Old Parliament House, Singapore
|The Arts House|
The Arts House, now occupies the building
|Address||1 Old Parliament Lane|
|Client||John Argyle Maxwell|
|Design and construction|
|Architect||G. D. Coleman|
|Designated||14 February 1992|
The Arts House (formerly Old Parliament House) is a building in Singapore. It is currently a multi-disciplinary arts venue which plays host to art exhibitions and concerts. Built in 1827, the Old Parliament House is the oldest existing government building in Singapore. The building was home to the Parliament of Singapore from 1965 to 1999, when it moved to an adjacent new building.
The building occupies one of the most historic sites of Singapore. During the refurbishment of the building in 1989, archaeological evidence of older habitation in the area was uncovered with stoneware and earthenware dating back the 13th and 14th centuries found. The building's river frontage was also where the founder of modern Singapore Stamford Raffles was presumed to have landed on 29 January 1819.
Design and construction
The building was designed as a Neo-Palladian mansion by architect G. D. Coleman for a Scottish merchant, John Argyle Maxwell, who was based in Java. It was intended as his private residence, however, Maxwell never occupied the house due in part to a dispute over the ownership of the land the house was built on. Raffles had originally allocated the land for government use, and persuaded the Temenggong or local chief who previously occupied the land to move to Telok Blangah in 1823. However, Raffles' successor John Crawfurd issued a permit allowing Maxwell to build a house on the site.
The construction of the Old Parliament House began in 1826 and was completed in 1827. Maxwell applied for a statutory grant to the site in 1827, and the then Resident Councillor of Singapore John Prince objected as the land was intended for government use. A compromise was struck whereby Maxwell was granted a 999-year lease in June 1827, but the house would be leased back to the government for a 500 rupees monthly rent. Later Maxwell's residence went up for auction which the colonial government won with a bid of $15,600 Spanish dollars, and the ownership of the courthouse finally transferred to Governor S G Bonham and the East India Company on 10 October 1842.
The building was used as a court house; other government offices including the Land Office also moved into the building. The first court session was held in the central room on the first floor at the front of the building.
In 1839, a new annex was built on an adjacent plot of land, forming what is now the Former Attorney General's Chambers building later incorporated into the Parliament House. The Courts then moved into this new building (later on to Empress Place Building), and the vacated space was then used for government offices. The government offices were sited at the building until 1875 when the Courts house moved back in after the building was renovated.
The building went through several major extension works. The first was carried out between 1873 and 1875. In 1901, the building was extended towards the river. Coleman's original design was lost as a result of the extension works. The architectural style of the building was transformed from Coleman's Neo-Palladian design to Victorian. Two courtrooms were reconstructed and a residence for the Attorney General was built. In 1939, the Supreme Court moved into its new building further down the road, and the building was then used as a storehouse and later for the Department of Social Welfare after the Second World War.
The building was refurbished again in 1953 to make way for the new Legislative Assembly of Singapore, and works were completed in 1954. The design was carried out by T. H. H. Hancock who was the Senior Architect of the Public Works Department of Singapore. The governor then was Sir John Fearns Nicoll. The arches at the porch of the building were part of the original design.
A bronze statue of an elephant is located at the front of the Old Parliament House which was a gift from King Chulalongkorn or King Rama V of Siam (now known as Thailand) as a token of appreciation after his stay on 16 March 1871. The country is the first foreign nation visited by a Siamese King. It was originally located at the Victoria Theatre and Concert Hall but was replaced in 1919 with a statue for Stamford Raffles.
The Arts House at the Old Parliament
The Arts House at the Old Parliament opened in 2004 as an arts and heritage centre. The old building was restored, and the furnishings and the design were preserved. The Chambers were converted into a function room where music performances could be held. Art exhibitions and other functions are also regularly held at the gallery, which has Tuscan style-columns and cornices.
- Jane Beamish; Jane Ferguson (1 December 1985). A History of Singapore Architecture: The Making of a City. Graham Brash (Pte.) Ltd. p. 25–27. ISBN 978-9971947972.
- "Courthouse Architecture". Supreme Court Singapore.
- Tsang, Susan (June 2008). Discover Singapore: The City's History & Culture Redefined. Marshall Cavendish International (Asia) Pte Ltd. p. 71. ISBN 978-9812613653.
- Tan, Sumiko (2000) The Singapore Parliament: The House We Built Times Media, Singapore ISBN 981-232-144-6
- National Heritage Board (2002), Singapore's 100 Historic Places, Archipelago Press, ISBN 981-4068-23-3
- Norman Edwards, Peter Keys (1996), Singapore - A Guide to Buildings, Streets, Places, Times Books International, ISBN 981-204-781-6
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