Old Tagalog

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Old Tagalog
ᜎᜓᜋᜅ᜔ᜆᜄᜎᜓᜄ᜔
Lumang Tagalog
Region Philippines, particularly Southern Tagalog (Calabarzon and Mimaropa)
Era 10th century AD (developed into Classical Tagalog in c. 16th century)
Baybayin
Language codes
ISO 639-3
Glottolog None

Old Tagalog (Filipino: Lumang Tagalog; Baybayin: ᜎᜓᜋᜅ᜔ᜆᜄᜎᜓᜄ᜔, Pre-Kudlit: ᜎᜓᜋᜆᜄᜎᜓ) is the earliest form of the Tagalog language and was the language of Central and Southern Luzon during the Classical period in Luzon. It is the language of Tondo, Namayan, state of Ma-i, Rajahnate of Maynila, and other regions of the northern Philippines. The language originated from the Proto-Philippine language and evolved to Classical Tagalog, which was the basis for Modern Tagalog.

Etymology[edit]

The word Tagalog is derived from the endonym ᜆᜄ ᜁᜎᜓᜄ᜔ (taga-ilog, "river dweller"), composed of ᜆᜄ (tagá-, "native of" or "from") and ᜁᜎᜓᜄ᜔ (ílog, "river"). Very little is known about the ancient history of the language; linguists such as Dr. David Zorc and Dr. Robert Blust speculate that the Tagalogs and other Central Philippine ethno-linguistic groups had originated in Northeastern Mindanao or the Eastern Visayas.[1][2]

History[edit]

The Baybayin script, used to write in Tagalog prior to the arrival of the Spanish in 16th century.

Old Tagalog is one of the Central Philippine languages, which evolved from the Proto-Philippine language, which comes from the Austronesian peoples who settled in the Philippines, 2000 years ago. This is the language of Ma-i, Tondo, Maynila, Namayan, and other regions of Central Luzon.

The early history of the Tagalog language remains relatively obscure, and a number of theories exist as to the exact origins of the Tagalog peoples and their language. Most[who?] scholars suggest that the Tagalogs originated in North-eastern Mindanao or the Eastern Visayas.[citation needed] The first written record of Tagalog is the Laguna Copperplate Inscription which dates to 900 CE, and exhibits fragments of the language along with Sanskrit, Malay, Javanese and Old Tagalog.[3] The first known complete book to be written in Tagalog is the Doctrina Christiana (Christian Doctrine), printed in 1593.[4]

The question has been raised about the origin of some words in the various dialects of the Philippines and their possible connection to ancient Buddhist and Hindu culture in the region, as the language is influenced by Sanskrit, Malay, Tamil and Chinese.[5][6]

Writing system[edit]

Old Tagalog was written in Baybayin, which belongs to the Brahmic family of scripts. Loanwords from Malay and Sanskrit were written in the Kawi script because they could not be represented in Baybayin.

vowels

a
i
e
u
o

b

b ᜊ᜔
ba
bi
be
ᜊᜒ
bu
bo
ᜊᜓ

k

k ᜃ᜔
ka
ki
ke
ᜃᜒ
ku
ko
ᜃᜓᜓ

d/r

d/r ᜇ᜔
da/ra
di/ri
de/re
ᜇᜒ
du/ru
do/ro
ᜇᜓ

g

g ᜄ᜔
ga
gi
ge
ᜄᜒ
gu
go
ᜄᜓ

h

h ᜑ᜔
ha
hi
he
ᜑᜒ
hu
ho
ᜑᜓ

l

l ᜎ᜔
la
li
le
ᜎᜒ
lu
lo
ᜎᜓ

m

m ᜋ᜔
ma
mi
me
ᜋᜒ
mu
mo
ᜋᜓ

n

n ᜈ᜔
na
ni
ne
ᜈᜒ
nu
no
ᜈᜓ

ng

ng ᜅ᜔
nga
ngi
nge
ᜅᜒ
ngu
ngo
ᜅᜓ

p

p ᜉ᜔
pa
pi
pe
ᜉᜒ
pu
po
ᜉᜓ

s

s ᜐ᜔
sa
si
se
ᜐᜒ
su
so
ᜐᜓ

t

t ᜆ᜔
ta
ti
te
ᜆᜒ
tu
to
ᜆᜓ

w

w ᜏ᜔
wa
wi
we
ᜏᜒ
wu
wo
ᜏᜓ

y

y ᜌ᜔
ya
yi
ye
ᜌᜒ
yu
yo
ᜌᜓ

Phonology[edit]

Old Tagalog Vowels
Height Front Central Back
Close i /i/ u /u/
Mid ə /ə/
Open a /a/
Table of consonant phonemes of Old Tagalog
Labial Dental/
Alveolar
Postalveolar/
Palatal
Velar Glottal
Nasal m n ɲ ŋ
Stop p b t d k ɡ ʔ
Fricative s ʃ h
Tap ɾ
Approximant l j w

Examples of words[edit]

  • The words and sentences of Old Tagalog are the roots of the Modern Tagalog language. Some of the words and sentences have evolved over time (like the word Babuy or Pig, which became Baboy in modern Tagalog), but some of the words in Old Tagalog (like Hari or King), have survived and are in common use in Modern Tagalog.

Other terms influenced by Sanskrit/Tamil[edit]

As in most Austronesian languages, the Sanskrit vocabulary incorporated into Tagalog are mostly borrowed indirectly via Malay or Javanese.[7] Examples include:

Tagalog Sanskrit Meaning in Tagalog
Agham (ᜀᜄ᜔ᜑᜋ᜔) Āgama (आगम) Science
Asal (ᜀᜐᜎ᜔) Ācāra (आचार) Behaviour; Character
Bagyo (ᜊᜌᜓ)(ᜊᜄ᜔ᜌᜓ) Vāyu (वायु) Typhoon
Bahala (ᜊᜑᜎ) Bhara (भार) To manage; to take care of; to take charge
Balita (ᜊᜎᜒᜆ) Vārtā (वार्ता) News
Bansa (ᜊᜈ᜔ᜐ) Vaṃśa (वंश) Country
Banyaga (ᜊᜈᜒᜌᜄ) Vaṇijaka (वणिजक) Foreigner
Basa (ᜊᜐ) Vaca (वच) To read
Bathalà (ᜊᜆ᜔ᜑᜎ) Batthara (भट्टार) Supreme Being; God
Budhi (ᜊᜇ᜔ᜑᜒ) Bodhi (बोधि) Conscience
Dala (ᜇᜎ) Dhara (धर) To carry; to bring
Dawa[8] (ᜇᜏ) Yava (यव) Panicum miliaceum
Daya (ᜇᜌ) Dvaya (द्वय) Cheating; Deception
Dila (ᜇᜒᜎ) Lidha (लीढ) Tongue
Diwa (ᜇᜒᜏ) Jīva (जीव) Spirit; Soul
Diwata (ᜇᜒᜏᜆ) Devata (देवता) Fairy, Goddess, Nymph
Dukha (ᜇᜒᜏᜆ) Dukkha (दुःख) Poverty
Dusa (ᜇᜓᜐ) Doṣa (दोष) Suffering
Dusta (ᜇᜓᜐᜒᜆ) Dūṣita (दूषित) Ignominiously insulted
Gadya (ᜄᜇᜒᜌ) Gaja (गज) Elephant
Guro (ᜄᜓᜍᜓ) Guru (गुरु) Mentor; Teacher
Halaga (ᜑᜎᜄ) Argha (अर्घ) Price; Value
Halata (ᜑᜎᜆ) Arthaya (अर्थय) Noticeable; Perceptible; Obvious
Kasubha (ᜃᜐᜓᜊ᜔ᜑ) Kusumbha (कुसुम्भ) Carthamus tinctorius
Kastuli (ᜃᜆ᜔ᜐᜓ᜶ᜎᜒ) Kastūrī (कस्तूरी) Abelmoschus moschatus
Katha (ᜃᜆ᜔ᜑ) Kathā (कथा) Literary composition; Fiction; Invention
Kalapati; Palapati (ᜉᜎᜉᜆᜒ) Pārāpataḥ (पारापत) Pigeon
Kuta (ᜃᜓᜆ) Kota (कोट) Fort
Ladya (ᜎᜇᜒᜌ) Raja (राज) Raja
Laho (ᜎᜑᜓ) Rāhu (राहु) To vanish
Lasa (ᜎᜐ) Rasa (रस) Taste
Lathala (ᜎᜆ᜔ᜑᜎ) Yantrālaya (यन्त्रालय) To print
Likha (ᜎᜒᜃᜑ) Lekhā (लेखा) To create
Lisa (ᜎᜒᜐ) Likṣā (लिक्षा) Egg of a louse
Maharlika (ᜋᜑᜇ᜔ᜎᜒᜃ) Maharddhika (महर्द्धिक) Nobility; Prehispanic Tagalog social class composed of freedmen
Mukha (ᜋᜓᜃ᜔ᜑ) Mukha (मुख) Face
Mula (ᜋᜓᜎ) Mula (मूल) From; since; origin
Mutya (ᜋᜓᜆᜒᜌ) Mutya (मुत्य) Amulet; Charm; Jewel; Pearl
Palibhasa (ᜉᜎᜒᜊᜐ) Paribhasa (परिभाषा) Irony; Sarcasm; Criticism
Pana (ᜉᜈ) Bana (बाण) Arrow
Parusa (ᜉᜍᜓᜐ) Pūruṣaghna (पूरुषघ्न) Punishment
Patola (ᜉᜆᜓᜎ) Patola (पटोल) Luffa acutangula
Saksí (ᜐᜃ᜔ᜐᜒ) Sākṣin (साक्षिन्) Witness
Salita (ᜐᜎᜒᜆ) Carita (चरित) To speak; to talk; word
Samantala (ᜐᜋᜈ᜔ᜆᜎ) Samantara (समान्तर) Meanwhile
Sampalataya (ᜐᜋ᜔ᜉᜎᜆᜌ) Sampratyaya (सम्प्रत्यय) Faith
Sigla (ᜐᜒᜄᜎ) Sīghra (शीघ्र) Enthusiasm; Vitality
Suka (ᜐᜓᜃ) Cukra (चुक्र) Vinegar
Sutla (ᜐᜓᜆ᜔ᜎ) Sūtra (सूत्र) Silk
Tala (ᜆᜎ) Tāra (तार) Star
Tingga (ᜆᜒᜈᜄᜄ) Tivra (तीव्र) Tin
Tsampaka (ᜆᜐ᜔ᜀᜋ᜔ᜉᜃ) Campaka (चम्पक) Magnolia champaca
Tumbaga (ᜆᜓᜋᜊᜄ) Uḍumbara (उडुम्बर) Copper and gold alloy
Tagalog Tamil Meaning
Bagay (ᜊᜄᜌ᜔)[citation needed] வகை (Vakai) Thing
Dito (ᜇᜒᜆᜓ)[citation needed] இதோ (Itho) Here
Kamay (ᜃᜋᜌ᜔)[citation needed] கை (Kai) Hand
Mangga (ᜋᜅ᜔ᜄ)[citation needed] மாங்காய் (Māngāi) Mango
Malunggay (ᜋᜎᜓᜅ᜔ᜄᜌ᜔)[citation needed] முருங்கை (Murungai) Moringa
Masaya (ᜋᜐᜌ)[citation needed] மகிழ்ச்சியா (Makilcciyā) Happy
Patungan (ᜉᜆᜓᜅᜈ᜔)[citation needed] பெட்டகம் (Pettagham) Place to store things
Pudya (ᜊᜓᜇᜒᜌ)[citation needed] பூஜை (Pūjai) Pooja
Puto (ᜉᜓᜆᜓ)[citation needed] பிட்டு (Puttu) Rice cake
Sadya (ᜐᜇᜒᜌ)[citation needed] சதி (Sathi) Intentional

Old Tagalog words and phrases[edit]

Baybayin characters IPA / Pronunciation Transcription in Latin / Translation to Modern Tagalog
ᜀᜍᜂ *arãɜ (arao) Araw (Sun/Days)
ᜀᜐᜓ *ǎĵû (Asu) Aso (Dog)
ᜀᜄ᜔ᜑᜋ᜔᜵ᜆᜎ *áRĥAm tAĵá (Aghamtala) (Kalendaryo, Calendar)
ᜀᜄ᜔ᜑᜋ᜔ *áRĥAm Agham' (Syensya, Science)
ᜀᜐᜓᜏᜅ᜔ *aʂũɐ̯n̩ Aswang (Ghoul/Monster)
ᜊᜓᜎᜏᜈ᜔ *bUlɐ̯ɜn̩ (Bulawan) Ginto (Gold)
ᜊᜓᜇ᜔ᜑᜒ *bɘɖjɞ̯ (Budhi) Bodhi (Konsensya) Conscience)
ᜊᜓᜎᜅᜌ᜔ *bɒlɐ̯ɲAj (Balangay) Barangay
ᜊᜓᜈ᜔ᜏ *bɐ̃n̪wɛ (Banua) Pook/Vanua (Village)
ᜊᜆ᜔ᜑᜎ *bɐtʜãʟ̩a Bathala (God/Deity)
ᜊᜊᜌ᜔ᜎᜈ᜔ *bãɓɜjaɲ̩ Babaylan (Priestess)
ᜊᜌᜒ *bãjɜ̯ (Bayi) Babae (Woman/Girl/Lady)
ᜊᜎᜌ᜔ *ba̯Lãj (Balay) Bahay (House/Structure/Buildings)
ᜊᜊᜓᜌ᜔ *babə̃j (Babuy) Baboy (Pig)
ᜊᜃ *bàKa (Baka)* Cow , Cattle. Ox, Bull
ᜇᜆᜓ * dàTǒ (Datu)* (Lordships)
ᜇᜌᜅ᜔ *dãjãɳ (Dayang) Reyna (Queen) or Prinsesa (Princess)
ᜇᜒᜃᜒ *dəkət Dikit (adhesive/stick)
ᜇᜓᜍᜓ / ᜇᜓᜄᜓ *zuRuʔ Dugo (Blood)
ᜇᜇ᜔ᜌ *rɑːdʒɑ Radya / Raha (Raja)*
ᜄᜓᜎᜓᜆ᜔ *ɠUlu̯t (golot') Kabundukan (Mountain Ranges)
ᜁᜎᜓᜄ᜔ *ĔlÓg Ilog (River)
ᜄᜍᜓᜇ *gAŕUda Garuda
ᜎᜅᜒᜆ *jəŋ̍eʃ Langit (Sky, Heaven , Nirvana)
ᜑᜍᜒ *ʜãRi (Hari) Hari (King, Emperor)
ᜑᜎᜒᜃ᜔ *hajək Halik (Kiss)
ᜎᜃᜈ᜔ *lákáN Lakan (King, Emperor)
ᜎᜓᜈᜆᜒᜀᜈ᜔ *jɜnTiãn (luntian) Luntian (Lush)/ Berde (Green)
ᜃᜒᜈᜍ *kěnÀřá Kinara (Kinnara) (Celestial beings)
ᜃᜎᜊᜒᜃ *kɘjaɓiká Kalabika , Kalavinka (Celestial beings)
ᜃᜏᜎ᜔ *kão̯ɐL Kaual Kawal (Knight)
ᜋᜓᜆᜒᜌ *ɱuʈɪa (mutiya) Mutya or Perlas (Pearl)
ᜋᜅ᜔ᜋᜅ᜔ *Mɐnɠ-Mɑŋɠ Mang mang (Fool) / Bobo (Stupid)
ᜉᜈ᜔ᜆᜐ᜔ *pãɳ̩ta̯ʂ Pantas (Genius/Wise/Gifted)
ᜉᜓᜂᜇ᜔ *pũɜd (Puod) Bayan (Town)
ᜉᜉᜄᜌᜓ *papɐgAyɔ (Papagayo) Karpintero (Carpenter)
ᜅᜎᜒᜈ᜔ *ŋɡajan (Ngalan) Pangalan (Name)
ᜐᜈ᜔ᜇᜒᜄ᜔ *sɑ̃n̩dĩg) (Sandig) Sundalo (Soldier)
ᜐᜓᜏᜀᜍ᜔ᜈ *jəɜrnā (Suwarna) Ginto (Gold)
ᜆᜎ *táĹa Tala (Star / Tara (deity))
ᜆᜓᜊᜒᜍ᜔ *tubiR Tubig (Water)
ᜆᜍᜅ᜔ᜃᜑᜈ᜔ *taRãŋkaħɐ̃ɳ Tarangkahan (Gate)
ᜆᜒᜋᜋᜈᜓᜃ *TěGmāmənùKən Tigmamanukan (Eagle, Bird, Omen)
ᜌᜌ *ĵáĴá Yaya (Nurse/ Care giver)
ᜌᜈ᜔ᜆᜓᜃ᜔ *yÁńTók Yantok (Stick / Pole / Rod /Batog)
ᜌᜓᜆ *yəʃa Yuta (Cloth)

Pronouns[edit]

Old Tagalog Transliteration Translation in Modern Tagalog Translation in English
ᜊᜎᜑᜎ balahala Kataas-Taasan Highest (Authority).
ᜈᜊᜓᜃ ᜈ ᜊ Nabuká na ba? Nag-bukás na ba? Is it open now?
ᜎᜊ ᜋ ᜈ ᜎ ᜇᜃᜒᜆ᜔ Labâ ma na lâ, dakit Dalhín mo ang pag-kakataóng itó, sa Dakit (punò). Take this opportunity to the Dakit (tree).
ᜈᜒᜈᜓ ᜋ ᜈᜒᜌ ᜋᜀᜈᜄ᜔ᜄ Nínu ma niya mangga Iyán ay napagkámaláng manggá. That was mistaken for a mango.
ᜄᜃᜆ᜔ᜃᜆ᜔ ᜑᜒᜌ ᜎᜀ ᜅᜌ᜔ ᜀᜈ᜔ Gakatkat hiya lâ ngay-an Iyán ba ay nakararamdám ng hiyâ? Has that (person) ever felt shame?
ᜊᜌ ᜑ ᜇᜃᜒᜆ᜔ ᜈ ᜈᜓ Bayâ ha dakit na, nu? Pakiusap, lisanin mo na ang punò ng Dakit. Leave the dakit tree now, will you?
ᜇ ᜃᜎᜄ᜔ ᜊᜒᜈᜄᜆ᜔ ᜑ Da kalág binagat, ha? Pakibalík mo ang kaluluwáng iyóng kinuhà, ha? Return the soul that you took away, will you?

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Zorc, David. 1977. The Bisayan Dialects of the Philippines: Subgrouping and Reconstruction. Pacific Linguistics C.44. Canberra: The Australian National University
  2. ^ Blust, Robert. 1991. The Greater Central Philippines hypothesis. Oceanic Linguistics 30:73–129
  3. ^ Postma, Antoon. (1992). The Laguna Copper-Plate Inscription: Text and Commentary. Philippine Studies vol. 40, no. 2:183–203
  4. ^ Zorc, David. 1977. The Bisayan Dialects of the Philippines: Subgrouping and Reconstruction. Pacific Linguistics C.44. Canberra: The Australian National University
  5. ^ "Indian Origins of Filipino Customs". Vedic Empire. Retrieved 2013-11-09. 
  6. ^ "The Indian in the Filipino - INQUIRER.net, Philippine News for Filipinos". Globalnation.inquirer.net. Archived from the original on 2015-06-21. Retrieved 2013-11-09. 
  7. ^ Haspelmath, Martin. Loanwords in the World's Languages: A Comparative Handbook. De Gruyter Mouton. p. 724. ISBN 3110218437. 
  8. ^ Potet, Jean-Paul G. Tagalog Borrowings and Cognates. lulu.com. ISBN 1326615793. 

External links[edit]