List of oldest continuously inhabited cities
This article has multiple issues. Please help improve it or discuss these issues on the talk page. (Learn how and when to remove these template messages)(Learn how and when to remove this template message)
This is a list of present-day cities by the time period over which they have been continuously inhabited. The age claims listed are generally disputed. Differences in opinion can result from different definitions of "city" as well as "continuously inhabited" and historical evidence is often disputed. Caveats (and sources) to the validity of each claim are discussed in the "Notes" column.
Several cities listed here, which are over 5000 years old, popularly claim to be "the oldest city in the world".
- Argos, Greece (6th–5th millennium BC)
- Athens, Greece (5th–4th millennium BC)
- Byblos, Lebanon (3000 BC)
- Damascus, Syria (3rd millennium BC)
- Luxor, Egypt (3200 BC)
- Jericho, West Bank (3000 BC or earlier)
- Beirut, Lebanon (3000 BC)
- Plovdiv, Bulgaria (3000 BC)
Northern and the Horn
|Name||Historical region||Location||Continuously inhabited since||Notes|
|Luxor (as Waset, better known by its Greek name Thebes)||Ancient Egypt||Egypt||-3200 c. 3200 BC||First established as capital of Upper Egypt, Thebes later became the religious capital of the nation until its decline in the Roman period.|
|Carthage||Carthage||Tunisia||-814 c. 814 BC||Founded by the Phoenicians in 814 BC.|
|Tripoli (as Oea)||Libya||-700 c. 700 BC||Founded in the 7th century BC, by the Phoenicians.|
|Constantine (as Cirta)||Algeria||-600 c. 600 BC||Founded in the 6th century BC, by the Phoenicians.|
|Benghazi (as Euesperides)||Cyrenaica||Libya||-525 c. 525 BC||Founded in the 5th century BC, by the Greeks.|
|Axum||Kingdom of Axum||Ethiopia||-400 ! c. 400 BC||Ancient capital of the Kingdom of Axum.|
|Berbera||Bilad al-Barbar||Somalia||-400 ! c. 400 BC||The city was described as 800 stadia beyond the city of the Avalites, described in the eighth chapter of the Periplus of the Erythraean Sea, which was written by a Greek merchant in the 1st century AD.|
|Alexandria||Ancient Egypt||Egypt||-332 !332 BC||Founded by Alexander the Great.|
|Mogadishu||Bilad al-Barbar||Somalia||-200 ! c. 200 BC||Successor of the ancient trading power of Sarapion.|
|Djenné-Jeno||Mali||-200 ! c. 200 BC||One of the oldest known cities in sub-Saharan Africa.|
|Old Cairo||Egypt||100 ! c. 100||Babylon Fortress moved to its current location in the reign of Emperor Trajan, forming the core of Old or Coptic Cairo[unreliable source?].|
|Zeila/Avalite||Bilad al-Barbar||Somalia||-400 ! c. 1st century AD||Major trading city in the Horn of Africa.|
|Kismayo||Bilad al-Barbar, after the 13th century part of the Ajuran Empre||Somalia||100 ! 4th century||The Kismayo area was originally a small fishing settlement and expanded to a major trading city on the Somali coast.|
|Fes (as Fes-al-Bali)||Morocco||789 !789||Founded as the new capital of the Idrisid Dynasty.|
|Marrakesh (Murakuc)||Morocco||1070 !1070||Founded by the Almoravid Dynasty.[unreliable source?]|
|Name||Historical region||Location||Continuously inhabited since||Notes|
|Igodomigodo||Kingdom of Benin||Nigeria||-400 ! c. 400 BC||City of Benin, the oldest cities in Nigeria.|
|Lagos||Kingdom of Benin||Nigeria||16th Century||Initially established as a war camp for soldiers from the Kingdom of Benin.|
|Ife||Osun State||Nig Nigeria||-350 ! c. 350 BC||Earliest traces of habitation date to the 4th century BC.|
|Kano||Kano State||Nigeria||11th century||The foundation for the construction of Kano City Walls was laid by Sakri Gijimasu from 1095 – 1134, and was completed in the middle of 14th Century during the reign of Zamnagawa.|
|Zanzibar||Swahili Coast||Tanzania||1st–3rd centuries||A Greco-Roman text between the 1st and 3rd centuries AD, the Periplus of the Erythraean Sea, mentioned the island of Menuthias (Ancient Greek: Μενουθιάς), which is probably Unguja, an island suburb of the city.|
|Sofala||Swahili Coast||Mozambique||900 ! c. 700||One of the oldest harbours documented in Southern Africa.|
|Pate||Swahili Coast||Kenya||8th century||According to the Pate Chronicle, the town of Pate was founded by refugees from Oman in the 8th century.|
|Mombasa||Swahili Coast||Kenya||900 AD||The strategic location of this historical Swahili trading centre has seen it fall under the control of many countries.|
|Moroni||Swahili Coast||Comoros||10th century||Founded by Arabic settlers, possibly during the 10th century, as the capital of a sultanate connected commercially to Zanzibar in Tanzania.|
|Malindi||Swahili Coast||Kenya||13th–14th centuries||Once rivaled only by Mombasa for dominance in this part of East Africa, it was first referenced in writing by Abu al-Fida (1273–1331), a Kurdish geographer and historian.|
|Lamu||Swahili Coast||Kenya||1370||One of the original Swahili settlements along coastal East Africa and is the best preserved Swahili town being a UNESCO site, first attested in writing by an Arab traveller Abu-al-Mahasini, who met a judge from Lamu visiting Mecca in 1441.|
|Quelimane||Swahili Coast||Mozambique||1400 AD||One of the oldest towns in the region, one tradition says that Vasco da Gama, in 1498, enquired about the name of the place from workers in the fields outside the settlement.|
|Tanga||Swahili Coast||Tanzania||1500||The earliest documentation about Tanga roots from the Portuguese who established a trading post as part of their East African coastal territory and controlled the region for over 200 years between 1500 and 1700.|
|Cape Town||Dutch Cape Colony||South Africa||1652||Founded by Dutch settlers from Dutch East India Company and is the oldest city in South Africa.|
|Kumasi||Ashanti Empire||Ghana||c. 1680||Founded as Akan village and capital of the Kumaseman State, later becoming capital of Ashanti Empire.|
|Name||Historical region||Location||Continuously inhabited since||Notes|
|Cholula||Old Cholula||Mexico||-150 !~2nd century BC||Pre-Columbian Cholula grew from a small village to a regional center during the 7th century. Oldest still-inhabited city in the Americas.|
|Oraibi, Arizona||Puebloan peoples||US||~1100|
|Acoma Pueblo||Puebloan peoples||US||~1200|
|Mexico City||Mexica culture||Mexico||1325||Founded as twin cities Tenōchtitlān (1325) and Tlāltelōlco (1337) by the Mexica. Name changed to Ciudad de México (Mexico City) after the Spanish conquest of the city in 1521. Several other pre-Columbian towns such as Azcapotzalco, Tlatelolco, Xochimilco and Coyoacán have been engulfed by the still growing metropolis and are now part of modern Mexico City. Oldest capital city in the Americas.|
|Santo Domingo||New Spain||Dominican Republic||1496||Oldest European settlement in the New World.|
|Panama City||Cueva Civilisation. After European colonisation: New Spain||Panama||15th century||Oldest European settlement on the Pacific.|
|Flores||Maya civilisation, then New Spain||Guatemala||1st millennium BC||Formerly Nojpetén, the capital of the Itza kingdom, it has been occupied continuously since prehispanic times. Earliest archaeological traces date back to 900–600 BC, with major expansion of the settlement occurring around 250–400 AD. Ethnohistoric documents claim the founding of Nojpetén in the mid-15th century AD.|
|San Juan||New Spain||Puerto Rico||1508||Oldest continuously inhabited city in a US territory.|
|Nombre de Dios, Colón||New Spain||Panama||1510||Oldest European settlement on the mainlands of the Americas.|
|Baracoa||New Spain||Cuba||1511||Oldest European settlement in Cuba.|
|Vera Cruz||New Spain||Mexico||1519||Oldest continuously inhabited European established settlement continental America.|
|St. Augustine, Florida||New Spain||US||1565||Oldest continuously inhabited European-founded city of the current 50 U.S. states; oldest city in state of Florida.|
|Havana||New Spain||Cuba||1592||Oldest major city in Cuba, granted city status in 1592 by Philip II of Spain.|
|Santa Fe, New Mexico||New Spain||US||1607||Oldest continuously inhabited state or territorial capital in the continental United States.|
|Quebec City||New France||Canada||1608||Second oldest city in Canada and oldest French-speaking city in the Americas.|
|Albany, New York||New Netherlands||US||1614||Followed by Jersey City, New Jersey (Communipaw) in 1617 and New York City (as New Amsterdam) in 1624 or 1625. (Note: While there was an abandonment in 1617 or 1618 of the Albany settlement, it was re-established within a few years; also, the Jersey City settlement was a factorij or trading post in the 1610s and did not become a "homestead" (bouwerij) until the 1630s. Settlements in New Netherlands sometimes moved around in the early years.)|
|Plymouth, Massachusetts||Plymouth Colony||US||1620||Fourth oldest continuously inhabited European-founded city in the United States|
|St. John's, Newfoundland and Labrador||Newfoundland Colony||Canada||Incorporated in 1883; inhabited continuously since sometime after 1630.||Some claims to being the oldest city in Canada.|
|Saint John||New France||Canada||1631||Oldest incorporated city in Canada.|
|Trois-Rivières||New France||Canada||1634||Fourth oldest city in Canada.|
|Montreal||New France||Canada||1642||Fifth oldest city in Canada.|
|Sault Ste. Marie, Michigan||New France||US||1668||Oldest European-founded city in the Midwestern United States and third oldest US city west of the Appalachian Mountains.|
|Detroit, Michigan||New France||US||1701||First European settlement above tidewater in North America.|
|Winnipeg||British America||Canada||1738||Founded as Fort Rouge. Oldest city in the Canadian Prairies.|
|San Diego||New Spain||US||1769||Birthplace of California and oldest city on the West Coast of the United States.|
|Victoria||British North America||Canada||1843||Oldest city on the West Coast of Canada.|
|Name||Historical region||Location||Continuously inhabited since||Notes|
|Quito||Quitu culture||Ecuador||980||Quito's origins date back to 2000 BC,[dubious ] when the Quitu tribe occupied the area.|
|Cusco||Inca Empire||Peru||c. 1100[dubious ]||The Killke occupied the region from 900 to 1200, prior to the arrival of the Incas in the 13th century. Carbon-14 dating of Saksaywaman, the walled complex outside Cusco, has demonstrated that the Killke culture constructed the fortress about 1100.|
|Cumaná||New Granada||Venezuela||1515||Oldest continuously-inhabited, European-established settlement in the continent.|
|Santa Marta||New Granada||Colombia||1525||Oldest still-inhabited city founded by Spaniards in Colombia.|
|São Vicente, São Paulo||Governorate General of Brazil||Brazil||1532||First Portuguese settlement in South America.|
|Cali||New Granada||Colombia||1536||On 25 July 1536 Belalcázar founded Santiago de Cali, first established a few kilometres north of the present location, near what are now the towns of Vijes and Riofrío.|
|Lima||Peru||Peru||1535||Second oldest continuously inhabited European-settled capital city in South America.|
|Piura||Peru||Peru||1532||Oldest European-founded city in Peru.|
|Santiago||Captaincy General of Chile||Chile||1541||Oldest continuously inhabited European established settlement in Chile.|
|Santiago del Estero||Río de la Plata||Argentina||1553||Oldest continuously inhabited city in Argentina.|
Central and Southern
|Name||Historical region||Location||Continuously inhabited since||Notes
|Kanchipuram||Pallava dynasty||Tamil Nadu, India||-600 ! ~ 300 AD||Kanchipuram or Kachchi is the Great city in beginning of 8th century but continuously surviving. Today,it is the city with more than 2 lak people.|
|Varanasi||Kashi||Uttar Pradesh, India||-600 ! 1800 BC||Recent excavations at Aktha and Ramnagar, two sites very near to Varanasi, show them to be from 1800 BC.|
|Balkh (as Bactra)||Bactria||AfgBalkh Province, Afghanistan||-1500 ! 1500 BC|
|Samarqand||Sogdiana||Uzbekistan||-700 ! 700 BC|
|Ujjain||Malwa||Madhya Pradesh, India||-600 ! c. 600 BC.||Rose to prominence in ca 600 BC as capital of Avanti.|
|Rajagriha (Rajgir)||Magadha||IndBihar, India||-600 ! 600 BC|
|Vaisali||Magadha||IndBihar, India||-500 ! 500 BC[unreliable source?]|
|Patna||Magadha||IndBihar, India||-450 ! 5th century BC||As Pataliputra was founded by Ajatashatru.|
|Tiruvannamalai||Pallava dynasty or Hoysala Empire||Tamil Nadu, India||800 !9th c. AD ?||The recorded history of the town dates back to the ninth century, as seen from a Chola inscriptions in the temple.|
|Anuradhapura||Kingdom of Rajarata||North Central Province, Sri Lanka||-300 ! 4th century BC|
|Madurai||Pandyan Kingdom||Tamil Nadu,India||at least 3rd century BC||Megasthenes may have visited Madurai during the 3rd century BCE, with the city referred as "Methora" in his accounts. The view is contested by some scholars who believe "Methora" refers to the north Indian city of Mathura, as it was a large and established city in the Mauryan Empire.|
|Peshawar||Gandhara||PakKhyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan||-350 ! c. 2nd century BC||Ongoing excavations in the Gor Khuttree region have uncovered evidence of the earliest building in the city.|
|Bamyan||Bactria||AfgBamyan Province, Afghanistan||- 1st century AD ! 1st century AD|
|Kathmandu-Patan, Lalitpur||Nepal||Kathmandu valley, Nepal||- 2nd century AD ! c. 2nd century AD||The epigraphically attested history of Kathmandu valley begins in the 2nd century.|
|Name||Historical region||Location||Continuously inhabited since||Notes|
|Luoyang (as Xibo, Luoyi, Zhongguo, Henan, Dongdu, Shendu)||Shang Dynasty||Chi Henan, China||-1600 ! c. 1600 BC|
|Xi'an (as Haojing, Fenghao, Chang'an, Jingzhao, Daxing)||Zhou Dynasty||Chi Shaanxi, China||-1100 ! c. 1100 BC|
|Handan||Jin||Chi Hebei, China||-1080 ! c. 1080 BC|
|Beijing (as Ji, Youzhou, Fanyang, Yanjing, Zhongdu, Dadu)||Ji, Yan||Chi Beijing, China||-1000 ! c. 1045 BC||Paleolithic homo sapiens lived in the caves from about 27,000 to 10,000 years ago.|
|Zibo (as Yingqiu, Linzi, Qiling, Zichuan, Boping)||Qi||Chi Shandong, China||-1045 ! c. 1045 BC||The Lord of Qi, Jiang Ziya, set the capital of his manor at Yingqiu(营丘), which is today's Linzi District.|
|Jingzhou (as Jinan, Yingdu, Jiangling, Jingsha, Nanjun)||Chu||Chi Hubei, China||-689 ! c. 689 BC|
|Hefei (as Luyi, Ruyin, Luzhou, Hezhou, Lujiang)||Zhou Dynasty||ChiAnhui, China||-650 ! c. 650 BC||The Viscount of Lu was asked to set the capital of his manor at Luyi(庐邑), which is in the north of today's downtown Hefei.|
|Suzhou (as Gusu, Wu, Pingjiang)||Wu||Chi Jiangsu, China||-514 !514 BC|
|Taiyuan (as Jinyang)||Jin||ChiShanxi, China||-497 ! c. 497 BC|
|Nanjing (as Yecheng, Moling, Jianye, Jiankang, Jinling, Yingtian, Jiangning)||Wu||ChiJiangsu, China||-495 ! c. 495 BC||Fu Chai, Lord of the State of Wu, founded a fort named Yecheng (冶城) in today's Nanjing area.|
|Chengdu||Shu||ChiSichuan, China||-400 ! c. 400 BC||The 9th Kaiming king of the ancient Shu moved his capital to the city's current location from today's nearby Pixian.|
|Changsha (as Linxiang, Xiangzhou, Tanzhou, Tianlin)||Chu||Chi Hunan, China||-365 ! c. 365 BC|
|Kaifeng (as Daliang, Bianzhou, Dongjing, Bianjing)||Wei||Chi }Henan, China||-364 ! c. 364 BC||The State of Wei founded a city called Daliang (大梁）as its capital in this area.|
|Liaoyang (as Xiangping, Changping, Liaodong, Pingzhou, Liaozhou, Dongdu, Dongjing)||Yan||Chi Liaoning, China||-279 ! c. 279 BC|
|Guangzhou (as Panyu)||Qin Dynasty||ChiGuangdong, China||-214 !214 BC|
|Hangzhou (as Lin'an, Yuhang, Qiantang)||Qin Dynasty||ChiZhejiang, China||-200 ! c. 200 BC||The city of Hangzhou was founded about 2,200 years ago during the Qin Dynasty.|
|Pyeongyang (as Wanggeom-seong)||Gojoseon||North Korea||194 BC||Built as the capital city of Gojoseon in 194 BC.|
|Gyeongju||Silla||South Korea||57 BC||Built as the capital city of Silla in 57 BC.|
|Seoul (as Wiryeseong)||Baekjae||South Korea||18 BC||Built as the capital city of Baekjae in 18 BC.|
|Osaka (as Naniwa)||Japan||Japan||C. 400 AD||It was inhabited as early at the 6th–5th centuries BC, and became a port city during the Kofun period. It temporarily served as the capital of Japan from 645 to 655.|
|Nara (as Heijō-kyō)||Japan||Japan||710 AD||Built as a new capital city in 710.|
|Kyoto (as Heian-kyō, and sometimes known in the west as Miyako)||Japan||Japan||794 AD||Shimogamo Shrine was built in the 6th century, but the city was officially founded as Heian-kyō when it became the capital in 794.|
|Name||Historical region||Location||Continuously inhabited since||Notes|
|Hanoi||Jiaozhou||Vietnam||454 AD||First mentioned as Tống Bình in 454 AD, the Đại La citadel was built in 767 during the reign of Emperor Daizong of Tang; Ly Cong Uan renamed it Thăng Long in 1010.|
|Palembang||Srivijaya||Indonesia||600 ! c. 600 AD||Oldest city in the Malay Archipelago, capital of the Srivijaya empire.|
|Luang Prabang||Muang Sua||Laos||600 ! 698 AD|
|Siem Reap||Khmer Empire||Cambodia||800 ! 801 AD.||Capital of the Khmer Empire.|
|Bagan||Kingdom of Pagan||Myanmar||800 ! 849 AD.|
|Manila||Kingdom of Tondo and Kingdom of Maynila||Philippines||900 !900 AD||Oldest known settlement in the Philippines as documented by the Laguna Copperplate Inscription; when the Spanish, led by Miguel Lopez de Legazpi, arrived, it was still inhabited and led by at least one datu.|
|Magelang||Mataram Kingdom||Indonesia||900 !907 AD||Magelang was established on 11 April 907. Magelang was then known as a village called Mantyasih, which is now known as Meteseh.|
|Bandar Seri Begawan||Kingdom of Po-ni and Bruneian Empire||Brunei||900 ! 977 AD||Oldest city in Borneo.|
|Butuan||Kingdom of Butuan||Philippines||1000 ! 1001 AD||Oldest city in Mindanao.|
|Yangon||Konbaung Dynasty||Myanmar||600 ! 1043 AD||Yangon was founded as Dagon in the early 11th century (circa 1028–1043) by the Mon but was renamed to "Yangon" after King Alaungpaya conquered Dagon.|
|Kediri||Kediri Kingdom||Indonesia||600 ! 1042 AD||Along with changes in name, it is essentially a union of the two capitals of Panjalu Kingdom and Janggala Kingdom. The settlements are always interspersed along both banks of Brantas River. Administratively, the Government of Indonesia divides Kediri into two political entities, Kediri Regency and the Town of Kediri which is located in the middle of the regency. Nevertheless, archaeological remains exist beyond administrative boundaries and settlements often spread disregarding administrative boundaries between both entities.|
|Singapore||Kingdom of Singapura||Singapore||1100 ! 1170 AD|
|Banda Aceh||Aceh Sultanate||Indonesia||1205 AD||
Originally named Kutaraja, which means "City of the King".
Derived its name from the words "suro" (shark) and "boyo" (crocodile), two creatures which are in a local myth.
|Phnom Penh||Khmer Empire||Cambodia||1372 AD|
|Malacca||Malacca Sultanate||Malaysia||900 ! 1396 AD|
|Hội An||Nguyễn dynasty||Vietnam||14th century|
|Bogor||Sunda Kingdom||Indonesia||1482 AD|
|Teluk Intan||Perak Sultanate||Malaysia||1511 AD|
|Pattani||Pattani Kingdom||Thailand||1516 AD|
|Jakarta||Demak Sultanate||Indonesia||1527 AD |
|Medan||Sultanate of Deli||Indonesia||1590 AD|
|Oudong||Kingdom of Cambodia||Cambodia||1601 AD|
|Makassar||Sultanate of Gowa||Indonesia||1607 AD|
|Klang||Johor-Riau Sultanate||Malaysia||900 ! 1643 AD||Klang remained under Johor's control until 1742.|
|Bangkok||Ayutthaya Kingdom||Thailand||900 ! 1688 AD||Modern Bangkok was built after the Siege of Bangkok from French imperialists.|
|Alor Setar||Kedah Sultanate||Malaysia||1735 AD||
Founded in 1735 by Kedah's 19th Ruler, Sultan Muhammad Jiwa Zainal Adilin II and is the state's eighth administrative centre since the establishment of the Kedah Sultanate in 1136.
|Dili||Portuguese Timor||East Timor||900 ! 1769 AD||Dili was settled about 1520 by the Portuguese, who made it the capital of Portuguese Timor in 1769.|
|George Town||Straits Settlements||Malaysia||900 ! 1786 AD||Founded by Sir Captain Francis Light after the Penang was ceded from Kedah to British Colony.|
Continuous habitation since the Chalcolithic (or Copper Age) is vaguely possible but highly problematic to prove archaeologically for several Levantine cities (Damascus, Byblos, Aleppo, Jericho, Sidon and Beirut).
Cities became more common outside the Fertile Crescent with the Early Iron Age from about 1100 BC. The foundation of Rome in 753 BC is conventionally taken as one of the dates initiating Classical Antiquity.
|Name||Historical region||Location||Continuously inhabited as a "city" since||Notes|
|Damascus||Levant||Syria||Chalcolithic 3rd millennium BC||Damascus is often claimed to be the oldest continuously inhabited city in the world. Excavations at Tell Ramad on the outskirts of the city have demonstrated that the general area was inhabited as early as 9000 BC. However, it is not documented as an important city until the arrival of the Aramaeans.|
|Byblos (Jubayl)||Levant||Lebanon||Chalcolithic (3000 BC)||Settled from the Neolithic (carbon-dating tests have set the age of earliest settlement around 7000), a city since the 3rd millennium BC. Byblos had a reputation as the "oldest city in the world" in Antiquity (according to Philo of Byblos).|
|Susa (Shush)||Khuzestan||Iran||4200 BC||Archaeological excavations indicate that the site has been inhabited since at least 5000 BC. The emergence of acropolis in Susa is determined by C14 dating from 4395–3955 BC, roughly dated about 4200 BC as time of foundation. Susa was a large city during Ancient and Medieval periods, but marginalized in the 13th century due to Mongol invasion. The city further degraded from the 15th century when a majority of its population moved to Dezful and it remained as a small settlement until the 20th century.|
|Gaziantep||Anatolia||Southeastern Anatolia, Turkey||c. 3650 BC||Although most modern scholars place the Classical Antiochia ad Taurum at Gaziantep, some maintain that it was located at Aleppo. Furthermore, that the two cities occupy the same site is far from established fact. Assuming this to be the case, the founding date of the present site would be about 1000 BC.|
|Jericho||Levant||West Bank||Chalcolithic (3000 BC or earlier)||Traces of habitation from 9000 BC. Fortifications date to 6800 BC (or earlier), making Jericho the earliest known walled city.
Archaeological evidence indicates that the city was destroyed and abandoned several times (sometimes remaining uninhabited for hundreds of years at a time), with later rebuilding and expansion.
|Rey||Media||Iran||3000 BC||A settlement at the site goes back to the 3rd millennium BC. Rey (also Ray or Rayy) is mentioned in the Avesta (an important text of prayers in Zoroastrianism) as a sacred place, and it is also featured in the book of Tobit.|
|Jerusalem (Old City)||Levant||Israel/West Bank||2800 BC|
|Jenin||Levant||West Bank||c. 2450 BC||Jenin's history goes back to 2450 BC, when it was built by the Canaanites. After 1244, Jenin flourished economically because of its location on the trade route, until a major earthquake completely destroyed the city.|
|Aleppo||Levant||Syria||possibly 2400 BC when there was a modest temple there.||the Temple of Hadad inside the Citadel date to c. 2400 BC.|
|Homs||Levant||Syria||(2,300 BC)||Excavations at the Citadel of Homs indicate that the earliest settlement at the site dates back to around 2300 BC.|
|Erbil||Mesopotamia||Iraqi Kurdistan, Iraq||2300 BC||The Citadel of Arbil is a fortified settlement in Erbil, Iraqi Kurdistan. The city corresponds to ancient Arbela. Settlement at Erbil (kurdish: Hewlêr) can be dated back to possibly 5000 BC, but not urban life until c. 2300.|
|Kirkuk (as Arrapha)||Mesopotamia||Kirkuk Governorate, Iraq||3000–2200 BC|
|Jaffa||Levant||Israel||c. 2000 BC||Archaeological evidence shows habitation from 7500 BC.|
|Sidon||Levant||Lebanon||2nd millennium BC||Sidon becomes a city-state during the 2nd millennium BC.|
|Hebron||Levant||West Bank||c. 1500 BC||"Hebron is considered one of the oldest cities and has been continuously inhabited for nearly 3500 years."|
|Gaza||Levant||Gaza Strip||c. 1000 BC||While evidence of habitation dates back at least 5,000 years, it is said to be continuously inhabited for a little more than 3,000 years.|
|Hamadan (as Ecbatana)||Median Empire||Iran||c. 800 BC|
|Tabriz||Caucasus||Iran||Sometime between the 3rd and 7th century AD||The earliest elements of the present Tabriz are claimed to be built either at the time of the early Sassanids in the 3rd or 4th century AD, or later in the 7th century.|
|Sana'a||'azal||yemen||9000or10000BC||It is said that from us Sana'a is Sam son of Noah and is called the city of Sam|
|Name||Historical region||Location||Continuously inhabited since||Notes|
|Sydney||New South Wales||Australia||1788||Oldest city in Australia and oldest city in Oceania. Radiocarbon dating suggests human activity occurred in and around Sydney for at least 30,000 years, in the Upper Paleolithic period. However, numerous Aboriginal stone tools found in Sydney's far western suburbs' gravel sediments were dated to be from 45,000 to 50,000 years BP, which would mean that humans could have been in the region earlier than thought. The first people to occupy the Sydney region were an Indigenous Australian group called the Eora.|
|Hobart||Tasmania||Australia||1803||Second oldest city in Australia. Prior to British settlement, the area had been occupied for at least 8,000 years, but possibly for as long as 35,000 years, by the semi-nomadic Mouheneener tribe, a sub-group of the Nuennone, or South-East tribe.|
|George Town||Tasmania||Australia||1804||Third oldest city in Australia.|
|Newcastle||New South Wales||Australia||1804||Fourth oldest city in Australia.|
|Launceston||Tasmania||Australia||1806||Fifth oldest city in Australia.|
|Kerikeri||Northland||New Zealand||1818 ! c. 1818||Oldest European-founded settlement in New Zealand.|
|Brisbane||Queensland||Australia||1825||Oldest city in Northern Australia, State Capital.|
|Albany||Western Australia||Australia||1827||Oldest city in the West Coast of Australia.|
|Perth||Western Australia||Australia||1829||The area had been inhabited by the Whadjuk Noongar people for over 40,000 years, as evidenced by archaeological findings on the Upper Swan River.|
|Melbourne||Victoria||Australia||1835||Before the arrival of European settlers, the area was occupied for an estimated 31,000 to 40,000 years. At the time of European settlement, it was inhabited by under 20,000 hunter-gatherers from three indigenous regional tribes: the Wurundjeri, Boonwurrung and Wathaurong.|
|Adelaide||South Australia||Australia||1836||State Capital.|
|Darwin||Northern Territory||Australia||1869||State Capital.|
|Canberra||Australian Capital Territory||Australia||1913||Capital city of Australia. Artefacts suggests early human activity occurred at some point in Canberra dating at around 21,000 years ago.|
|Name||Historical region||Location||Continuously inhabited since||Notes|
|Argos||Neolithic, Mycenaean Greece||Greece||-5000 ! 6th–5th millennium BC||The city has been cycling between village and city status for 7,000 years. Recorded history begins in latter 1st millennium BC.|
|Athens||Neolithic, Mycenaean Greece||GreAttica, Greece||-4500 !5th–4th millennium BC[page needed]||Recorded history begins in 1400 BC.|
|Plovdiv||Thrace||BulPlovdiv Province, Bulgaria||-3000 !3000[not in citation given] – 4000 BC||Thracian foundation. Earliest evidence of a settlement dates back to 6000 BC.|
|Kutaisi||Colchis||Imereti province, Georgia||-2000 ! c. 2000 BC||Founded as Aia. Archeological evidence indicates that the city functioned as the capital of the kingdom of Colchis as early as the 2nd millennium BC. It is widely believed by historians that when Apollonius Rhodius was writing about Jason and the Argonauts and their legendary journey to Colchis, Kutaisi/Aia was the final destination of the Argonauts and the residence of King Aeëtes.|
|Chania||Crete||GreCrete, Greece||-1700 ! c. 1700–1500 BC[unreliable source?]||Minoan foundation as Kydonia.|
|Thebes||Mycenaean Greece||GreBoeotia, Greece||-1600 ! c. 1600–1250 BC||Mycenaean foundation.|
|Larnaca||Alashiya||Cyprus||-1400 ! c. 1400 BC||Mycenaean, then Phoenician colony.|
|Trikala||Mycenaean Greece||GreThessaly, Greece||-1201 ! before 1200 BC||Founded as Trikke.|
|Chalcis||Mycenaean Greece||Greece||-1201 !before 1200 BC||Mentioned by Homer.|
|Lisbon||Iron Age Iberia||Portugal||-1200 ! c. 1200 BC||A settlement since the Neolithic. Allis Ubbo, arguably a Phoenician name, became Olissipo(-nis) in Greek and Latin (also Felicitas Julia after Roman conquest in 205 BC).|
|Cádiz||Iron Age Iberia||SpaAndalusia, Spain||-1100 !1100 BC||founded as Phoenician Gadir, "Europe's oldest city".|
|Patras||Mycenaean Greece||Greece||c. 1100 BC||Founded by Patreus.|
|Chios||Chios||GreNorth Aegean, Greece||c. 1100 BC|
|Nicosia||Cyprus||c. 1050 BC||Mycenaean foundation as Ledra. Archeological evidence of continuous habitation since the beginning of the Bronze Age 2500 years BC.|
|Zadar||Illyricum||Croatia||c. 1000 BC||Founded by Liburnians. Oldest continusly inhabited city in Croatia. Main Liburnian settlement.|
|Mtskheta||Caucasian Iberia||Georgia||1000 ! c. 1000 BC||Remains of towns at this location have been dated to earlier than the year 1000 BC, and Mtskheta was capital of the early Georgian Kingdom of Iberia during the 3rd century BC – 5th century AD. It was the site of early Christian activity, and the location where Christianity was proclaimed the state religion of Georgia in 337.|
|Mytilene||Lesbos||GreNorth Aegean, Greece||10th century BC|
|Vani||Colchis||Geo Imereti, Georgia||-800! before 8 century BC |
|Yerevan||Urartu||Armenia||-800 ! 782 BC||Founded as Erebuni. The Shengavit Settlement in the southwestern district of Yerevan was founded in the late 4th millennium BC, during the Calcolithic period.|
|Seville||Iron Age Iberia||Spa Andalusia, Spain||-750 ! 8th century BC||founded as Tartessian Spal.|
|Málaga||Iron Age Iberia||Spa Andalusia, Spain||-800 ! 8th century BC||founded as Phoenician Malaka.[page needed]|
|Mdina||Antiquity Malta||Mlt Malta||-750 ! 8th century BC||founded as Phoenician Melite.|
|Cagliari||Sardinia||ItaSardinia, Italy||-750 ! 8th century BC||Founded by Phoenicians from Tyre as Krly, Caralis in Roman times, Callaris in Middle Ages.|
|Rome||Latium||ItaLazio, Italy||-753 !753 BC||Continuous habitation since approximately 1000 BC.; pastoral village on the northern part of the Palatine Hill dated to the 9th century BC; see also History of Rome and Founding of Rome.|
|Messina (as Zancle)||Sicily||ItaSicily, Italy||-750 !8th century BC|
|Reggio di Calabria (as Rhégion)||Magna Graecia||ItaCalabria, Italy||-743 !743 BC[page needed]||Continuous habitation since approximately 1500 BC, as we have notice about the Ausonian-Italic pre-Greek settlement and about the sculptor Léarchos of Reggio (early 15th century BC) and King Iokastos (late 13th century BC).|
|Palermo (as זִיז, Ziz)||Phoenicia||ItaSicily, Italy||-734 !734 BC||Settlement presence since approximately 8000 BC, as we know through cave drawings in the area now known as Addaura, but continuous documented habitation since the Phoenician times (734 BC is traditionally considered as the founding year).|
|Syracuse||Sicily||ItaSicily, Italy||-734 !734 BC||A colony of the Greek city of Corinth.|
|Volterra||Tuscany||ItaTuscany, Italy||-725 ! c. 725 BC||An Etruscan mining settlement.|
|Crotone (as Kroton)||Calabria||ItaMagna Graecia, Italy||-710 !710 BC||Greek colony.|
|Taranto (as Taras)||Magna Graecia||ItaApulia, Italy||-706 !706 BC||Founded as the only Spartan colony by the Partheniae, children of unmarried Spartan women and perioikoi, free non-citizen residents of Sparta and her territories.|
|Corfu, Kerkyra||Corfu||GreIonian Islands, Greece||-700 !700 BC||A colony of the Greek city of Corinth.|
|Naples||Magna Graecia||Italy||-680 ! c. 680 BC||Actually the date at which an older settlement close by, called Parthenope, was founded by settlers from Cumae. This eventually merged with Neapolis proper, which was founded c. 470 BC.|
|Istanbul/Byzantion||Thrace Anatolia||Turkey||-667 ! 685 BC Anatolia
667 BC Thrace
|Neolithic site dated to 6400 BC, over port of Lygos by Thracians c. 1150 BC. Greek colony.|
|Ibiza (as 'Ybsm)||Balearic Islands||Spain||-654 ! 654 BC||Founded by the Phoenicians, according to Diodorus Siculus, book 5, chap. 16. Date consistent with archaeological finds.|
|Durrës||Illyria||Albania||-627 !627–625 BC||Formery Epidamnos.|
|Kerch (as Panticapaeum)||pre-Roman Crimea||Ukraine||-600 !7th century BC||Greek colony.|
|Feodosiya (as Theodosia)||pre-Roman Crimea||Ukraine||-600 ! 7th century BC||Greek colony.|
|Edessa, Greece||Macedonia||Greece||-601 !before the 6th century BC||Greek city, capital of the kingdom of Macedon up to the 6th century BC.|
|Marseilles (as Massilia)||Gaul||France||-600 !600 BC||A colony of the Greek city of Phocaea.|
|Varna||Thrace||BulBulgarian Black Sea Coast, Bulgaria||-570 !585 BC – 570 BC||Founded as Odessos by settlers from the Greek city of Miletus.|
|Sant Martí d'Empúries (as Emporion)||Iberia||Catalonia, Spain||-575 !ca. 575 BC||A colony of the Greek city of Phocaea. Present Sant Martí is on the ancient Palaiopolis of Emporion, in an island next to the coast; in 550 BC, the inhabitants moved to the mainland, creating the Neapolis: Palaiapolis remained as a small neighbourhood.|
|Kavala||Macedonia||Greece||-550 !6th century BC||Greek colony. Founded as Neapolis.|
|Mangalia||Dacia||Romania||-550 !6th century BC||Founded as Callatis.|
|Constanţa||Dacia||Romania||-550 !6th century BC||Founded as Tomis.|
|Mantua||Po Valley||ItaLombardy, Italy||-550 !6th century BC||Village settlement since c. 2000 BC; became an Etruscan city in the 6th century BC.|
|Bilhorod-Dnistrovskyi (as Tyras)||Pontic Greeks||Bessarabia, Ukraine||-550 !6th century BC|
|Serres||Macedonia||Greece||-450 !5th century BC||Greek city. First mentioned in the 5th century BC as Siris.|
|Lamia||Greece||-501 !before the 5th century BC||Greek city. First mentioned 424 BC|
|Veria||Macedonia||Greece||-432 ! c. 432 BC||Greek city. First mentioned by Thucydides in 432 BC.|
|Rhodes||Rhodes, Aegean Sea||GreDodecanese, Greece||-408 ! c. 408 BC||Greek city.|
|Sofia||Moesia||BulSofia Valley, Bulgaria||-350 !4th century BC||Celtic foundation as Serdica.|
|Metz||Gaul||France||-350 !4th century BC||Founded as the oppidum of Celtic Mediomatrici. However, Human permanent presence has been established in the site since 2500 BC.|
|Roses (as Rhode)||Iberia||SpaCatalonia, Spain||-350 !4th century BC||The exactly origin of the city is unknown, but there are remains of a Greek colony from the 4th century BC, although some historians consider the foundation earlier, at the 8th century BC. However, permanent human presence has been established in the site since 3000 BC as evidenced by the different megalithic monuments surrounding the city.|
|Qabala (as Kabalaka)||Caucasian Albania||Azerbaijan||-350 !4th century BC||Archeological evidence indicates that the city functioned as the capital of the Caucasian Albania as early as the 4th century BC.|
|Stara Zagora||Thrace||Bulgaria||-342 !342 BC||It was called Beroe in ancient times and was founded by Phillip II of Macedon although a Thracian settlement neolithic inhabitation have been discovered as well.|
|Thessaloniki||Macedonia (ancient kingdom)||-315 !315 BC||Greek city. Founded as a new city in the same place of the older city Therme.|
|Berat||Macedonia (ancient kingdom)||Albania||-314 !314 BC||Founded by Cassander as Antipatreia.|
|Vukovar||Illyria||Croatia||300 BC300 BC||Vučedol culture.|
|Belgrade||Illyria||Serbia||-279 !279 BC||Vinča culture prospered around Belgrade in the 6th millennium BC. Founded as Singidunum.|
|Niš||Illyria||Serbia||-279 !279 BC||Founded as Navissos. Neolithic settlements date to 5000–2000 BC.|
|Cartagena (as Carthago Nova)||Iberia||Spain||-228 !228 BC||Carthaginian colony, founded by Hasdrubal Barca.|
|Barcelona (as Barcino)||Iberia||SpaCatalonia, Spain||-250 !3rd century BC||Unknown origin. Several neolithics tombs (5000–4500 BC) and remains from the Iberian period have been found, as well as several drachma coins inscribed with the word "Barkeno". There is also a hypothesis about a small Greek settlement called Kallípolis to have existed in the area. However, the first archaeological remains of buildings are from the Roman period.|
|Tarragona (as Tarraco)||Iberia||SpaCatalonia, Spain||-250 !218 BC||Roman colony, founded by Gnaeus and Publius Cornelius Scipio.|
|Stobi/Gradsko||Macedonia||Republic of Macedonia||-217 !217 BC||Founded as Stobi by Philip V of Macedon.|
|Valencia||Iberia||Valencia, Spain||138 BC||Roman colony founded as Valentia Edetanorum.|
|Bratislava||Pannonia||Slovakia||2nd century BC||Founded by Celtic Boii tribe. The first written reference to a Slavic settlement dates to 907.|
|Sremska Mitrovica||Illyria||Serbia||-50 !1st century BC||Founded as Sirmium. Neolithic settlements date to 5000 BC and are with other archeological findings evidence to continuous habitation.|
|Smederevo||Illyria||Serbia||-50 !1st century BC||Founded as Semendria.|
|Ptuj||Pannonia||Slovenia||1st century BC !1st century BC||Ptuj is the oldest city in Slovenia. There is evidence that the area was settled in the Stone Age. In the Late Iron Age it was settled by Celts. By the 1st century BC, the settlement was controlled by Ancient Rome.|
|Évora||Lusitania||Portugal||-53 !53 BC (Roman conquest)||Evidence of Lusitanian settlement prior to Roman occupation.|
|Paris||Lutetia||France||-52 !52 BC||Archaeological evidence indicates human habitation as early as 4200 BC. During the Gallic Wars, Caesar's armies set fire to Lutetia "a town of the Parisii, situated on an island on the river Seine." While only a garrison at best on the Île de la Cité during some periods after 1st and 2nd century, was renamed Paris in 360 AD|
|Ljubljana||Italia||Slovenia||50 BC !50 BC||Area first settled by people living in pile dwellings around 2000 BC. Around 50 BC, the Romans built a military encampment that later became a permanent settlement called Iulia Aemona.|
|Zürich (Lindenhof)||Gaul||Switzerland||-50 ! c. 50 BC||Lakeside settlement traces dating to the Neolithic.|
|Cologne||Germania Inferior||Germany||38 ! 38 BC||Founded in 38 BC by the Ubii, a Germanic tribe, as Oppidum Ubiorum. In 50 AD, the Romans adopted the location as Colonia Claudia Ara Agrippinensium and the city became in 85 AD the capital of the Roman province "Germania Inferior".|
|Trier||Galia Belgica||Germany||-30 !30 BC||Oldest Roman city in Germany.|
|Augsburg||Raetia, Roman Empire||Germany||15 BC||Second oldest city in Germany after Trier. Located in the Swabian region of Bavaria. Founded by the Romans as Augusta Vindelicorum.|
|Chur||Raetia Prima||SwiGrisons, Switzerland||-15 !15 BC||habitation since the 4th millennium BC (Pfyn culture).|
|Worms||Germania Superior||Germany||-14 ! 14 BC||The name of the city derives from the Latin designation Borbetomagus which is of Celtic origin.|
|Tongeren||Germania Inferior||Belgium||-10 !10 BC||Oldest city in Belgium.|
|Solothurn||Gaul||Switzerland||20 ! c. 20 AD||Evidence of pre-Roman, Celtic settlement; newly founded by the Romans between 14 and 37 AD, called the "oldest city in Gaul besides Trier" in a verse on the city's clock tower.|
|London (as Londinium)||Britannia||England||43 !43 AD||Archaeological evidence near Vauxhall Bridge indicates that the wider area has been occupied for at least 3,500 years.|
|Bath (as Aquae Sulis)||Britannia||England||43 !43 AD||The city was established as a spa town by the Romans in 43 AD.|
|Winchester (as Venta Belgarum)||Britannia||England||70 ! c. 70 AD||Winchester was built as a Roman town in c. 70 AD.|
|Maastricht||Germania Inferior||Netherlands||70 ! c. 70 AD||Oldest city in the Netherlands.|
|York (as Eboracum)||Britannia||England||72 ! c. 72 AD||The city was founded in or around AD 72 when the 9th Roman Legion set up camp there.|
|Skopje||Macedonia (Roman province)||Republic of Macedonia||96 !81–96 AD||Founded in the time of Domitian as Scupi.|
|Novi Sad||Illyria||Serbia||50 !1st century AD||Founded as Cusum.|
|Baku||Azerbaijan||Absheron peninsula||The 1st century AD||The first written evidence for Baku dates to the 1st century AD.|
|Trenčín (as Laugaricio)||Slovakia||Before 179 AD||First mentioned in 179 AD on a roman inscription on Trenčín castle rock, when roman army was stationed in settlement Laugaricio. Settlement was probably Germanic, and since the 7th century Slavic.|
|Vienna||Pannonia||Austria||c. 300 AD||"It is uncertain when Vindobona became a municipium; this elevation seems to have taken place at the beginning of the 3d c. A.D."|
|Verdun||Lotharingia||France||350 ! 4th century||Seat of the bishop of Verdun from the 4th century, but populated earlier.|
|Kiev||State of the Antes||Ukraine||482 !482 AD||Founded by Slavic tribe leader Kyi. Some sources[clarification needed] suggest Kiev was founded in 640 BC.|
|Tbilisi||Caucasian Iberia||Kartli province, Georgia||500 ! c. 500||According to the widely accepted legend the city was founded by King Vakhtang I Gorgasali of Georgia. New archaeological studies of the region have revealed that the territory of Tbilisi was settled by humans as early as the 4th millennium BC. The earliest actual (recorded) accounts of settlement of the location come from the 4th century, when a fortress was built during King Varaz-Bakur's reign.|
|Aberdeen||Pictland||Scotland||580 ! c. 580||A settlement was established by c. 580 when records show the city's first church was built then. However, there is archaeological evidence of settlements in the area dating back to 6000 BC.|
|Edinburgh as Din Eidyn||Gododdin||Scotland||580 ! c. 580||Edinburgh is mentioned as a settlement in the poem Y Gododdin, traditionally dated to around the late 6th and early 7th centuries. The Poem uses The Brythonic name Din Eidyn (Fort of Eidyn) for Edinburgh and describes it as the capital of Gododdin. It is not until around 638 that the city starts being referred to as Edin-burh or Edinburgh, after the city was conquered by the Angles of Bernicia.|
|Prague||Bohemia||Czech Republic||550 ! c. 6th century||The first written record dates back to the 10th century.|
|Inverness||Pictland||Scotland||550 ! c. 6th century||A settlement was established by the 6th century when St Columba visited the Pictish King Brude at his fortress there.|
|Glasgow||Dál Riata or Alt Clut||Scotland||550 ! c. 6th century||A settlement was founded in the 6th century by St Mungo, who is the city's patron Saint.|
|Ioannina||Byzantine Empire||Greece||565 !527–565||Founded by emperor Justinian I.|
|Kraków (Wawel Hill)||Lesser Poland||Poland||650 !8th century||The first written record dates back to the 10th century.|
|Aarhus||Denmark||700 ! c. 770 |
|Deventer||Netherlands||700 !956|
|Ribe||Jutland||Denmark||710 ! 704–710||Oldest town in Denmark.|
|Staraya Ladoga||Russia||753 !753|
|Kalisz||Greater Poland||Poland||9th century||Founded as a provincial capital castellany and a minor fort. Kalisz has long been considered the oldest city of Poland, having been mentioned by Ptolemy in the 2nd century AD, but the claim is now doubted by some (cf. Calisia).|
|Heraklion||Crete||Greece||824 !824||Founded by the Saracens.|
|Nitra||Principality of Nitra||Slovakia||c. 828||Slavic settlement since 5th century reached its peak when it became centre of Principality of Nitra. There was built first known Christian church in Central and Eastern Europe.|
|Dublin||Ireland||IreIreland||841 !841||Dublin was founded as a city by the Vikings in the 9th century, but there were two older Irish settlements which existed on the same spot several centuries before they arrived; Áth Cliath ("ford of hurdles") and Duiblinn ("Black Pool").|
|Madrid||Castile||Spain||mid. 9th century||Developed around a fortress built by emir Muhammad I of Cordoba.|
|Veliky Novgorod||Russia||859 !859|
|Polatsk||Belarus||862 !862|
|Xanthi||Thrace||Greece||878 !before 879||First medieval reference as Xantheia.|
|Uzhhorod (as Ungvar)||Duchy of Laborec||Ukraine||898 ! before 895||First mentioned in Gesta Hungarorum.|
|Halych||Galicia||Ukraine||898 ! 898||First mentioned in Gesta Hungarorum.|
|Gniezno||Greater Poland||Poland||Before 940||Early Slavonic settlements are dated to the 8th century. An important Piast stronghold that gave birth to a medieval town is believed to be erected at least around 940 AD|
|Vitebsk||Belarus||947 !947|
|Poznań||Greater Poland||Poland||before 968||Settled from at least the 9th century AD, Poznań is one of the suggested places of the AD 966 Baptism of Poland. Poznań Cathedral was raised to the status of a cathedral around 968.|
|Brussels||Belgium||979||Founded by Charles, duke of Lower Lorraine. A chapel on an island in the river Senne was built around 580.|
|Sigtuna||Sweden||980 !980||Is reputed as the oldest town in Sweden, the name is derived from an old royal estate Fornsigtuna situated nearby.|
|Skara||Sweden||988 !988|
|Lund||Denmark||Sweden||990 ! c. 990|
|Trondheim||Norway||Norway||997 !997||Founded by king Olav Tryggvason. Archaeological findings of city settlement back to the 8th century.|
|Gdańsk||Pomerania||Poland||997 !997||Gdańsk became capital of Duchy of Pomerania (approximate date).|
- Cities of the ancient Near East
- Historical cities
- Historical urban community sizes
- List of American cities by year of foundation (includes ancient native sites)
- Sabatino Moscati (January 2001). The Phoenicians. I.B.Tauris. p. 654. ISBN 978-1-85043-533-4.
- Anthony R. Birley, Septimus Severus Routledge 2002 ISBN 978-1-134-70746-1), p. 2
- Economou, Maria (August 1993). Euesperides: A Devastated Site. Digital Library and Archives, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University. Retrieved 6 February 2009.
- "Historic cities – Africa". City Mayors. Retrieved 2013-01-19.
- McIntosh, Susan Keech; McIntosh, Roderick J. "Jenne-jeno, an ancient African city". Rice University Anthropology
- "Fort Babylon In Cairo". Touregypt.net. Retrieved 2013-01-19.
- Lee V. Cassanelli, The shaping of Somali society: reconstructing the history of a pastoral people, 1600–1900, (University of Pennsylvania Press: 1982), p. 75.
- "Fes". Encyclopædia Britannica. 2007. Britannica Concise Encyclopedia. 3 March 2007
- "Embassy of The Kingdom of Morocco in London". Moroccanembassylondon.org.uk. Retrieved 2013-01-19.
- Mann, Kristin (2007). Slavery and the Birth of an African City. Indiana University Press.
- "Ife (from ca. 350 B.C.) | Thematic Essay | Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History | The Metropolitan Museum of Art". Metmuseum.org. Retrieved 2013-01-19.
- Arango, J.; Durán, F.; Martín, J.G.; Arroyo, S. (Eds.). Panamá Viejo. De la aldea a la urbe. Patronato Panamá Viejo, Panamá, 2007.
- Gámez, Laura (2007). J.P. Laporte; B. Arroyo; H. Mejía), eds. "Salvamento arqueológico en el área central de Petén: Nuevos resultados sobre la conformación y evolución del asentamiento prehispánico en la isla de Flores" (PDF). Simposio de Investigaciones Arqueológicas en Guatemala (in Spanish). Guatemala City, Guatemala: Museo Nacional de Arqueología y Etnología. XX, 2006: 259–260, 269. Retrieved 2016-11-29.
- Gámez, Laura (2007). J.P. Laporte; B. Arroyo; H. Mejía), eds. "Salvamento arqueológico en el área central de Petén: Nuevos resultados sobre la conformación y evolución del asentamiento prehispánico en la isla de Flores" (PDF). Simposio de Investigaciones Arqueológicas en Guatemala (in Spanish). Guatemala City, Guatemala: Museo Nacional de Arqueología y Etnología. XX, 2006: 258–259. Retrieved 2016-11-29.
- Gámez, Laura (2007). J.P. Laporte; B. Arroyo; H. Mejía), eds. "Salvamento arqueológico en el área central de Petén: Nuevos resultados sobre la conformación y evolución del asentamiento prehispánico en la isla de Flores" (PDF). Simposio de Investigaciones Arqueológicas en Guatemala (in Spanish). Guatemala City, Guatemala: Museo Nacional de Arqueología y Etnología. XX, 2006: 261. Retrieved 2016-11-29.
- Rice, Prudence M. (2009). "The Kowoj in Geopolitical-Ritual Perspective". In Prudence M. Rice and Don S. Rice (eds.). The Kowoj: identity, migration, and geopolitics in late postclassic Petén, Guatemala. Boulder, Colorado, US: University Press of Colorado. p. 43. ISBN 978-0-87081-930-8. OCLC 225875268.
- Santa Fe, New Mexico, which is sometimes cited for this, was abandoned due to Indian raiding from 1680 to 1692, and its inhabitants did not succeed in living in the area continuously until after 1692.
- Kelly Hearn, "Ancient Temple Discovered Among Inca Ruins", National Geographic News, 31 March 2008, accessed 12 January 2010
- Marzal, M. (1996). Historia de la antropología indigenista: México y Perú. Ed. Anthropos, Extremadura
- Trudy Ring; Noelle Watson; Paul Schellinger, eds. (2012). Asia and Oceania: International Dictionary of Historic Places. Routledge. p. 835. ISBN 9781136639791.
- "Pataliputra". Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved 30 January 2011.
- "Tiruvannamali Historical moments". Tiruvannamalai Municipality. 2011. Retrieved 2012-12-29.
- Southern Circle (1903). Epigraphy. Madras: Archaeological Survey of India. p. 5.
- UNESCO World Heritage Centre. "Sacred City of Anuradhapura". Retrieved 15 October 2015.
- Harman, William. P (1992). The sacred marriage of a Hindu goddess. Motilal Banarsidass. pp. 30–36. ISBN 978-81-208-0810-2.
- Quintanilla, Sonya Rhie (2007). History of Early Stone Sculpture at Mathura, Ca. 150 BCE-100 CE. Concept Publishing Company. p. 2. ISBN 90-04-15537-6.
- "Ruins of 2,000-year-old city found near Peshawar".
- The Peking Man World Heritage Site at Zhoukoudian
- "Angkor National Museum website". Angkornationalmuseum.com. Retrieved 2011-01-31.
- Business: The promise—and the pitfalls
- "Expert on past dies; 82". Philippine Daily Inquirer. 2008-10-21. Retrieved 2008-11-17.
- According to a local act number 6 (1989)[not specific enough to verify]
- History for Brunei (2009). History for Brunei Darussalam: Sharing our Past. Curriculum Development Department, Ministry of Education. ISBN 99917-2-372-2.
- "Timeline of history". Retrieved 2009-10-09.
- Scott, William Prehispanic Source Materials: For the Study of Philippine History, p. 66
- Founded during the reign of King Pontarika, per Charles James Forbes Smith-Forbes (1882). Legendary History of Burma and Arakan. The Government Press. p. 20.; the king's reign was 1028 to 1043 per Harvey, G. E. (1925). History of Burma: From the Earliest Times to 10 March 1824. London: Frank Cass & Co. Ltd. p. 368.
- Bullough, Nigel (1995). Mujiyono PH, ed. Historic East Java: Remains in Stone (Indonesian 50th independence day commemorative ed.). Jakarta: ADLine Communications. p. 19.
- Abdul Rahman, Haji Ismail; Abdullah Zakaria, Ghazali; Zulkanain, Abdul Rahman (2011), A New Date on the Establishment of Melaka Malay Sultanate Discovered (PDF), Institut Kajian Sejarah dan Patriotisme ( Institute of Historical Research and Patriotism ), retrieved 2012-11-04
- Irwan Rouf & Shenia Ananda. Rangkuman 100 Cerita Rakyat Indonesia dari Sabang sampai Merauke: Asal Usul Nama Kota Surabaya (in Indonesian). MediaKita. p. 60. ISBN 9786029003826. Retrieved 17 November 2014.
- The story is recorded in JMBRAS magazine, October 1935, Volume XIII Part 2, page 15 to 16.
- Peace of Angkor Phnom Penh. Retrieved July 27, 2007.
- History for Malaysia (2010). Melaka from the Top. De Witt, Dennis. ISBN 978-983-43519-2-2.
- Spencer Tucker, "Vietnam", University Press of Kentucky, 1999, ISBN 0-8131-0966-3, p. 22
- History of the Malay Kingdom of Patani, Ibrahim Syukri, ISBN 0-89680-123-3
- "History of Jakarta". BeritaJakarta.
- "Guru Patimpus: The Ancestor and Founder of Medan". iqbalrahdika. Retrieved 20 November 2014.
- A History of Malaysia – Barbara Watson Andaya, Leonard Y. Andaya – Google Books. Books.google.com.au. Retrieved 2013-09-17.
- Van Beeck, Steve (1995). The Chao Phya, River in Transition. p. 39. Quoted in "History of Ayutthaya: Historical events: Timeline 1500–1599". ayutthaya-history.com. Ayutthaya Historical Research. Retrieved 11 December 2011.
- Simon Richmond; Damian Harper (December 2006). Malaysia, Singapore & Brunei. Ediz. Inglese. Lonely Planet. pp. 200–. ISBN 978-1-74059-708-1.
- "Brief History of Timor-Leste". Official Web Gateway to the Government of Timor-Leste. Government of the Democratic Republic of Timor-Leste. 2006. Archived from the original on 2008-10-29.; A. Barbedo de Magalhães (October 24, 1994). "Population Settlements in East Timor and Indonesia". University of Coimbra website. University of Coimbra. Archived from the original on 2007-02-11.
- "Sir James Lancaster (English merchant) – Britannica Online Encyclopedia". Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved 13 September 2014.
- , Ancient City of Damascus – UNESCO
- Burns, Ross (2007). Damascus: A History (New ed.). Routledge. p. 2. ISBN 978-0-415-41317-6.
- Dumper, Michael; Stanley, Bruce E.; Abu-Lughod, Janet L. (2006). Cities of the Middle East and North Africa. ABC-CLIO. p. 104. ISBN 1-57607-919-8. Retrieved 2009-07-22.
Archaeological excavations at Byblos indicate that the site has been continually inhabited since at least 5000 B.C.
- Mark, Joshua J. (2009). "Byblos". Ancient History Encyclopedia.
- Ciasca, Antonia (2001). "Phoenicia". In Sabatino Moscati. The Phoenicians. I.B.Tauris. p. 170. ISBN 1-85043-533-2.
- Lorenzo Nigro (2007). "Aside the spring: Byblos and Jericho from village to town". In Nigro, Lorenzo. Byblos and Jericho in the early bronze I : social dynamics and cultural interactions : proceedings of the international workshop held in Rome on March 6th 2007 by Rome "La Sapienza" University. Università di Roma "La Sapienza". p. 35. ISBN 978-88-88438-06-1. Retrieved 17 February 2017.
- Jona Lendering (2009-07-24). "Susa". Livius. Amsterdam.
- Daniel T. Potts (1999). Archaeology of Elam: Formation and Transformation of an Ancient Iranian State. Cambridge; New York: Cambridge University Press. pp. 45–46. ISBN 9780521564960. OCLC 51240487.
- Paul A. Tucci; Mathew T. Rosenberg (2009). Handy Geography Answer Book. Detroit: Visible Ink Press. p. 92. ISBN 9781578592159. OCLC 262886502.
- M. Streck, Clifford Edmund Bosworth (1997). Encyclopaedia of Islam, San-Sze. IX. Leiden: Brill. pp. 898–899. ISBN 9789004104228.
- The world's oldest cities, telegraph.co.uk
- "Gaziantep". Retrieved 15 October 2015.
- Tore Kjeilen. "Gaziantep – LookLex Encyclopaedia". Retrieved 15 October 2015.
- Gates, Charles (2003). "Near Eastern, Egyptian, and Aegean Cities". Ancient Cities: The Archaeology of Urban Life in the Ancient Near East and Egypt, Greece and Rome. Routledge. p. 18. ISBN 0-415-01895-1.
Jericho, in the Jordan River Valley in Israel, inhabited from ca. 9000 BC to the present day, offers important evidence for the earliest permanent settlements in the Near East.
- Martell, Hazel Mary (2001). "The Fertile Crescent". The Kingfisher Book of the Ancient World: From the Ice Age to the Fall of Rome. Kingfisher Publications. p. 18. ISBN 0-7534-5397-5.
People first settled there from around 9000 B.C., and by 8000 B.C., the community was organised enough to build a stone wall to defend the city.
- Michal Strutin, Discovering Natural Israel (2001), p. 4.
- Ryan, Donald P. (1999). "Digging up the Bible". The Complete Idiot's Guide to Lost Civilizations. Alpha Books. p. 137. ISBN 0-02-862954-X.
The city was walled during much of its history and the evidence indicates that it was abandoned several times, and later expanded and rebuilt several times.
- Kenneth Kitchen, "On the Reliability of the Old Testament" (Eerdmans 2003), pp. 187
- "Rayy", Encyclopædia Britannica
- "Under Beirut's Rubble, Remnants of 5,000 Years of Civilization". 23 February 1997. Retrieved 7 April 2016.
- Freedman, David Noel (2000-01-01). Eerdmans Dictionary of the Bible. Wm B. Eerdmans Publishing. pp. 694–695. ISBN 0-8028-2400-5.
- Аli Кhadra. "Tyre (Sour) City, Lebanon". Retrieved 15 October 2015.
- "for about years – Google". Retrieved 15 October 2015.
- "for about years – ČÍË Googleţ". Google.com. Retrieved 2013-01-19.
- , hadad temple
- Healy, 1993, p. 22
- Tore Kjeilen. "Irbil – LookLex Encyclopaedia". Retrieved 15 October 2015.
- "Revitalization Project of Erbil Citadel". UNESCO. UNESCO. Retrieved 2014-10-16.
- either The destruction of the Kirkuk Castle by the Iraqi regime. or History Channel for the earlier date
- Excavations at Ancient Jaffa (Joppa). Tel Aviv University.
- Mogens Herman Hansen (2000). "The concepts of city-state and city-state culture". In Hansen, Mogens Herman. A Comparative Study of Thirty City-state Cultures: An Investigation, Volume 21. Kgl. Danske Videnskabernes Selskab. p. 20. ISBN 978-8778761774. Retrieved 20 February 2017.
- Museum With No Frontiers (2004). Pilgrimage, sciences and Sufism: Islamic art in the West Bank and Gaza. Museum With No Frontiers. p. 253. ISBN 9789953360645.
- Dumper, Michael; Stanley, Bruce E.; Abu-Lughod, Janet L. (2007). Cities of the Middle East and North Africa: A Historical Encyclopedia. ABC-CLIO. p. 155. ISBN 9781576079195.
- "Life at the Crossroads [New Edition]: A History of Gaza". Rimal Books. Retrieved 2009-01-24.
- International dictionary of historic places By Trudy Ring, Robert M. Salkin, K. A. Berney, Paul E. Schellinger
- Cecil Roth, Encyclopaedia Judaica, 1972, p. 619.
- Fisher, William Bayne; Boyle, J. A. (1968), The Cambridge History of Iran: The Land of Iran (1 ed.), Cambridge University Press, p. 14
- Macey, Richard (2007). "Settlers' history rewritten: go back 30,000 years". The Sydney Morning Herald. Retrieved 5 July 2014.
- "Aboriginal people and place". Sydney Barani. 2013. Retrieved 5 July 2014.
- Attenbrow, Val (2010). Sydney's Aboriginal Past: Investigating the Archaeological and Historical Records. Sydney: UNSW Press. pp. 152–153. ISBN 978-1-74223-116-7. Retrieved 11 Nov 2013.
- Stockton, Eugene D.; Nanson, Gerald C. (April 2004). "Cranebrook Terrace Revisited". Archaeology in Oceania. 39 (1): 59–60. JSTOR 40387277.
- Geoffrey Blainey; A Very Short History of the World; Penguin Books; 2004; ISBN 978-0-14-300559-9
- Mulvaney, D J and White, Peter, 1987, Australians to 1788, Fairfax, Syme & Weldon, Sydney
- "Encyclopaedia Britannica – History of Tasmania". Retrieved 17 July 2008.
- The Encyclopedia of Aboriginal Australia. (ed.) David Horton. Canberra: Aboriginal Studies Press, 1994 [2 vols] (see: Vol. 2, pp. 1008–10 [with map]; individual tribal entries; and the 'Further Reading' section on pp. 1245–72).
- Sandra Bowdler. "The Pleistocene Pacific". Published in 'Human settlement', in D. Denoon (ed) The Cambridge History of the Pacific Islanders. pp. 41–50. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge. University of Western Australia. Archived from the original on 16 February 2008. Retrieved 26 February 2008.
- Gary Presland, The First Residents of Melbourne's Western Region, (revised edition), Harriland Press, 1997. ISBN 0-646-33150-7. Presland says on page 1: "There is some evidence to show that people were living in the Maribyrnong River valley, near present day Keilor, about 40,000 years ago."
- Gary Presland, Aboriginal Melbourne: The Lost Land of the Kulin People, Harriland Press (1985), Second edition 1994, ISBN 0-9577004-2-3. This book describes in some detail the archaeological evidence regarding aboriginal life, culture, food gathering and land management, particularly the period from the flooding of Bass Strait and Port Phillip from about 7–10,000 years ago, up to the European colonisation in the nineteenth century.
- Isabel Ellender and Peter Christiansen, People of the Merri Merri. The Wurundjeri in Colonial Days, Merri Creek Management Committee, 2001 ISBN 0-9577728-0-7
- Flood, J. M.; David, B.; Magee, J.; English, B. (1987), "Birrigai: a Pleistocene site in the south eastern highlands", Archaeology in Oceania, 22: 9–22
- Bolender, Douglas J. (2010-09-17). Eventful Archaeologies: New Approaches to Social Transformation in the Archaeological Record. SUNY Press. pp. 124–129–. ISBN 978-1-4384-3423-0. Retrieved 1 January 2011.
- Michael Llewellyn Smith (January 2004). Athens: A Cultural and Literary History. Signal Books. p. xiv. ISBN 978-1-902669-81-6.
- Tung, Anthony (2001). "The City the Gods Besieged". Preserving the World's Great Cities: The Destruction and Renewal of the Historic Metropolis. New York: Three Rivers Press. p. 266. ISBN 0-609-80815-X.
- S. Immerwahr, The Athenian Agora XII: the Neolithic and Bronze Ages, Princeton 1971
- "The world's 20 oldest cities". Telegraph.co.uk. 4 September 2015. Retrieved 15 October 2015.
- Детев, П. Разкопки на Небет тепе в Пловдив, ГПАМ, 5, 1963, pp. 27–30
- Ботушарова, Л. Стратиграфски проучвания на Небет тепе, ГПАМ, 5, 1963, pp. 66–70
- Rodwell, Dennis (2007). Conservation and Sustainability in Historic cities. Blackwell Publishing. p. 19. ISBN 1-4051-2656-6.
- Plovdiv: New ventures for Europe's oldest inhabited city, The Courier, January/February 2010
- Hogan, C Michael (January 23, 2008). "Cydonia". The Modern Antiquarian. Retrieved March 31, 2012.
The most powerful centre of western Crete, Cydonia produced Bronze Age pottery and Linear B writings circa 1700 to 1500 BC, and was one of the first cities of Europe to mint coinage. (Pashley, 1837)
- Nigel Guy Wilson (2006). Encyclopedia of Ancient Greece. Psychology Press. pp. 695–. ISBN 978-0-415-97334-2.
- The0 BC or earlier) Archived August 6, 2011, at the Wayback Machine.
- "COLCHIS, THE LAND OF THE GOLDEN FLEECE, REPUBLIC OF GEORGIA". www.great-adventures.com. Retrieved 2017-03-18.
- Eurasia Travel
- (Armenian) Baghdasaryan A., Simonyan A, et al. "Երևան" (Yerevan). Soviet Armenian Encyclopedia. vol. iii. Yerevan, Armenian SSR: Armenian Academy of Sciences, 1977, pp. 548–564.
- Manuel Jesús Roldán Salgueiro (2007). Historia de Sevilla. Almuzara. ISBN 978-84-88586-24-7. Retrieved 9 February 2013.
- The Phoenicians and the West. Retrieved 15 October 2015.
- Cassar, Carmel (2000). A Concise History of Malta. Msida: Mireva Publications. ISBN 1870579526
- Domenico Spanò Bolani (1857). Storia di Reggio di Calabria ... sino all'anno ... 1797 (in Italian). Retrieved 19 January 2013.
- UNESCO World Heritage Centre. "Volterra: Historical City and Cultural Landscape". Retrieved 15 October 2015.
- "Greek Naples". Faculty.ed.umuc.edu. 8 January 2008. Archived from the original on June 11, 2011.
- "Sobre els orígens de la colònia fenícia d'Eivissa" (PDF). Institut d'Estudis Eivissencs. Retrieved 2016-01-22.
- An Inventory of Archaic and Classical Poleis: An Investigation Conducted by The Copenhagen Polis Centre for the Danish National Research Foundation by Mogens Herman Hansen, 2005, page 330,"Epidamnos was founded in either 627 or 625 (Hieron. Chron)"
- An Inventory of Archaic and Classical Poleis: An Investigation Conducted by The Copenhagen Polis Centre for the Danish National Research Foundation by Mogens Herman Hansen,2005,page 936,
- The Cambridge Ancient History, Volume 3, Part 2: The Assyrian and Babylonian Empires and Other States of the Near East, from the Eighth to the Sixth Centuries BC by John Boardman, I. E. S. Edwards, E. Sollberger, and N. G. L. Hammond, ISBN 0-521-22717-8, 1992, page 600: "In the place of the vanished Treres and Tilataei we find the Serdi for whom there is no evidence before the first century BC. It has for long being supposed on convincing linguistic and archeological grounds that this tribe was of Celtic origin."
- "6.2 Revisiting History: Ancient Gabala". Retrieved 15 October 2015.
- Women and slaves in Greco-Roman culture: differential equations by Sandra Rae Joshel, Sheila Murnaghan,1998,page 214,"Philip II founded cities at Beroe, Kabyle, and Philippopolis in 342/1, and Aegean-style urban life began to penetrate Thrace."
- Late Roman villas in the Danube-Balkan region by Lynda Mulvin,2002,page 19,"Other roads went through Beroe (founded by Philip II of Macedon)",
- Philip of Macedon by Louïza D. Loukopoulou,1980,page 98, "Upriver in the valley between the Rhodope and Haimos Philip founded Beroe (Stara Zagora) and Philippolis (Plovdiv)."
- The cities in Thrace and Dacia in late antiquity: (studies and materials) by Velizar Iv Velkov,1977,page 128, "Founded by Philipp 11 on the site of an old Thracian settlement, it has existed without interruption from that time."
- Epirus: the geography, the ancient remains, the history and topography of ... by Nicholas Geoffrey Lemprière Hammond,"founded Antipatreia in Illyria at c. 314 BC"
- "Историја Београдске тврђаве" (in Serbian). June 2016.
- "Chronologie". Retrieved 15 October 2015.
- Caesar's Commentaries on the Gallic Wars, book 7
- Classical Antiquities, by Johann Joachim Eschenburg, 1860, p 6
- "Vauxhall Bridge Survey Report" (PDF). James Dilley. Retrieved 2013-12-09.
- Visit Bath, History and Heritage |http://visitbath.co.uk/site/media/information-sheets/history-and-heritage
- Lambert T., A SHORT HISTORY OF WINCHESTER, HAMPSHIRE, ENGLAND, http://www.localhistories.org/winchester.html
- York Museums Trust, History of York.org.uk , Roman, http://www.historyofyork.org.uk/themes/roman
- "Azerbaijan – Walled City of Baku with the Shirvanshah's Palace...". Archived from the original on 2 January 2008. Retrieved 14 October 2007.
- The Princeton Encyclopedia of Classical Sites, Richard Stillwell, William L. MacDonald, Marian Holland McAllister, Stillwell, Richard, MacDonald, William L., McAlister, Marian Holland, Ed.
- Lyachynska, O. Kyiv’s 1,530th birthday marked with fun, protest. Kyiv Post. 31 May 2012
- City of Aberdeen, http://www.scottishaccommodationindex.com/aberdeenpics.htm
- Hurlstone K., and Jackson, A, (1969), The Gododdin: the oldest Scottish poem, Edinburgh University Press, Edinburgh. P. 4 – ISBN 978-0-85224-049-6
- "Y Gododdin". Penelope.uchicago.edu. Retrieved 2013-01-19.
- Lambert, T., A BRIEF HISTORY OF INVERNESS, SCOTLAND, http://www.localhistories.org/inverness.html
- Glasgows-timeline |(http://www.seeglasgow.com/seeglasgow/about-glasgow/glasgows-timeline
- Saint Mungo |http://dspace.dial.pipex.com/town/plaza/aaj50/mungo.htm
- "Wawel". Retrieved 15 October 2015.
- "Historien om Aarhus" (in Danish). Aarhus Stadsarkiv. Retrieved 14 February 2016.
- K. Kris Hirst. "Ribe – What is Ribe". About.com Archaeology. The About Group. Retrieved 22 August 2012.
- "Encyclopædia Britannica: Gniezno". Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved 2016-08-15.
- "Welcome to Gniezno". Gniezno.eu/. Retrieved 2016-08-15.
- "The history of Ostrów Tumski stronghold". Poznań.pl. Retrieved 2016-08-15.
- Jerzy Kłoczowski (14 September 2000). A History of Polish Christianity. Cambridge University Press. pp. 10–13. ISBN 978-0-521-36429-4. Retrieved 5 April 2012.
- Lund.se Archived December 24, 2008, at the Wayback Machine.
- "Dantsic", Northern Germany (5th ed.), Coblenz: Karl Baedeker, 1873, OCLC 5947482