Old Russian Chronicles

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Old Russian Chronicles
Летописи
Radzivill chronicle 121.jpg
Author(s) chroniclers, who were mainly churchmen
Language Old Church Slavonic and Old Russian
Date 11-18th centuries
Genre History

Old Russian Chronicles (Russian: Древнерусские летописи Ukrainian: Давньоруські літописи) or Old Russian Letopisi are type of written sources in Old Rus', main type of Old Russian historical literature, composed from 11th to 18th centuries. Chronicles are among the most extensive monuments of Old Russian literature and one of the leading genres of it.[1]

Chronicles were main form of Russian historical narrative until the middle of the 16th century, the time of Ivan the Terrible, when they gave primacy to another historiographical genre — chronographs.[1]

Copies[edit]

Old Russian Chronicles survive in some hundreds сopies (codices). Some Chronicles known in multiple сopies, others - in only one copy. Every chronicle was a svod, i.e. collection because it included (collected) materials from some previous chronicles, which were revised, shortened or added, and entries on the events of the last years or decades belonged to the chronicler. The scholar determined several tens of svods.[1]

Сharacteristic[edit]

Chroniclers were mainly churchmen. Old Russian Chronicles were composed in monasteries, at the princely (see: knyaz) courts (later at the tsar's courts) and in the offices of Metropolitan. Chronicles often contradicted each other on estimation of events and in factual basis. Chronicles were a set of annual entries, that is messages about the events which happened in each year. Mostly there were short factual entries, but sometimes chronicler used literary form of the narrative on the most significant events of Russian history. In annual entries, chronicler often included addresses and dialogues of princes, literary phrases: stable speech formulas, epithets, rhetorical figures and others.[1]

Aleksey Shakhmatov was the largest expert in textology of Old Russian Сhronicles, and he considered that the main part of сhronicle texts were svods, that is collections of separate records from different sources, and every new сhronicle was a svod of some previous сhronicles and new historical records[2][3] However, in recent studies, besides svods, considerable part of chronicle text is admitted as annual records, which were regularly being conducted at certain state or church office - as West European annals. For example, hypothetical "Novrorod Archbishop Сhronicle" was being conducted at the office of Novgorod archdiocese from 12th to 14th centuries and was main basis of Novgorod First Chronicle of 15th century.[4]

Sources[edit]

Sources for the oldest chronicles, including Primary Chronicle, were Byzantine and South Slavic texts (on sacred history and other subjects), including Chronicle of George Hamartolos on Table of Nations (in Primary Chronicle)[5] and some historical events, native legends, native legal documents: Rus'–Byzantine Treaties (in Primary Chronicle) and Short redaction of Russkaya Pravda (in Novgorod First Chronicle), native historical records and others.[2][3]

Chronicle Genealogy by Aleksey Shakhmatov[edit]

Primary Chronicle of the beginning of the 12th century is the oldest survived Russian chronicle, narrating the earliest history of Rus'. However Shakhmatov paid attention on abundance of entries of 11th century about Novgorod, which are read in Novgorod First Chronicle (of the 15th century), but absent in Primary Chronicle. This and some others textual facts were a base for his theory on the beginning of Novgorod First Chronicle includes text, older than Primary Chronicle. The scholar named it "Primary Svod" (Collection) and dated as the end of 11th century. This svod was also a basis for Primary Chronicle. If two or more сhronicle coincide with each other up to a certain year, one сhronicle copied from another (this is rarely) or this сhronicles had a common source, arrived to this year - older svod. Shakhmatov discovered and developed a method of study on chronicle (svod) genealogy. Rested on deep textual analysis, Shakhmatov built extensive genealogy of Old Russian Chronicles. He connected most of this chronicles and created genealogy table, in which extant chronicles of 14th-17th centuries went back not only to "Primary Svod", but also to earlier hypothetical svods of 11th century and even to historical records of the end of 10th century. Shakhmatov's method and theories began a mainstream in Russian Chronicle studies.[2][3][4][6]

History[edit]

According to scholars who are the followers of Shakhmatov, Russian Chronicles were systematically being conducted since the middle of the 11th century. There were two centers of Russian Chronicle conduct in the early period: Kiev (the capital of early Rus') and Novgorod. A result of Kievan and Novgorodian chronicle records of 11th century was Primary Chronicle (of the beginning of the 12th century), and also text containing in Novgorod First Chronicle. Primary Chronicle survives in Laurentian and Hypatian chronicles (codices). This two centers, South and North, were remaining later. Chronicles of South Russian princedoms (knyazhestva) of 12th-13th centuries survives in Hypatian Chronicle:[1][2][3] hypothetical "Kievan Chronicle",[7] chosen from Hypatian Chronicle, was a continuation of Primary Chronicle and covered events from 1118 to 1200; Galician–Volhynian Chronicle, also containing in Hypatian Chronicle, covered events in Galician and Volhynian princedoms from 1201 to 1292.[8] Chronicles of Rostov, Vladimir and Pereyaslavl of Suzdal of the end of 12th - the beginning of the 13th century better remained in Laurentian, Radziwill chronicles (codices) and Chronicler of Pereyaslavl of Suzdal.[1][2][3]

Hypatian Chronicle of the end of the 13th - the beginning of the 14th centuries is an All-Russian svod in south redaction (presumedly). It survives in сopies of 15th-18th centuries.[8] Laurentian Chronicle of 14th century is a svod from North-East Rus' (Vladimir-Suzdal). One copy of 1377.[9]

"Tverian svod" of 1375 reflected in Rogozhskiy Chronicler and Tverian Collection of 16th century.[1][2][3] Chronicle svod, related with Cyprian, Metropolitan of Moscow, was continued up to 1408 and survived in Troitskaya ("Trinity") Chronicle, which burnt in 1812 Fire of Moscow. It was reconstructed by Mikhail Prisyolkov.[10] Chronicle svod was made in Tver about 1412, it reflected additional revision (similar to Troitskaya Chronicle) of All-Russian svod of the end of the 14th - the beginning of the 15th century. This "Tverian svod" reflected in Simeon Chronicle and Rogozhskiy Chronicler. "Novgorodsko-Sofiysky Svod" of the 1430s (or "Svod of 1448" according to Shakhmatov) was compiled at office of Moscow Metropolitan and united All-Russian and Novgorodian chronicles. The svod was preserved in Sofia First and Novgorod Fourth chronicles.[1][2][3]

First known Moscow grand princely appeared at the middle of the 15th century. "Chronicle Svod of 1472" reflected in Vologda-Perm and Nicanor chronicles. Basis of "Svod of 1472" was "Novgorodsko-Sofiysky Svod", edited by Moscow grand princely chronicler, who brought censorship, excluded in particular the mentions of Novgorodian liberty, because Novgorod State was joint to Moscow Grand Princedom. In the end of the 1470s, "Novgorodsko-Sofiysky Svod", the svod similar to Troitskaya Chronicle and other sources was compiled together. This compilation was censored even more than "Svod of 1472". The "Compilation of the 1470s" reflected in "Moscow Grand Princely Svod of 1479", surviving in copy of 18th century, and in its later redaction was continued up to 1492. This "Svod of 1479" underlied all of official сhronicles of the end of the 15th - the 16th centuries. The compilation of the 1470s also reflected in the first part of Yermolin Chronicle. The "Svod of Kirillo-Belozersky Monastery" contained text, independent of Moscow Grand Princedom. This svod reflected in the second part of Yermolin Chronicle and in so-called Abridged Chronicle Svods of the end of the 15th century. "Rostov Archbishop Svod" of the 1480s reflected in Typographical Chronicle. Another "Chronicle Svod of 1480s", made in unofficial church sphere, reflected in "Svod of 1518", which in turn reflected in Sofia Second Chronicle and Lvov Chronicle. Ioasaf Chronicle was made the end of the 1520s at office of Moscow Metropolitan. It covered events of 1437-1520. In the same years, the first redaction of Nikon Chronicle. Immediate source of Nikon Chronicle was Ioasaf Chronicle. Nikon Chronicle was the largest Russian Chronicle. Voskresenskaya ("Resurrection") Chronicle was another extensive chronicle, it was made between 1542-1544. In the second half of the 1550s, in the reign of Ivan the Terrible, initial redaction of Nikon Chronicle was united with passages from Voskresenskaya Chronicle and Chronicler of the Beginning of Tsardom - chronicle of events of 1533-1552, i.e. the beginning of Ivan's reign (as grand prince, and since 1547 as tsar). In 1568—1576, also in the reign of Ivan the Terrible, multivolume Illustrated Chronicle Svod. This svods was the last All-Russian Chronicles, they give place to another form of historiographical texts — chronographs. Chronicles of 17th-18th centuries were local, provincial texts,[1][2][3] like Siberian Chronicles of the late 16th - 18th centuries.[11][12]

Development of Old Russian Chronicles were Lithuanian Chronicles of 15th - 16th centuries[13] and Ukrainian Chronicles of 17th - 18th centuries.[14]

Some chronicles[edit]

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i Lurye, Yakov. Letopisi // Literature of Old Rus'. Biographical and Bibliographical Dictionary / ed. by Oleg Tvorogov. - Moscow: Prosvescheniye ("Enlightenment"), 1996. (Russian: Лурье Я.С. Летописи // Литература Древней Руси. Биобиблиографический словарь / под ред. О.В. Творогова. - М.: Просвещение, 1996).
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h Aleksey Shakhmatov. Investigation on the Oldest Russian Chronicle Svods. - Saint Petersburg: Printing-House of M.A. Aleksandrov, 1908. — XX, 686 p. — Reprint from Chronicle of Work of Imperial Archaeographic Commission. — Vol. 20. (Russian: Шахматов А.А. Разыскания о древнейших русских летописных сводах. — СПб.: Типография М.А. Александрова, 1908. — XX, 686 с. — Оттиск из кн.: Летописи занятий Императорской Археографической Комиссии. — Т. 20).
  3. ^ a b c d e f g h Aleksey Shakhmatov. Review of Russian Chronicle Svods of 14th—16th Century. Moscow / ed. by A.S. Orlov, Boris Grekov; Academy of Sciences of USSR, Institute of Literature. — Moscow, Leningrad: Publisher of Academy of Sciences of USSR, 1938. — 372 p. (Russian: Шахматов А.А. Обозрение русских летописных сводов XIV—XVI вв. / отв. ред.: А.С. Орлов, акад. Б.Д. Греков; АН СССР, Институт литературы. – М.; Л.: Издательство АН СССР, 1938. — 372 с.).
  4. ^ a b Гиппиус А.А. К истории сложения текста Новгородской первой летописи // Новгородский исторический сборник. — СПб., 1997. — Вып. 6 (16) / Рос. акад. наук, Институт рос. истории, С.-Петербургский филиал; отв. ред. В.Л. Янин. — C. 3—72; Гиппиус А.А. К характеристике новгородского владычного летописания XII–XIV вв. // Великий Новгород в истории средневековой Европы: К 70-летию В.Л. Янина. – М.: Русские словари, 1999. — С. 345–364; Гимон Т.В. События XI — начала XII в. в новгородских летописях и перечнях // Древнейшие государства Восточной Европы: 2010 год: Предпосылки и пути образования Древнерусского государства / отв. ред. серии Е.А. Мельникова. Институт всеобщей истории РАН. – М.: Рус. Фонд Содействия Образ. и Науке, 2012. — С. 584–706.
  5. ^ Petrukhin, Vladimir. Rus' in the 9-10th centuries. From Varangians Invitation to the Сhoice of Faith / 2nd edition, corrected and supplemented. — Moscow: Forum; Neolit, 2014. — 464 p. Russian: Петрухин В.Я. Русь в IX—X веках. От призвания варягов до выбора веры / Издание 2-е, испр. и доп. — М.: Форум; Неолит, 2014. — 464 с.).
  6. ^ Бобров А.Г. Новгородские летописи XV века. — СПб.: Дмитрий Буланин, 2000. — 287 с.
  7. ^ In quotes, there are hypothetical chronicle, existence of which is supposed in textology studies
  8. ^ a b Лихачева О.П. Летопись Ипатьевская // Словарь книжников и книжности Древней Руси / АН СССР. ИРЛИ; Отв. ред. Д.С. Лихачев. — Л.: Наука, 1987. — Вып. 1 (XI – первая половина XIV в.). — С. 236; Лихачева О.П. Летопись Ипатьевская // Литература Древней Руси. Биобиблиографический словарь / под ред. О.В. Творогова. - М.: Просвещение, 1996
  9. ^ Лурье Я.С. Летопись Лаврентьевская // Словарь книжников и книжности Древней Руси / АН СССР. ИРЛИ; Отв. ред. Д.С. Лихачев. — Л.: Наука, 1987. — Вып. 1 (XI – первая половина XIV в.).
  10. ^ Приселков М.Д. Троицкая летопись: Реконструкция текста. – 2-е изд. – СПб.: Наука, 2002. – 512, [2] с.
  11. ^ (in Russian) [1] Sergei Soloviev about Chronicles authenticity.
  12. ^ Сергеев В.И. Сибирские летописи // Жуков Е.М. Советская историческая энциклопедия: В 16 т. - М.: Государственное научное издательство «Советская энциклопедия», 1961-1976.
  13. ^ Лурье Я.С. Летописи белорусско-литовские (западнорусские) // Словарь книжников и книжности Древней Руси / АН СССР. ИРЛИ; Отв. ред. Д.С. Лихачев. — Л.: Наука, 1987-.
  14. ^ Марченко М. І., Українська історіографія (З давніх часів до сер. XIX ст.), К., 1959; Українські письменники. Біо-бібліографіч. словник, т. 1, К., 1960.

Some editions[edit]

  • Complete Collection of Russian Chronicles: Russian: Полное собрание русских летописей. — СПб.; М, 1843; М., 1989. — Т. 1—38.
  • Новгородская первая летопись старшего и младшего изводов. — М.; Л., 1950.
  • Псковские летописи.— М.; Л., 1941—1955. — Вып. 1—2.
  • Рассказы русских летописей XII—XIV вв. / Перевод и пояснения Т.Н. Михельсон. — М., 1968; 2-е изд. — М., 1973.
  • Рассказы русских летописей XV—XVII вв. / Перевод и пояснения Т.Н. Михельсон — М., 1976,
  • Севернорусский летописный свод 1472 года / Подг. текста и комм Я.С. Лурье; Перевод В.В. Колесова // Памятники литературы Древней Руси: Вторая половина XV века. — М., 1982. — С. 410—443, 638—655.
  • The Russian Primary Chronicle, Laurentian Text. Translated and edited by Samuel Hazzard Cross and Olgerd P. Sherbowitz-Wetzor. Cambridge, MA: The Mediaeval Academy of America, 1953.
  • Excerpts of Primary Chronicle, including founding of Novgorod by Rus, Attacks on Byzantines, and Conversion of Vladimir. Also mentions several Slavic tribes by name.
  • A collation of Primary Chronicle by Donald Ostrowski in Cyrillic is available at http://hudce7.harvard.edu/~ostrowski/pvl/ together with an erudite and lengthy introduction in English. This is an interlinear collation including the five main manuscript witnesses, as well as a new paradosis, or reconstruction of the original.
  • The Chronicle of Novgorod 1016-1471. Intr. C. Raymond Beazley, A. A. Shakhmatov (London, 1914).
  • Savignac, David (trans). The Pskov 3rd Chronicle.

Some literature[edit]

  • Сухомлинов М.И. О древней русской летописи как памятнике литературном. — СПб., 1856.
  • Aleksey Shakhmatov. Investigation on the Oldest Russian Chronicle Svods. — Saint Petersburg: Printing-House of M.A. Aleksandrov, 1908. — XX, 686 p. — Reprint from Chronicle of Work of Imperial Archaeographic Commission. — Vol. 20. (Russian: Шахматов А.А. Разыскания о древнейших русских летописных сводах. – СПб.: Типография М.А. Александрова, 1908. — XX, 686 с. — Оттиск из кн.: Летописи занятий Императорской Археографической Комиссии. — Т. 20).
  • Aleksey Shakhmatov. Review of Russian Chronicle Svods of 14th—16th Century. Moscow / ed. by A.S. Orlov, Boris Grekov; Academy of Sciences of USSR, Institute of Literature. — Moscow, Leningrad: Publisher of Academy of Sciences of USSR, 1938. — 372 p. (Russian: Шахматов А.А. Обозрение русских летописных сводов XIV—XVI вв. / отв. ред.: А.С. Орлов, акад. Б.Д. Греков; АН СССР, Институт литературы. – М.; Л.: Издательство АН СССР, 1938. — 372 с.).
  • Приселков М.Д. История русского летописания XI—XV вв. — Л., 1940.
  • Приселков М.Д. Троицкая летопись: Реконструкция текста. – 2-е изд. – СПб.: Наука, 2002. – 512, [2] с.
  • Лихачев Д.С. Русские летописи и их культурно-историческое значение. — М.; Л., 1947.
  • Дмитриева Р.П. Библиография русского летописания. — М.; Л., 1962
  • Насонов А.Н. История русского летописания XI — начала XVIII века. — М., 1969
  • Творогов О.В. Сюжетное повествование в летописях XI—XIII вв. / Истоки русской беллетристики: Возникновение сюжетного повествования в древнерусской литературы. — Л.: Наука, 1970. — С. 31—66.
  • Лурье Я.С. К изучению летописного жанра // Труды Отдела древнерусской литературы. — 1972. — Т. 27. — С. 76—93.
  • Лурье Я.С. Общерусские летописи XIV—XV вв. — Л., 1976.
  • Корецкий В.И. История русского летописания второй половины XVI — начала XVII века. — М., 1986.
  • Словарь книжников и книжности Древней Руси / АН СССР. ИРЛИ; Отв. ред. Д.С. Лихачев. — Л.: Наука, 1987. — Вып. 1 (XI – первая половина XIV в.). — С. 234—251; Л.: Наука, 1989. — Вып. 2, ч. 2. — С. 17—18, 20—69.
  • Лурье Я.С. Две истории Руси XV века. — СПб., 1994.
  • Literature of Old Rus'. Biographical and Bibliographical Dictionary / ed. by Oleg Tvorogov. - Moscow: Prosvescheniye ("Enlightenment"), 1996. (Russian: Лурье Я.С. Летописи // Литература Древней Руси. Биобиблиографический словарь / под ред. О.В. Творогова. - М.: Просвещение, 1996).
  • Бобров А.Г. Новгородские летописи XV века. — СПб.: Дмитрий Буланин, 2000. — 287 с.
  • Гиппиус А.А. К истории сложения текста Новгородской первой летописи // Новгородский исторический сборник. — СПб., 1997. — Вып. 6 (16) / Рос. акад. наук, Институт рос. истории, С.-Петербургский филиал; отв. ред. В.Л. Янин. — C. 3–72.
  • Гиппиус А.А. К характеристике новгородского владычного летописания XII–XIV вв. // Великий Новгород в истории средневековой Европы: К 70-летию В.Л. Янина. — М.: Русские словари, 1999. — С. 345–364.
  • Гимон Т.В. События XI – начала XII в. в новгородских летописях и перечнях // Древнейшие государства Восточной Европы: 2010 год: Предпосылки и пути образования Древнерусского государства / отв. ред. серии Е.А. Мельникова. Институт всеобщей истории РАН. — М.: Рус. Фонд Содействия Образ. и Науке, 2012. — С. 584–706.
  • Сергеев В.И. Сибирские летописи // Жуков Е.М. Советская историческая энциклопедия: В 16 т. - М.: Государственное научное издательство «Советская энциклопедия», 1961-1976.