wide range of Proto-Indo-European (PIE) and Proto-Indo-Iranian (PII) sources, which partly remain distinct in later Indo-Aryan languages:[5]

  • PIE *ks, *kʷs, *gs, *gʷs > PII *kš > Middle Indo-Aryan kh-, -kkh-
  • PIE *dʰgʷʰ, *gʰs, *gʷʰs > PII *gʱžʱ > Middle Indo-Aryan gh-, -ggh-
  • PIE *tḱ; *ǵs, *ḱs > PII *tć, *ćš > Middle Indo-Aryan ch-, -cch-
  • PIE *dʰǵʰ, *ǵʰs > PII *ȷ́ʱžʱ > Middle Indo-Aryan jh-, -jh-

References[edit]

  1. ^ Cardona, George; Jain, Dhanesh. The Indo-Aryan Languages. Retrieved 24 October 2015. 
  2. ^ "ARYANS – Encyclopedia Iranica". Encyclopedia Iranica. Retrieved 23 October 2015. 
  3. ^ Wheeler, L. Kip. "The Indo-European Family of Languages". Dr. Wheeler's Website. Retrieved 12 November 2015. 
  4. ^ see e.g. Radhakrishnan & Moore 1957, p. 3; Witzel, Michael, "Vedas and Upaniṣads", in: Flood 2003, p. 68; MacDonell 2004, pp. 29–39; Sanskrit literature (2003) in Philip's Encyclopedia. Accessed 2007-08-09
  5. ^ Kobayashi, Masato (2004). Historical Phonology of Old Indo-Aryan Consonants. Study of Languages and Cultures of Asia and Africa Monograph Series 42. pp. 60–65. ISBN 4-87297-894-3. 

External Links[edit]