Old Turkic language

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
  (Redirected from Old Turkic)
Jump to navigation Jump to search
Old Turkic
Old Uyghur
Region Central Asia and Mongolia
Era evolved into other Turkic languages
Old Turkic, Uyghur alphabet
Language codes
ISO 639-3 Either:
otk – Old Turkish
oui – Old Uighur
otk Old Turkish
  oui Old Uighur
Glottolog oldu1238[1]

Old Turkic (also East Old Turkic, Orkhon Turkic, Old Uyghur) is the earliest attested form of Turkic, found in Göktürk and Uyghur inscriptions dating from about the 7th century AD to the 13th century. It is the oldest attested member of the Orkhon branch of Turkic, which is extant in the modern Western Yugur language. However, it is not the ancestor of the language now called Uighur; the contemporaneous ancestor of Uighur to the west is called Middle Turkic.

Old Turkic is attested in a number of scripts, including the Orkhon-Yenisei runiform script, the Old Uyghur alphabet (a form of the Sogdian alphabet), the Brāhmī script, the Manichean alphabet, and the Perso-Arabic script.

Old Turkic often refers not to a single language but collectively to the closely related and mutually intelligible stages of various Common Turkic branches that were spoken during the late 1st millennium AD.

Sources[edit]

Sources of Old Turkic are divided into three[clarification needed] corpora:

  • the 7th to 10th century Orkhon inscriptions in Mongolia and the Yenisey basin (Orkhon Turkic, or Old Turkic proper) and the 650 Elegest inscription about Alp Urungu named a Kyrgyz khan at around Elegest River.
  • 9th to 13th century Uyghur manuscripts from Xinjiang (Old Uyghur), in various scripts including Brahmi, the Manichaean, Syriac and Uyghur alphabets, treating religious (Buddhist, Manichaean and Nestorian), legal, literary, folkloric and astrologic material as well as personal correspondence.

Old Turkic Script[edit]

The Old Turkic script (also known as variously Göktürk script, Orkhon script, Orkhon-Yenisey script) is the alphabet used by the Göktürks and other early Turkic khanates during the 8th to 10th centuries to record the Old Turkic language.[2]

The script is named after the Orkhon Valley in Mongolia where early 8th-century inscriptions were discovered in an 1889 expedition by Nikolai Yadrintsev.[3]

This writing system was later used within the Uyghur Khaganate. Additionally, a Yenisei variant is known from 9th-century Yenisei Kirghiz inscriptions, and it has likely cousins in the Talas Valley of Turkestan and the Old Hungarian alphabet of the 10th century. Words were usually written from right to left. Variants of the script were found from Mongolia and Xinjiang in the east to the Balkans in the west. The preserved inscriptions were dated to between the 8th and 10th centuries.

Phonology[edit]

Vowels
Front Back
Unr. Rnd. Unr. Rnd.
Close i y ɯ u
Mid e ø o
Open ɑ

Rounded vowels may only occur in the initial syllable.[citation needed] This vowel inventory is the same as in contemporary Turkish.

Consonants
Labial Dental Post-
alveolar
Velar Uvular
Nasal m n ɲ ŋ
Stop p b t d k g q ɢ
Fricative s z ʃ
Trill ɾ
Approximant ɫ l j

Old Turkic is highly restrictive in which consonants words can begin with: /p/, /d/, /g/, /ɢ/, /l/, /ɾ/, /n/, /ɲ/, /ŋ/, /m/, /ʃ/, and /z/ are not tolerated in a word-initial position. The only exceptions are 𐰤𐰀 (ne, “what, which”) and its derivatives, and some early assimilations of word-initial /b/ to /m/ following a nasal in a word such as 𐰢𐰤 (men, “I”).

Nominal Suffixes[edit]

This is a partial list of nominal suffixes attested to in Old Turkic and known usages.

Denominal[edit]

The following have been classified by Gerard Clauson as denominal noun suffixes.

Suffix Usages Translation
-ça ança at least one
-ke sigirke
yipke
sinew
string/thread
-la/-le ayla
tünle
körkle
thus, like that)
yesterday, night, north)
beautiful
-suk/-sük bağırsuk liver, entrails
-ra/-re içre inside, within
-ya/-ye bérye
yırya
here
north
--çıl/-çil igçil sickly
-ğıl/-gil üçgil
kırğıl
triangular
grey haired
-nti ékkinti second
-dam/-dem tegridem god-like
tırtı:/-türti içtirti
inside, within
-kı:/-ki aşnuki
üzeki
evdeki
former
on or above
in the house
-an/-en/-un oğlan
eren
children
men, gentlemen
-ğu:/-gü ençgü
tuzğu
buğrağu
tranquil, at peace
food given to a traveller as a gift
woodwork
-a:ğu:/-e:gü: üçegü
içegü
three together
inside human body
-dan/-dun otun
izden
firewood
track, trace
-ar/-er birer
azar
one each
a few
-layu:/-leyü börileyü like a wolf
--daş/-deş kadaş
yerdeş
kinsman
compatriot
-mış/-miş altmış
yetmiş
sixty
seventy
-gey küçgey violent
-çak/-çek and -çuk/-çük ğırçak spindle-whorl
-k/ (after vowels and -r) -ak/-ek (the normal forms)/-ik/-ik/-uk/-ük(rare forms) ortuk middle partner
--dak/-dek and(?) -duk/-dük bağırdak
beligdek
burunduk
wrap
terrifying
nose ring
-ğuk/-gük çamğuk obectionable
-mak/-mek kögüzmek breastplate
-muk/-a:muk solamuk left-handed (pejorative?)
-nak bakanak "frog in a horse's hoof" (from baka frog)
-duruk/-dürük boyunduruk yoke

Deverbal[edit]

The following have been classified by Gerard Clauson as deverbal suffixes.

Suffix Usages Translation
-a/-e/-ı:/-i/-u/-ü oprı
adrı
keçe
egri
köni
ötrü
hollow,valley
branched,forked
evening, night
crooked
straight, upright, lawful
then, so
-ğa/-ge kısğa
öge
bilge
kölige
tilge
short
wise
wise
shadow
slice
-ğma/-gme tanığma riddle
-çı/-çi otaçı:
okıçı
healer
priest
-ğuçı/-güçi ayğuçı
bitigüçi
councilor
scribe
-dı/-di üdründi
ögdi
alkadı
sökti
chosen,parted,separated,scattered
customs
praised
bran
-tı/-ti arıtı
uzatı
tüketi
completely, clean
lengthily
completely
-du eğdu
umdul
süktü
curved knife
desire, covetousness
campaigning
-ğu:/-gü bilegü
kedgü
oğlağü
whetstone
clothing
gently nurtured
-ingü bilingü
etingü
yeringü
salingü
be in the know
be prepared
disgusted
be moving violently
-ğa:ç/-geç kışgaç pincers
-ğuç/-güç bıçgüç scissors
-maç/-meç tutmaç "saved" noodle dish
-ğut/-güt alpağut
bayağut
warrior
merchant

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2017). "Old Uighur". Glottolog 3.0. Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History. 
  2. ^ Scharlipp, Wolfgang (2000). An Introduction to the Old Turkish Runic Inscriptions. Verlag auf dem Ruffel, Engelschoff. ISBN 978-3-933847-00-3.
  3. ^ Sinor, Denis (2002). "Old Turkic". History of Civilizations of Central Asia. 4. Paris: UNESCO. pp. 331–333. 

Further reading[edit]

External links[edit]