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Old Prussian language

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Old Prussian
Prūsiskai[1][2]: 387 
Catechism in Old Prussian from 1545
EthnicityBaltic Prussians
ExtinctEarly 18th century[3]
Language codes
ISO 639-3prg
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Old Prussian was a West Baltic language belonging to the Baltic branch of the Indo-European languages, which was once spoken by the Old Prussians, the Baltic peoples of the Prussian region. The language is called Old Prussian to avoid confusion with the German dialects of Low Prussian and High Prussian and with the adjective Prussian as it relates to the later German state. Old Prussian began to be written down in the Latin alphabet in about the 13th century, and a small amount of literature in the language survives.

Classification and relation to other languages[edit]

Old Prussian is an Indo-European language belonging to the Baltic branch. It is considered to be a Western Baltic language.

Old Prussian was closely related to the other extinct West Baltic languages, namely Sudovian, West Galindian[4] and possibly Skalvian and Old Curonian.[5]: 33 [6] Other linguists consider Western Galindian and Skalvian to be Prussian dialects.[7]: 15 

It is related to the East Baltic languages such as Lithuanian and Latvian, and more distantly related to Slavic. Compare the words for 'land': Old Prussian semmē [zemē], Latvian: zeme, Lithuanian: žemė, Russian: земля́, (zemljá) and Polish: ziemia.[citation needed]

Old Prussian had loanwords from Slavic languages (e.g., Old Prussian curtis [kurtis] 'hound', like Lithuanian kùrtas and Latvian kur̃ts, cognate with Slavic (compare Ukrainian: хорт, khort; Polish: chart; Czech: chrt)), as well as a few borrowings from Germanic, including from Gothic (e.g., Old Prussian ylo 'awl' as with Lithuanian ýla, Latvian īlens) and from Scandinavian languages.[8]

Influence on other languages[edit]


The Low German language spoken in Prussia (or West Prussia and East Prussia), called Low Prussian (cf. High Prussian, High German),[9] preserved a number of Baltic Prussian words, such as Kurp, from the Old Prussian kurpe, for shoe in contrast to common Low German: Schoh (Standard German Schuh),[10] as did the High Prussian Oberland subdialect.[11]

Until the 1938 changing of place names in East Prussia, Old Prussian river- and place-names, such as Tawe and Tawellningken, could still be found.[12][13][14]: 137 


One of the hypotheses regarding the origin of mazurzenie – a phonological merger of dentialveolar and postalveolar sibilants in many Polish dialects – states that it originated as a feature of Polonized Old Prussians in Masuria (see Masurian dialects) and spread from there.[15]


Original territory[edit]

The approximate distribution of the Baltic tribes, c. 1200 CE

In addition to Prussia proper, the original territory of the Old Prussians may have included eastern parts of Pomerelia (some parts of the region east of the Vistula River). The language may also have been spoken much further east and south in what became Polesia and part of Podlasie, before conquests by Rus and Poles starting in the 10th century and the German colonisation of the area starting in the 12th century.[5]: 23 [16]: 324 


With the conquest of the Old Prussian territory by the Teutonic Knights in the 13th century, and the subsequent influx of Polish, Lithuanian and especially German speakers, Old Prussian experienced a 400-year-long decline as an "oppressed language of an oppressed population".[17]: VII Groups of people from Germany, Poland,[18]: 115 Lithuania, Scotland,[19] England,[20] and Austria (see Salzburg Protestants) found refuge in Prussia during the Protestant Reformation and thereafter.[21]: 1  Old Prussian ceased to be spoken probably around the beginning of the 18th century,[3] because many of its remaining speakers died in the famines and the bubonic plague outbreak which harrowed the East Prussian countryside and towns from 1709 until 1711.[22]


The Prussian post-folk band Kellan performing at the Baltic culture festival Mėnuo Juodaragis in Lithuania

In the 1980s, Soviet linguists Vladimir Toporov and Vytautas Mažiulis started reconstructing the Prussian language as a scientific project and a humanitarian gesture. Some enthusiasts thereafter began to revive the language based on their reconstruction.[21]: 3–4 

Most current speakers live in Germany, Poland, Lithuania and Kaliningrad (Russia). Additionally, a few children are native in Revived Prussian.[21]: 4–7 [23]

Today, there are websites, online dictionaries, learning apps and games for Revived Prussian, and one children's book – Antoine de Saint-Exupéry's The Little Prince – was translated into Revived Prussian by Piotr Szatkowski (Pīteris Šātkis) and published by the Prusaspirā Society in 2015.[21]: 4–7 [23] Moreover, some bands use Revived Prussian, most notably in the Kaliningrad Oblast by the bands Romowe Rikoito,[24] Kellan[25] and Āustras Laīwan, as well as in Lithuania by Kūlgrinda on their 2005 album Prūsų Giesmės ('Prussian Hymns'),[26] and Latvia by Rasa Ensemble in 1988[27] and Valdis Muktupāvels in his 2005 oratorio "Pārcēlātājs Pontifex" featuring several parts sung in Prussian.[28]


The Elbing Vocabulary and the Catechisms display systematical differences in phonology, vocabulary and grammar. Some scholars postulate that this is due to them being recordings of different dialects:[17]: XXI–XXII  Pomesanian[7]: 25–89  and Sambian.[7]: 90–220 

Phonetical distinctions are: Pom. ē is Samb. ī (sweta- : swīta- 'world'); Pom. ō, Samb. ū after a labial (mōthe [mōte] : mūti 'mother') or Pom. ō, Samb. ā (tōwis : tāws 'father'; brōte : brāti 'brother'), which influences the nominative suffixes of feminine ā-stems (crauyō [kraujō] : krawia 'blood'). The nominative suffixes of the masculine o-stems are weakened to -is in Pomesanian; in Sambian they are syncopated (deywis : deiws 'god').

Vocabulary differences encompass Pom. smoy [zmoy] (cf. Lith. žmuo) , Samb. wijrs 'man'; Pom. wayklis, Samb. soūns 'son' and Pom. samien, Samb. laucks [lauks] 'field'. The neuter gender is more often found in Pomesianan than in Sambian.

Others argue that the Catechisms are written in a Yatvingized Prussian. The differences noted above could therefore be explained as being features of a different West Baltic language Yatvingian/Sudovian.[29]



The Prussian language is described to have the following consonants:[30]: 16–28 [7]: 62 

Labial Dental/
Velar Glottal
plain pal. plain pal. plain pal. plain pal.
Plosive voiceless p t k
voiced b d ɡ ɡʲ
Fricative voiceless f[a] s ʃ[b] ʃʲ[b] h[a]
voiced v z ʒ[b] ʒʲ[b]
Nasal m n
Trill r
Approximant l j
  1. ^ a b The sounds /f/ and /h/ also existed in Old Prussian, but are disputed as to whether they are native to the language as they are non-native to Lithuanian and Latvian.[30]: 28 
  2. ^ a b c d Palato-alveolar fricatives [ʃ, ʒ] are recorded as well, usually with the German orthography-style ⟨sch⟩.[30]: 27  They were allophones of /s/ or /z/ in Pomesanian, but distinct phonemes in Sambian.[7]: 101 

There is said to have existed palatalization (i.e. [tʲ], [dʲ]) among nearly all of the consonant sounds except for /j/, and possibly for /ʃ/ and /ʒ/.[30]: 26 [16]: 348  Whether or not the palatalization was phonemic remains unclear.[7]: 62 

Apart from the palatalizations Proto-Baltic consonants were almost completely preserved. The only changes postulated are turning Proto-Baltic /ʃ, ʒ/ into Prussian /s, z/ and subsequently changing Proto-Baltic /sj/ into /ʃ/.[7]: 61–62 [16]: 348–349 


The following description is based on the phonological analysis by Schmalstieg:[31]

Front Central Back
short long short long short long
High i u
Mid e
Low a
  • /a, a:/ could also have been realized as [ɔ, ɔ:]
  • /oː/ is not universally accepted, p.e. by Levin (1975)[32]


Schmalstieg proposes three native diphthongs:[30]: 19–20 

Front Back
Mid ei
Open ai au
  • /au/ may have also been realized as a mid-back diphthong [eu] after palatalized consonants.
  • /ui/ occurs in the word cuylis, which is thought to be a loanword.


With other remains being merely word lists, the grammar of Old Prussian is reconstructed chiefly on the basis of the three Catechisms.[33]: ix 



Old Prussian preserved the Proto-Baltic neuter. Therefore, it had three genders (masculine, feminine, neuter).[34]: 41–42, 47 [35]: 40 [16]: 355–356 


Most scholars agree that there are two numbers, singular and plural, in Old Prussian,[34]: 41–42, 47 [35]: 40 [16]: 353  while some consider remnants of a dual identifiable in the existent corpus.[36][37][33]: 198 


There is no consensus on the number of cases that Old Prussian had, and at least four can be determined with certainty: nominative, genitive, accusative and dative, with different suffixes.[33]: 171–197 [16]: 356 [35]: 40  Most scholars agree, that there are traces of a vocative case, such as in the phrase O Deiwe Rikijs 'O God the Lord', reflecting the inherited PIE vocative ending *-e,[33]: 251 [7]: 109  differing from nominative forms in o-stem nouns only.[16]: 356 

Some scholars find instrumental forms,[33]: 197  while the traditional view is that no instrumental case existed in Old Prussian.[16]: 356  There could be some locative forms, e.g. bītai ('in the evening').[16]: 356 [38]

Noun stems[edit]

Declensional classes were a-stems (also called o-stems), (i)ja-stems (also called (i)jo-stems), ā-stems (feminine), ē-stems (feminine), i-stems, u-stems, and consonant-stems.[7]: 66–80 [35]: 41–62 [16]: 357 [30]: 42–43  Some also list ī/-stems as a separate stem,[7]: 66–80 [35]: 41–62  while others include -stems into ā-stems and do not mention ī-stems at all.[30]: 37 


There were three adjective stems (a-stems, i-stems, u-stems), of which only the first agreed with the noun in gender.[16]: 360 [35]: 63–65 

There was a comparative and a superlative form.[35]: 65–66 [16]: 360–361 

Verbal morphology[edit]

When it comes to verbal morphology present, future and past tense are attested, as well as optative forms (used with imperative or permissive forms of verbs), infinitive, and four participles (active/passive present/past).[33]: 211–233 


The orthography varies depending on the author. As the authors of many sources were themselves not proficient in Old Prussian, they wrote the words as they heard them using the orthographical conventions of their mother tongue. For example, the use of ⟨s⟩ for both /s/ and /z/ is based on German orthography. Additionally, the writers misunderstood some phonemes and, when copying manuscripts, they added further mistakes.[7]: 63 [8][16]: 337 

Corpus of Old Prussian[edit]

The epigram of Basel – oldest known inscription in Prussian language and Baltic language in general, middle of 14th century


There was Prussian toponomy and hydronomy within the territory of (Baltic) Prussia. Georg Gerullis undertook the first basic study of these names in Die altpreußischen Ortsnamen ('The Old Prussian Place-names'), written and published with the help of Walter de Gruyter, in 1922.[12]

Another source are personal names.[39]

Evidence from other languages[edit]

Further sources for Prussian words are Vernacularisms in the German dialects of East and West Prussia, as well as words of Old Curonian origin in Latvian and West-Baltic vernacularisms in Lithuanian and Belarusian.[2]: 4 [40]


Two Prussian vocabularies are known. The older one by Simon Grunau (Simon Grunovius), a historian of the Teutonic Knights, encompasses 100 words (in strongly varying versions). He also recorded an expression: sta nossen rickie, nossen rickie ('This (is) our lord, our lord'). The vocabulary is part of the Preussische Chronik written c. 1517–1526.[17]: XXV–XXVI 

The second one is the so-called Elbing Vocabulary, which consists of 802 thematically sorted words and their German equivalents. Peter Holcwesscher from Marienburg copied the manuscript around 1400; the original dates from the beginning of the 14th or the end of the 13th century. It was found in 1825 by Fr Neumann among other manuscripts acquired by him from the heritage of the Elbing merchant A. Grübnau; it was thus dubbed the Codex Neumannianus.[2]: 7-8 [30]: 4 

Fragmentary Texts[edit]

There are separate words found in various historical documents.[2]: 4 

The following fragments are commonly thought of as Prussian, but are probably actually Lithuanian (at least the adage, however, has been argued to be genuinely West Baltic, only an otherwise unattested dialect[41]):

  1. An adage of 1583, Dewes does dantes, Dewes does geitka: the form does in the second instance corresponds to Lithuanian future tense duos ('will give')
  2. Trencke, trencke! ('Strike! Strike!')

Fragmentary Lord's Prayer[edit]

Additionally, there is one manuscript fragment of the first words of the Pater Noster in Prussian, from the beginning of the 15th century:[2]: 437 

Towe Nüsze kås esse andangonsün

Maletius' Sudovian Book[edit]

Vytautas Mažiulis lists another few fragmentary texts recorded in several versions by Hieronymus Maletius in the Sudovian Book in the middle of the 16th century. Palmaitis regards them as Sudovian proper.[2]: 7; 437 

  1. Beigeite beygeyte peckolle ('Run, run, devils!')
  2. Kails naussen gnigethe ('Hello our friend!')
  3. Kails poskails ains par antres – a drinking toast, reconstructed as Kaīls pas kaīls, aīns per āntran ('A cheer for a cheer, a tit for tat', literally: 'A healthy one after a healthy one, one after another!')
  4. Kellewesze perioth, Kellewesze perioth ('A carter drives here, a carter drives here!')
  5. Ocho moy myle schwante panicke – also recorded as O hoho Moi mile swente Pannike, O ho hu Mey mile swenthe paniko, O mues miles schwante Panick ('Oh my dear holy fire!')

Complete Texts[edit]

In addition to the texts listed beneath, there several colophons written by Prussian scriptors who worked in Prague and in the court of Lithuanian duke Butautas Kęstutaitis.

Basel Epigram[edit]

The so-called Basel Epigram is the oldest written Prussian sentence (1369).[2]: 33–35 [42] It reads:

This jocular inscription was most probably made by a Prussian student studying in Prague (Charles University); found by Stephen McCluskey (1974) in manuscript MS F.V.2 (book of physics Questiones super Meteororum by Nicholas Oresme), fol. 63r, stored in the Basel University library.


The longest texts preserved in Old Prussian are three Catechisms printed in Königsberg in 1545, 1545, and 1561 respectively. The first two consist of only six pages of text in Old Prussian – the second one being a correction of the first. The third catechism, or Enchiridion, consists of 132 pages of text, and is a translation of Luther's Small Catechism by a German cleric called Abel Will, with his Prussian assistant Paul Megott. Will himself knew little or no Old Prussian, and his Prussian interpreter was probably illiterate, but according to Will spoke Old Prussian quite well. The text itself is mainly a word-for-word translation, and Will phonetically recorded Megott's oral translation. Because of this, the Enchiridion exhibits many irregularities, such as the lack of case agreement in phrases involving an article and a noun, which followed word-for-word German originals as opposed to native Old Prussian syntax.[17]: XXVII [2]: 8–9 

Trace of Crete[edit]

The "Trace of Crete" is a short poem added by a Baltic writer in Chania to a manuscript of the Logica Parva by Paul of Venice.[43]

Sample texts[edit]

Lord's Prayer in Old Prussian (from the so-called "1st Catechism")[2]: 118, 122 [34]: 4 

Thawe nuson kas tu asse andangon.
Swintits wirst twais emmens.
Pergeis twais laeims.
Twais quaits audasseisin na semmey, key audangon.
Nusan deininan geittin deis numons schindeinan.
Bha atwerpeis numans nuson auschantins, kay mas atwerpimay nuson auschautenikamans.
Bha ny wedais mans enperbandan.
Sclait is rankeis mans assa wargan. Amen

Lord's Prayer after Simon Grunau (Curonian)[16]: 297 [44][34]: XV 

Nossen thewes cur tu es delbes
sweytz gischer tho wes wardes
penag munis tholbe mystlastilbi
tolpes prahes girkade delbeszisne tade symmes semmes worsunii
dodi mommys an nosse igdemas mayse
unde gaytkas pames mumys nusze noszeginu cademes pametam musen prettane kans
newede munis lawnā padomā
swalbadi munis nowusse loyne Jhesus amen.

Lord's Prayer after Prätorius (Curonian)[45]: 703 [a]

Thewes nossen, cur tu es Debbes,
Schwisch gesger thowes Wardes;
Pena mynis thowe Wiswalstybe;
Toppes Patres gir iat Delbeszisne, tade tymnes senjnes Worsinny;
Annosse igdenas Mayse dodi mums szon Dien;
Pamutale mums musu Noschegun, kademas pametan nousson Pyktainekans;
No wede numus panam Paadomam;
Swalbadi names ne wust Tayne.

Lord's Prayer in Lithuanian dialect of Insterburg (Prediger Hennig)[45]: 707 

Tewe musu, kurs essi Danguje,
Buk szwenczamas Wardas tawo,
Ateik tawo Karalijste;
Buk tawo Walle kaip Danguje, taip ir an Zemes;
Duna musu dieniszka duk mums ir sze Diena;
Atleisk mums musu Kaltes, kaip mes atoeidzjam sawo Kaltiems;
Ne wesk mus Pagundima;
Bet gelbek mus nu Pikto.

Lord's Prayer in Lithuanian dialect of Nadruvia, corrupted (Simon Praetorius)[45]: 708 

Tiewe musu, kursa tu essi Debsissa,
Szwints tiest taws Wards;
Akeik mums twa Walstybe;
Tawas Praats buk kaip Debbesissa taibant wirszu Sjemes;
Musu dieniszka May e duk mums ir szen Dienan;
Atmesk mums musu Griekus, kaip mes pammetam musi Pardokonteimus;
Ne te wedde mus Baidykle;
Bet te passarge mus mi wissa Louna (Pikta)

See also[edit]


  1. ^ Adelung simply says "der Prätorius". This is most likely Matthäus Prätorius; because two pages earlier Adelung refers with approval to the writings of both Hartknoch and Prätorius,[45]: 701  and Christoph Hartknoch worked with Matthäus Prätorius.


  1. ^ The adverb Prūsiskai ('in Prussian') appears on the title page of the Königsberg catechism of 1561.
    See Mažiulis, Vytautas (1996). Prūsų kalbos etimologijos žodynas [Etymological Dictionary of Old Prussian]. Vol. 3. Mokslo ir enciklopedijų leidykla. pp. 360–361. ISBN 978-54-2000-109-7.
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h i Palmaitis, Mykolas Letas (2007). Old Prussian Written Monuments: Text and Comments (PDF). Kaunas: Lithuanian's World Center for Advancement of Culture, Science and Education. ISBN 978-9986-418-42-9.
  3. ^ a b Young, Steven (2008). "Baltic". In Kapović, Mate (ed.). The Indo-European Languages. London: Routledge. pp. 486–518. ISBN 978-03-6786-902-1.
  4. ^ Tarasov, Iliya (January 2017). "The Balts in the migration period". Istoričeskij Format Исторический Формат (in Russian). 3–4: 95–124.
  5. ^ a b Gimbutas, Marija (1963). The Balts. Ancient peoples and places. Vol. 33. London: Thames and Hudson.
  6. ^ Zinkevičius, Zigmas (1996). The History of the Lithuanian Language. Vilnius: Mokslo ir enciklopedijų leidykla. p. 51. ISBN 9785420013632.
  7. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k Rinkevičius, Vytautas (2015). Prūsistikos pagrindai [Fundamentals of Prussian linguistics] (in Lithuanian). Vilnius: Vilniaus universitetas. ISBN 978-609-417-101-7.
  8. ^ a b Mažiulis, Vytautas. "Baltic languages". Encyclopædia Britannica. September 2022. Retrieved 9 November 2022.
  9. ^ Mitzka, Walther (1921). "Niederpreuſsisch" [Lower Prussian]. Zeitschrift für deutsche Mundarten (in German). 16. Franz Steiner Verlag: 151–154. JSTOR 40498264.
  10. ^ Bauer, Gerhard (2005). "Baltismen im ostpreußischen Deutsch: Hermann Frischbiers "Preussisches Wörterbuch" als volkskundliche Quelle" [Baltisms in Eastern Prussian German: Hermann Frischbier's "Prussian Dictionary" as ethnological source]. Annaberger Annalen (PDF) (in German). pp. 5–82.
  11. ^ Ziesemer, Walther (1923). "Beobachtungen zur Wortgeographie Ostpreuſsens" [Obeservations on word geography in East Prussia]. Zeitschrift für deutsche Mundarten (in German). 18 (3/4, "Festschrift Ferdinand Wrede (1923)"). Franz Steiner Verlag: 149–160. JSTOR 40498279.
  12. ^ a b Gerullis, Georg (1922). Die altpreußischen Ortsnamen [The Old Prussian place names] (PDF) (in German). Berlin, Leipzig: Vereinigung wissenschaftlicher Verleger.
  13. ^ Haack, Hermann (1930). Stielers Hand-Atlas (10 ed.). Justus Perthes. p. Plate 9.
  14. ^ Kossert, Andreas (2003). "'Grenzlandpolitik' und Ostforschung an der Peripherie des Reiches. Das ostpreußische Masuren 1919–1945" ['Borderland politics' and Ostforschung in the periphery of the German Empire. The East-Prussian Masuria 1919–1945]. Vierteljahrshefte für Zeitgeschichte (in German). 51 (2): 117–146. JSTOR 30196694.
  15. ^
    • Dobrzycki, Stanisław (1901). "O tzw. mazurzeniu w języku polskim" [About the so-called mazurzenie in Polish]. Rozprawy Wydziału Filologicznego PAU (in Polish) (XXXII): 228–231.
    • Селищев, Афанасий Матвеевич (1931). "Соканье и шоканье в славянских языках". Slavia (in Russian). X (4). Prague: Slovanský ústav v Praze: 718–741.
    • Селищев, Афанасий Матвеевич (1969) [1941]. Западно-славянские языки [Western Slavic languages]. Славянское Языкознание (in Russian). Vol. I. The Hague: Mouton & Company. pp. 330–331.
    • Milewski, Tadeusz (1937). "Stosunki językowe polsko-pruskie" [The linguistic relation of Polish and Old Prussian]. Slavia Occidentalis (in Polish) (XVIII): 21–84.
    • Milewski, Tadeusz (1956). Chronologia i przyczyny mazurzenia [Chronology and causes of the mazurzenie] (in Polish). pp. 34–38.
  16. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n Dini, Pietro U. (2014). Foundations of Baltic languages. Translated by Richardson, Milda B.; Richardson, Robert E. Vilnius: Vilniaus universitetas. ISBN 978-609-437-263-6.
  17. ^ a b c d Trautmann, Reinhold (1910). Die altpreußischen Sprachdenkmäler [The Old Prussian language monuments]. Göttingen: Vandenhoek & Ruprecht.
  18. ^ Steed, Henry Wickham; Phillips, Walter Alison; Hannay, David (1914). "The Reformation Period". A Short History of Austria-Hungary and Poland. London: Encyclopaedia Britannica Company. Archived from the original on 4 August 2003.
  19. ^ "Scots in Eastern and Western Prussia, Part III – Documents (3)". Retrieved 18 February 2007.
  20. ^ Kownatzki, Hermann (1977) [unknown]. "Elbing als ehemaliger englischer Handelsplatz" [Elbing as a former English trading post] (PDF). Translated by Baumfelder, W. Magistrat der Stadt Elbing. Archived from the original (PDF) on 30 July 2007. Retrieved 18 February 2007.
  21. ^ a b c d Szatkowski, Piotr (2021). "Language practices in a family of Prussian language revivalists: Conclusions based on short-term participant observation". Adeptus (18). Institute of Slavic Studies, Polish Academy of Sciences. doi:10.11649/a.2626.
  22. ^ Klussis, Mikkels (2005). Dictionary of Revived Prussian (PDF). p. 4. Archived from the original on 26 September 2007. Retrieved 2 March 2018.{{cite book}}: CS1 maint: unfit URL (link)
  23. ^ a b "Little Prince Published in Prussian". Culture.pl. Adam Mickiewicz Institute. 17 February 2015. Retrieved 15 November 2022.
  24. ^ "ROMOWE RIKOITO – Undēina". Dangus. Archived from the original on 24 March 2015. Retrieved 29 August 2014.
  25. ^ Ржевский, А. "Илья Левашов: То, что мы поем — это о нашей земле". Выходной (in Russian). Retrieved 11 October 2020.
  26. ^ "Senoji prūsų kalba atgimsta naujausioje grupės KŪLGRINDA plokštelėje" (in Lithuanian). Dangus. Archived from the original on 10 September 2012. Retrieved 29 August 2014.
  27. ^ Smidchens, Guntis (2014). The Power of Song: Nonviolent National Culture in the Baltic Singing Revolution. University of Washington Press. p. 12. ISBN 978-0-295-99310-2.
  28. ^ Palmaitis, Mykolas Letas. "Oratorio "Pārcēlātājs Pontifex"". Prussian Reconstructions – Ethonology. Retrieved 15 November 2022.
  29. ^ Palmaitis, Mykolas Letas (2001). Grammatical Incompatibility of 2 Main Prussian "Dialects" as Implication of Different Phonological Systems (PDF). Colloquium Pruthenicum Tertium. Zakopane. pp. 63–77.
  30. ^ a b c d e f g h Schmalstieg, William Riegel (1991) [1974]. An Old Prussian grammar. University Park: Pennsylvania State University Press. ISBN 9780271011707.
  31. ^ Schmalstieg, William Riegel (2005). "Vytautas Mažiulis. Prūsų kalbos istorinė gramatika: recenzija" [Vytautas Mažiulis. Historical grammar of the Prussian language: A review]. Baltu filoloģija. 14 (1). Latvijas Universitāte: 159–163. ISSN 1691-0036.
  32. ^ Levin, Jules (1975). "Dynamic Linguistics and Baltic Historical Phonology". General Linguistics. 15 (3). London, University Park: Pennsylvania State University Press: 144–158.
  33. ^ a b c d e f Berneker, Erich (2019) [1896]. Die preußische Sprache [The Prussian language] (in German). Berlin, Boston: De Gruyter Mouton. ISBN 9783111474861.
  34. ^ a b c d Nesselmann, Georg H. F. (2018) [1845]. Die Sprache der alten Preußen an ihren Überresten erklärt [The language of the old Prussians explained using its remains] (in German). Berlin, Boston: De Gruyter Mouton. ISBN 9783111497969.
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