Old Regular Baptists
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Many Regular Baptists merged with the Separate Baptists near the beginning of the 19th century. The party names were dropped in favor of United Baptists. The use of the name Regular has persisted among some Baptist groups, particularly among primitive sects that reject modern methods, including missionary and educational auxiliaries for the churches.
Most Old Regular Baptists can be traced back to the New Salem Association of United Baptists which originated in eastern Kentucky in 1825. The name was changed to Regular United in 1854, to Regular Primitive in 1870, to Regular Baptist in 1871 and then in 1892 to Old Regular. The minutes of New Salem Association in 1892 indicate that they feared the extremism of some predestinarians, which taught that God is the author of sin.
Those associations and churches that do not trace their lineage through the New Salem (such as Mountain, Mud River, Twin Creek, Spencer and others, along with some churches that are in the larger associations) may have originated in the North District Association or like Twin Creek which formed from a split in the Licking River Particular Baptist Association in 1850. Twin Creek was one of the first Associations in Kentucky to title itself "Old Regular Baptist" in 1850. The Mud River Association originated from a split in the Pocatalico Particular Baptist Association in 1888. (The Mud River used the title Primitive Baptist when lettering to the New Salem Association for many years and later titled itself Regular or Old Regular Baptist.)
Yet other churches have left Primitive and United Baptist Associations and found a home among the Old Regular Baptists. The word old was added to Regular Baptist soon after many Regular Baptists had joined and or began to correspond with mission boards. This was done to distinguish the Old (or original) Regular Baptists from the New School Baptists that had emerged throughout the United States.
Old Regular Baptists have had several divisions through the years. In the late 19th century to early 20th century, they had major splits over Absolute Predestination of all things, Actual Eternal Vital Union and Eternal Creation theory; differences over the Atonement and Election doctrines also led to divisions. Three of New Salem's daughters, the Union, Mates Creek, and Sandlick, divided, the New Salem also dropped correspondence with the Burning Springs Association, her mother, because she had members that belonged to secret orders. In the 1960s, a debate started over when eternal life began, or was regeneration before belief and repentance or after. Some Old Regular Baptists hold the same views as the Primitive Baptists on regeneration.
Historians consider the Old Regular Baptists a branch of the Primitive Baptists that held to a stricter order but were more liberal in doctrine, allowing for different views on the atonement. While the doctrine of some Old Regular Baptists would be in harmony with the majority of Primitive Baptists today (Particular Atonement, instant regeneration), others among the Regulars hold to a more modified Calvinism and Fuller's view of the atonement, and yet there are others holding to General Atonement. These differences led to the light-is-life split that took place in the Union Association. This division soon spread to other associations brought on by requests sent to them from the Union Association, resulting in the isolation of the Mud River Association and the formation of the Bethel Association. Other associations like the New Salem chose not to divide over this issue.
Often churches and associations and even elders are distinguished by which side of this debate they are on. Those that hold to the doctrine that an individual is first begotten or quickened into life at the start of their travail are called the "hard shell side" of Old Regular Baptists, or the Old School Regulars. This appears to be the original view of the first Regular Baptists in America. Those who hold that life starts at the end of their travail (repentance) are called the "soft shell side". Today there is still debate among the Old Regular Baptists regarding when one receives faith, men and women's dress, the receiving of divorced members, and the doctrinal differences over hope and knowledge.
In the 1990s, a debate arose in the Northern New Salem over one of its member churches' use of fermented wine in communion (this was the original Regular Baptist custom) vs. grape juice. A query was sent into the association by a sister church against the church that used wine. All evidence shows that the church that sent the query had not taken the proper steps according to Old Regular Baptist decorum. The Association involved itself, failing to send the query back to the church that sent it, and violated its own orders. This led to two member churches breaking fellowship with the Northern New Salem. The two member churches, and one formed later, lettered to the Original Mountain Liberty Association and was found to be orthodox and orderly and were dismissed to form the Sovereign Grace Association in 1997. The Sovereign Grace Association's doctrine would be in total harmony with the Old Line Primitive Baptists of today or close to the Original Philadelphia Association of the past.
Faith and practice
The theology of the group is "election by grace", as stated in the scripture: "By Grace are ye saved through faith." While all Old Regulars preach "election by grace", a difference of opinion exists among them concerning election and predestination. Today, depending on which group you hear preach, their doctrine ranges from absolute predestination to man being a free moral agent. The majority of Old Regular Baptists hold to a doctrine that is between these extremes, with absolutism the smallest minority. Some churches and associations would be in doctrinal sympathy with the Old Line Primitive Baptists; others would be closer to the United Baptists.
Churches form local associations by which they fellowship with one another. This fellowship is formally maintained by the election of correspondents to attend the meetings of the other associations. Preachers are God-called (not trained by man), unpaid, and preach improvisational (often chanted) sermons. Baptism (in running water), the Lord's supper and feet washing are held to be ordinances. Shouting is a frequent occurrence at an Old Regular meeting, particularly among the female membership. Conversion experiences may be a lengthy process, beginning with an awakening to sin, through a period of conviction and travail of the soul, to repentance and belief.
The strength of Old Regular Baptists is in Appalachia, particularly along the Kentucky and Virginia border, although Old Regular Baptist churches exist as far north as Michigan and as far south as Florida, and several churches still exist in the state of Washington. Currently there are seventeen local associations: New Salem, Northern New Salem, Old Friendship, Old Indian Bottom, Philadelphia, Sardis, Union, Bethel, Friendship, Indian Bottom, Mountain, Mountain II, Mud River, Original Mountain Liberty, Solid Rock, Sovereign Grace, and Thornton Union. The first seven on the list maintain correspondence with one another, while the remaining ten exhibit various correspondence patterns, including three that have correspondence with the Primitive Baptists and two with the United Baptists. These seventeen associations and independent bodies (not lettered to an association) contain over 350 churches with over 10,000 members. The folk singer Jean Ritchie was a member of the Old Regular Baptists in Kentucky.
Current membership among associations:
|Association||Year||No. of churches||Membership||Organized||Dissolved||Armed from|
|Cumberland||N/A||N/A||N/A||1972||1982||Thornton Union (Indian Creek churches)|
|Friendship||2007||15||799||1917||Active||Union (Pineville Churches)|
|Indian Bottom||2012||43||1785||1896||Active||Sandlick division|
|Indian Creek||N/A||N/A||N/A||1972||1972||Union churches|
|Little Dove||N/A||N/A||N/A||1982||1992||Original Mountain Liberty|
|Mountain II||2009||5||192||1836||Active||Mountain division (1960)|
|Mountain Valley||N/A||N/A||N/A||2002||2008||Thornton Union division|
|Mud River||2008||1||5||1888||Not Active||Pocatalico|
|New Salem||2009||55||1470||1825||Active||Burning Springs|
|New Sulphur Springs||N/A||N/A||N/A||1941||1947||Friendship|
|Northern New Salem||2009||24||560||1957||Active||New Salem|
|Old Friendship||2009||11||317||1917||Active||Friendship division (1972)|
|Old Indian Bottom||2009||15||149||1896||Active||Indian Bottom division (1960)|
|Original Mountain Liberty||2010||2||100||1973||Active||Thornton Union|
|Pineville||N/A||N/A||N/A||1895||1917||Elkhorn District division|
|Sardis||2011||25||727||1893||Active||Mates Creek division|
|Solid Rock||2007||5||203||2000||Active||Split from Union and Northern New Salem|
|Sovereign Grace||2014||6||112||1998||Active||Original Mountain Liberty|
|Union||2009||70||1500||1859||Active||New Salem (Union Primitive division 1894)|
One noted feature that has gained much attention to the Old Regular Baptists is their lined-out, non-instrumental, congregational hymnody. Old Regular Baptists: Lined-out Hymnody vol. 1 and Songs of the Old Regular Baptists vol. 2 by Smithsonian Folkways Recordings are notable in the folk music industry. Though Old Regular Baptists are not the only group to retain lined-out hymnody, theirs may be the purest, since it is the only form of singing used in their churches. Having said that, Gaelic-speaking congregations in the Scottish Highlands and Islands sing in exactly the same way (only in Gaelic). See Salm vols. 1 and 2, which has recordings from the Hebrides. According to Jeff Titon, "The leader sings the very first line, and the congregation joins in when they recognize the song. After that, the song proceeds line by line: the leader briefly chants a line alone, and then the group repeats the words but to a tune that is much longer and more elaborate than the leader's chant or lining tune." E. D. Thomas' Hymns and Spiritual Songs (1877) and Edward W. Billups' The Sweet Songster (1854) are two "words-only" hymn books preferred by these churches. Also The Baptist Song Book by Elder Bobby Scott Sr. Old German Baptist Brethren and Old Order Amish churches have a similar singing style, and also use books without notes.
- Asplund, John. The Annual Register of the Baptist Denomination, in North America, to 1790.
- Association Minutes
- Benedict, David. A General History of the Baptist Denomination in America, and Other Parts of the World.
- Dorgan, Howard. Giving Glory to God in Appalachia.
- Dorgan, Howard. The Old Regular Baptists of Central Appalachia.
- Lane, H. A. History of the Friendship Association of Old Regular Baptist.
- Leonard, Bill J., ed. Dictionary of Baptists in America.
- McCauley, Deborah. Appalachian Mountain Religion: A History.
- Perrigan, Rufus. History of Regular Baptist and Their Ancestors and Accessors.
- Radecki, Patricia Marie (1991). "The World in the Text and the Text in the World: A Study of Old Regular Baptist Discourse." A.D. thesis. Ann Arbor, Michigan: University of Michigan.
- Semple, Robert B. and George William Beale. A History of the Rise and Progress of the Bapitsts in Virginia.
- Spencer, John H. A History of Kentucky Baptists.
- Wicks, Sammie Ann (1983). "Life and Meaning: Singing, Praying, and the Word Among the Old Regular Baptists of Eastern Kentucky." Ph.D. dissertation. Austin, Texas: The University of Texas at Austin.
- Yonts, Wesley. History of Old Time Baptists in America.
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- Appalachian Music
- Blessed Hope Old Regular Baptist Church weekly worship services
- Historical Sketch
- History of Red Bush Old Regular Baptist Church
- Indian Bottom Association of Old Regular Baptists
- Information on Lined-Out Hymnody
- In the Good Old Fashioned Way
- Old Regular Baptist Research - ASU
- Old Regular Baptist Song Books
- Sovereign Grace Association of Old Regular Baptist
- Old Regular Baptist Association History
- Sardis Association Churches and locations