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Oldest people

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This is a list of tables of the oldest people in the world in ordinal ranks. To avoid including false or unconfirmed claims of extreme old age, names here are restricted to those people whose ages have been validated by an international body that specifically deals in longevity research, such as the Gerontology Research Group (GRG) or Guinness World Records (GWR), and others who have otherwise been reliably sourced.

According to this criterion, the longest human lifespan is that of Jeanne Calment of France (1875–1997), who lived to the age of 122 years, 164 days. She met Vincent van Gogh when she was 12 or 13.[1] She received news media attention in 1985, after turning 110. Subsequent investigation found documentation for Calment's age, beyond any reasonable question, in the records of her native city, Arles, France.[2] More evidence of Calment's lifespan has been produced than for any other supercentenarian, such that her case serves as an archetype in the methodology for verifying the ages of the world's oldest people.[3] Nevertheless, a November 2018 study advanced the hypothesis that Calment's daughter Yvonne usurped her identity in 1934. Yvonne was born on 19 January 1898, which would have made her 99 years old upon her death in 1997.[4]

As women live longer than men on average, combined records for both sexes are predominated by women. The longest undisputed lifespan for a man is that of Jiroemon Kimura of Japan (1897–2013), who died at age 116 years, 54 days.

Since the death of 117-year-old Chiyo Miyako of Japan on 22 July 2018, 115-year-old Kane Tanaka, also of Japan, born 2 January 1903, is the oldest living person in the world whose age has been documented. Since the death of 113-year-old Francisco Núñez Olivera of Spain on 29 January 2018, 113-year-old Masazō Nonaka of Japan, born 25 July 1905, is the world's oldest verified living man.

Ten oldest verified people ever

Systematic verification of longevity has only been practiced in recent decades and only in certain parts of the world. All ten of these people are women.

  Deceased   Living
**^ denotes age at death, or, if living, age as of 9 December 2018

Rank Name Sex Birth date Death date Age [**] Country of death or residence
1 Jeanne Calment[1] F 21 February 1875[a] 4 August 1997 122 years, 164 days[a] France
2 Sarah Knauss[5] F 24 September 1880 30 December 1999 119 years, 97 days United States
3 Nabi Tajima[6] F 4 August 1900 21 April 2018 117 years, 260 days Japan
4 Lucy Hannah[7] F 16 July 1875 21 March 1993 117 years, 248 days United States
5 Marie-Louise Meilleur[8] F 29 August 1880 16 April 1998 117 years, 230 days Canada
6 Violet Brown[6] F 10 March 1900 15 September 2017 117 years, 189 days Jamaica
7 Emma Morano[6] F 29 November 1899 15 April 2017 117 years, 137 days Italy
8 Chiyo Miyako[9] F 2 May 1901 22 July 2018 117 years, 81 days Japan
9 Misao Okawa[6] F 5 March 1898 1 April 2015 117 years, 27 days Japan
10 María Capovilla[10] F 14 September 1889 27 August 2006 116 years, 347 days Ecuador

Men

Rank Name Birth date Death date Age [**] Country of death or residence
1 Jiroemon Kimura[11][12] 19 April 1897 12 June 2013 116 years, 54 days Japan
2 Christian Mortensen[12] 16 August 1882 25 April 1998 115 years, 252 days United States[a]
3 Emiliano Mercado del Toro[12] 21 August 1891 24 January 2007 115 years, 156 days Puerto Rico
4 Mathew Beard[12] 9 July 1870 16 February 1985 114 years, 222 days United States
5 Walter Breuning[13] 21 September 1896 14 April 2011 114 years, 205 days United States
6 Yukichi Chuganji[14] 23 March 1889 28 September 2003 114 years, 189 days Japan
7 Joan Riudavets[15] 15 December 1889 5 March 2004 114 years, 81 days Spain
8 Fred H. Hale, Sr.[16] 1 December 1890 19 November 2004 113 years, 354 days United States
9 Yisrael Kristal[6][17] 15 September 1903 11 August 2017 113 years, 330 days Israel[b]
10 Johnson Parks[12] 15 October 1884 17 July 1998 113 years, 275 days United States

a^ Mortensen was born in Denmark.
b^ Kristal was born in Poland, then a part of the Russian Empire.

Ten oldest living people

Rank Name Sex Birth date Age as of 9 December 2018 Country of residence
1 Kane Tanaka[6] F 2 January 1903 115 years, 341 days Japan
2 Maria Giuseppa Robucci[6] F 20 March 1903 115 years, 264 days Italy
3 Shimoe Akiyama[6] F 19 May 1903 115 years, 204 days Japan
4 Lucile Randon[6] F 11 February 1904 114 years, 301 days France
5 Shin Matsushita[6] F 30 March 1904 114 years, 254 days Japan
6 Maria Vikentyevna Kononovich[18][19] F 27 May 1904 114 years, 196 days Belarus
7 Lessie Brown[6] F 22 September 1904 114 years, 78 days United States
8 Maggie Kidd[20] F 8 December 1904 114 years, 1 day United States
9 Jeanne Bot[6] F 14 January 1905 113 years, 329 days France
10 Shigeyo Nakachi[6] F 1 February 1905 113 years, 311 days Japan

Ten oldest living men

Rank Name Birth date Age as of 9 December 2018 Country of residence
1 Masazō Nonaka[6] 25 July 1905 113 years, 137 days Japan
2 Gustav Gerneth[21] 15 October 1905 113 years, 55 days Germany[a]
3 Richard Arvin Overton[6] 11 May 1906 112 years, 212 days United States
4 Tsunahei Ogawa[22] 9 January 1907 111 years, 334 days Japan
5 Shivakumara Swami[23] 1 April 1907[24] 111 years, 252 days India[b]
6 Yoshikazu Yamashita[25] 10 April 1907 111 years, 243 days Japan
7 C. P. Crawford[26] 25 August 1907 111 years, 106 days United States
8 Qin Hanzhang[27] 19 February 1908 110 years, 293 days China[c]
9 Carl Mattsson[28] 7 March 1908 110 years, 277 days Sweden
10 Gerhart Schneider[29] 13 March 1908 110 years, 271 days Germany

a^ Gerneth was born in Stettin, then a part of the German Empire; it is now named Szczecin and located in Poland.
b^ Swami was born in Magadi, Kingdom of Mysore, then a part of British India, now a state of India.
c^ Hanzhang was born in Wuxi, then a part of Imperial China, now the People's Republic of China.

Chronological list of the oldest known living person since 1955

This table lists the sequence of the world's oldest known living person from 1955 to present, according to GRG research.[30] Due to the life expectancy difference between sexes, nearly all the oldest living people have been women; a sequence of the oldest living men is provided below the main list.

From Oldest during… Name Sex Age(s) when
oldest
Lifespan Country of death
or residence
Unknown date N/A Betsy Baker F ? – 113 20 August 1842 – 24 October 1955
113 years, 65 days
United States
24 October 1955 1 year, 53 days Jennie Howell F 110 – 111 11 February 1845 – 16 December 1956
111 years, 309 days
United States
16 December 1956 1 year, 104 days Anne Marie Carstenson F 107 – 109 24 January 1849 – 30 March 1958
109 years, 65 days
United States
30 March 1958 201 days Nancy Ryan F 108 – 109 5 September 1849 – 17 October 1958
109 years, 42 days
United States
17 October 1958 355 days Christina Karnebeek-Backs F 109 – 110 2 October 1849 – 7 October 1959
110 years, 5 days
Netherlands
7 October 1959 48 days Marie Olsen F 109 1 May 1850 – 24 November 1959
109 years, 207 days
Norway
24 November 1959 5 years, 36 days Mary Kelly F 108 – 113 7 June 1851 – 30 December 1964
113 years, 206 days
United States
30 December 1964 66 days Elizabeth Kensley F 109 12 May 1855 – 6 March 1965
109 years, 298 days
United Kingdom
6 March 1965 153 days William Fullingim M 109 – 110 7 July 1855 – 6 August 1965
110 years, 30 days
United States
6 August 1965 157 days Hannah Smith F 109 – 110 7 January 1856 – 10 January 1966
110 years, 3 days
United Kingdom
10 January 1966 2 years, 71 days John Mosely Turner M 109 – 111 15 June 1856 – 21 March 1968
111 years, 280 days
United Kingdom
21 March 1968 87 days Johanna Booyson F 111 17 January 1857 – 16 June 1968
111 years, 151 days
South Africa
16 June 1968 322 days Marie Bernátková[31] F 110 – 111 22 October 1857 – 4 May 1969
111 years, 194 days
Czechoslovakia
(now the Czech Republic)
4 May 1969 252 days Ada Roe F 111 6 February 1858 – 11 January 1970
111 years, 339 days
United Kingdom
11 January 1970 3 years, 47 days Josefa Salas Mateo F 109 – 112 14 July 1860 – 27 February 1973
112 years, 228 days
Spain
27 February 1973 172 days Alice Stevenson F 111 – 112 10 July 1861 – 18 August 1973
112 years, 39 days
United Kingdom
18 August 1973 74 days Elizabeth Watkins F 110 10 March 1863 – 31 October 1973
110 years, 235 days
United Kingdom
31 October 1973 1 year, 212 days Mito Umeta F 110 – 112 27 March 1863 – 31 May 1975
112 years, 65 days
Japan
31 May 1975 1 year, 169 days Niwa Kawamoto F 111 – 113 5 August 1863 – 16 November 1976
113 years, 105 days
Japan
16 November 1976 1 year, 16 days Sophia DeMuth F 110 – 111 30 June 1866 – 2 December 1977
111 years, 155 days
United States
2 December 1977 144 days Marie-Virginie Duhem F 111 2 August 1866 – 25 April 1978
111 years, 266 days
France
25 April 1978 2 years, 272 days Fannie Thomas F 111 – 113 14 April 1867 – 22 January 1981
113 years, 283 days
United States
22 January 1981 45 days Augustine Teissier F 112 2 January 1869 – 8 March 1981
112 years, 65 days
France
8 March 1981 1 year, 250 days Nellie Spencer F 111 – 113 24 August 1869 – 13 November 1982
113 years, 81 days
United States
13 November 1982 334 days Emma Wilson F 112 – 113 12 May 1870 – 13 October 1983
113 years, 154 days
United States
13 October 1983 1 year, 126 days Mathew Beard M 113 – 114 9 July 1870 – 16 February 1985
114 years, 222 days
United States
16 February 1985 1 year, 247 days Augusta Holtz F 113 – 115 3 August 1871 – 21 October 1986
115 years, 79 days
United States
21 October 1986 104 days Mary McKinney F 113 30 May 1873 – 2 February 1987
113 years, 248 days
United States
2 February 1987 328 days Anna Eliza Williams F 113 – 114 2 June 1873 – 27 December 1987
114 years, 208 days
United Kingdom
27 December 1987 15 days Florence Knapp F 114 10 October 1873 – 11 January 1988
114 years, 93 days
United States
11 January 1988 9 years, 205 days Jeanne Calment F 112 – 122 21 February 1875 – 4 August 1997
122 years, 164 days
France
4 August 1997 255 days Marie-Louise Meilleur F 116 – 117 29 August 1880 – 16 April 1998
117 years, 230 days
Canada
16 April 1998 1 year, 258 days Sarah Knauss F 117 – 119 24 September 1880 – 30 December 1999
119 years, 97 days
United States
30 December 1999 308 days Eva Morris F 114 8 November 1885 – 2 November 2000
114 years, 360 days
United Kingdom
2 November 2000 216 days Marie Brémont F 114 – 115 25 April 1886 – 6 June 2001
115 years, 42 days
France
5 June 2001 286 days Maude Farris-Luse F 114 – 115 21 January 1887 – 18 March 2002
115 years, 56 days
United States
18 March 2002 71 days Grace Clawson F 114 15 November 1887 – 28 May 2002
114 years, 194 days
United States
28 May 2002 85 days Adelina Domingues F 114 19 February 1888 – 21 August 2002
114 years, 183 days
United States
21 August 2002 130 days Mae Harrington F 113 20 January 1889 – 29 December 2002
113 years, 343 days
United States
29 December 2002 273 days Yukichi Chuganji M 113 – 114 23 March 1889 – 28 September 2003
114 years, 189 days
Japan
28 September 2003 46 days Mitoyo Kawate F 114 15 May 1889 – 13 November 2003
114 years, 182 days
Japan
13 November 2003 198 days Ramona Trinidad Iglesias-Jordan F 114 31 August 1889 – 29 May 2004
114 years, 272 days
Puerto Rico
29 May 2004 2 years, 90 days María Capovilla F 114 – 116 14 September 1889 – 27 August 2006
116 years, 347 days
Ecuador
27 August 2006 106 days Elizabeth Bolden F 116 15 August 1890 – 11 December 2006
116 years, 118 days
United States
11 December 2006 44 days Emiliano Mercado del Toro M 115 21 August 1891 – 24 January 2007
115 years, 156 days
Puerto Rico
24 January 2007 4 days Emma Tillman F 114 22 November 1892 – 28 January 2007
114 years, 67 days
United States
29 January 2007[b] 196 days Yone Minagawa F 114 4 January 1893 – 13 August 2007
114 years, 221 days
Japan
13 August 2007 1 year, 105 days Edna Parker F 114 – 115 20 April 1893 – 26 November 2008
115 years, 220 days
United States
26 November 2008 37 days Maria de Jesus F 115 10 September 1893 – 2 January 2009
115 years, 114 days
Portugal
2 January 2009 252 days Gertrude Baines F 114 – 115 6 April 1894 – 11 September 2009
115 years, 158 days
United States
11 September 2009 233 days Kama Chinen F 114 10 May 1895 – 2 May 2010
114 years, 357 days
Japan
2 May 2010 186 days Eugénie Blanchard F 114 16 February 1896 – 4 November 2010
114 years, 261 days
Saint Barthélemy, France
4 November 2010 229 days Maria Gomes Valentim F 114 9 July 1896 – 21 June 2011
114 years, 347 days
Brazil
21 June 2011 1 year, 166 days Besse Cooper F 114 – 116 26 August 1896 – 4 December 2012
116 years, 100 days
United States
4 December 2012 13 days Dina Manfredini F 115 4 April 1897 – 17 December 2012
115 years, 257 days
United States
17 December 2012 177 days Jiroemon Kimura M 115 – 116 19 April 1897 – 12 June 2013
116 years, 54 days
Japan
12 June 2013 1 year, 292 days Misao Okawa F 115 – 117 5 March 1898 – 1 April 2015
117 years, 27 days
Japan
31 March 2015[c] 6 days Gertrude Weaver F 116 4 July 1898 – 6 April 2015
116 years, 276 days
United States
6 April 2015 72 days Jeralean Talley F 115 – 116 23 May 1899 – 17 June 2015
116 years, 25 days
United States
17 June 2015 331 days Susannah Mushatt Jones F 115 – 116 6 July 1899 – 12 May 2016
116 years, 311 days
United States
13 May 2016[d] 337 days Emma Morano F 116 – 117 29 November 1899 – 15 April 2017
117 years, 137 days
Italy
15 April 2017 153 days Violet Brown F 117 10 March 1900 – 15 September 2017
117 years, 189 days
Jamaica
16 September 2017[e] 217 days Nabi Tajima F 117 4 August 1900 – 21 April 2018
117 years, 260 days
Japan
21 April 2018 92 days Chiyo Miyako F 116 – 117 2 May 1901 – 22 July 2018
117 years, 81 days
Japan
22 July 2018 140 days Kane Tanaka F 115* born 2 January 1903
115 years, 341 days
Japan

Chronological list of the oldest living man since 1973

This table lists the sequence of the world's oldest known living men from 1973 to present, according to GRG research.[32]

From Oldest during… Name Age(s) when
oldest
Lifespan Country of death
or residence
Unknown date N/A Friedrich Wedeking ? – 110 10 October 1862 – 5 May 1973
110 years, 207 days
Germany
5 May 1973 308 days Frederick Butterfield 109 – 110 28 February 1864 – 9 March 1974
110 years, 9 days
United Kingdom
9 March 1974 3 years, 8 days Jean Teillet 107 – 110 6 November 1866 – 17 March 1977
110 years, 131 days
France
17 March 1977 1 year, 156 days Charlie Nelson 109 – 110 21 September 1867 – 20 August 1978
110 years, 333 days
United States
20 August 1978 2 years, 16 days Charlie Phillips 108 – 110 5 May 1870 – 5 September 1980
110 years, 123 days
United States
5 September 1980 4 years, 164 days Mathew Beard 110 – 114 9 July 1870 – 16 February 1985
114 years, 222 days
United States
16 February 1985 1 year, 301 days Joe Thomas 109 – 111 1 May 1875 – 14 December 1986
111 years, 227 days
United States
14 December 1986 22 days Herman Smith-Johannsen 111 15 June 1875 – 5 January 1987
111 years, 204 days
Norway
5 January 1987 1 year, 325 days Alphaeus Philemon Cole 110 – 112 12 July 1876 – 25 November 1988
112 years, 136 days
United States
25 November 1988 1 year, 197 days John Evans 111 – 112 19 August 1877 – 10 June 1990
112 years, 295 days
United Kingdom
10 June 1990 8 days Henri Pérignon 110 14 October 1879 – 18 June 1990
110 years, 247 days
France
18 June 1990 1 year, 120 days James Wiggins 110 – 112 15 October 1879 – 16 October 1991
112 years, 1 day
United States
16 October 1991 1 year, 241 days Frederick Frazier 111 – 113 27 January 1880 – 14 June 1993
113 years, 138 days
United States
14 June 1993 220 days Josep Armengol Jover 111 – 112 23 July 1881 – 20 January 1994
112 years, 181 days
Spain
20 January 1994 4 years, 95 days Christian Mortensen 111 – 115 16 August 1882 – 25 April 1998
115 years, 252 days
United States
25 April 1998 83 days Johnson Parks 113 15 October 1884 – 17 July 1998
113 years, 275 days
United States
17 July 1998 161 days Walter Richardson 112 – 113 7 November 1885 – 25 December 1998
113 years, 48 days
United States
25 December 1998 125 days Denzo Ishisaki 112 20 October 1886 – 29 April 1999
112 years, 191 days
Japan
29 April 1999 200 days Antonio Urrea Hernandez 111 16 February 1888 – 15 November 1999
111 years, 272 days
Spain
15 November 1999 1 year, 106 days John Painter 111 – 112 20 September 1888 – 1 March 2001
112 years, 162 days
United States
1 March 2001 308 days Antonio Todde 112 22 January 1889 – 3 January 2002
112 years, 346 days
Italy
3 January 2002 1 year, 268 days Yukichi Chuganji 112 – 114 23 March 1889 – 28 September 2003
114 years, 189 days
Japan
28 September 2003 159 days Joan Riudavets Moll 113 – 114 15 December 1889 – 5 March 2004
114 years, 81 days
Spain
5 March 2004 259 days Fred H. Hale Sr. 113 1 December 1890 – 19 November 2004
113 years, 354 days
United States
19 November 2004 2 years, 66 days Emiliano Mercado del Toro 113 – 115 21 August 1891 – 24 January 2007
115 years, 156 days
Puerto Rico
24 January 2007 2 years, 146 days Tomoji Tanabe 111 – 113 18 September 1895 – 19 June 2009
113 years, 274 days
Japan
19 June 2009 29 days Henry Allingham 113 6 June 1896 – 18 July 2009
113 years, 42 days
United Kingdom
18 July 2009 1 year, 270 days Walter Breuning 112 – 114 21 September 1896 – 14 April 2011
114 years, 205 days
United States
15 April 2011[f] 2 years, 58 days Jiroemon Kimura 113 – 116 19 April 1897 – 12 June 2013
116 years, 54 days
Japan
11 June 2013[g] 94 days Salustiano Sanchez 112 8 June 1901 – 13 September 2013
112 years, 97 days
United States
13 September 2013 223 days Arturo Licata 111 2 May 1902 – 24 April 2014
111 years, 357 days
Italy
24 April 2014 45 days Alexander Imich 111 4 February 1903 – 8 June 2014
111 years, 124 days
United States
8 June 2014 1 year, 27 days Sakari Momoi 111 – 112 5 February 1903 – 5 July 2015
112 years, 150 days
Japan
5 July 2015 198 days Yasutaro Koide 112 13 March 1903 – 19 January 2016
112 years, 312 days
Japan
18 January 2016[h] 1 year, 205 days Yisrael Kristal 112 – 113 15 September 1903 – 11 August 2017
113 years, 330 days
Israel
11 August 2017 171 days Francisco Núñez Olivera[6] 112 – 113 13 December 1904 – 29 January 2018
113 years, 47 days
Spain
30 January 2018[i] 313 days Masazō Nonaka 112 – 113*[6] born 25 July 1905
113 years, 137 days
Japan

Oldest verified person by country

Notes

  1. ^ a b Disputed: a November 2018 study advanced the hypothesis that Calment's daughter Yvonne usurped her identity in 1934. Yvonne was born on 19 January 1898, which would have made her 99 years old upon her death in 1997.[4]
  2. ^ Emma Tillman died 28 January 2007 (EST). However, in Fukuoka Prefecture, where Minagawa lived, the date was already 29 January 2007 (JST).
  3. ^ Misao Okawa died 1 April 2015 (JST). However, in Arkansas, where Weaver lived, the date was still 31 March 2015 (Central Time Zone).
  4. ^ Susannah Mushatt Jones died 12 May 2016 8:26pm EDT. However, in Italy, where Morano lived, the date was already 13 May 2016 (CEST).
  5. ^ Violet Brown died on 15 September 2017 in Jamaica (UTC-5). However, in Japan, where Tajima lived, the date was already 16 September 2017 (JST).
  6. ^ Walter Breuning died 14 April 2011 3:30pm (MDT). However, in Kyoto, where Kimura lived, the date was already 15 April 2011 (JST).
  7. ^ Jiroemon Kimura died 12 June 2013 (JST). However, in New York, where Sanchez lived, the date was still 11 June 2013 (Eastern Time Zone).
  8. ^ Yasutaro Koide died 19 January 2016 12:17 a.m. JST. However, in Israel, where Kristal lived, the date was still 18 January 2016 (IST).
  9. ^ Francisco Núñez Olivera died 29 January 2018 around 10:30pm CET. However, in Japan, where Nonaka lives, the date was already 30 January 2018 (JST).

References

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  2. ^ Robine, Jean-Marie; Allard, Michel (1999). Jeanne Calment: Validation of the Duration of Her Life. Odense: University Press of Southern Denmark.
  3. ^ Shaw, Michael D. (1 December 2008). "You Say You Want to Live for a Long Time?". Health News Digest.
  4. ^ a b Milova, Elena (4 November 2018). "Valery Novoselov: Investigating Jeanne Calment's Longevity Record". Life Extension Advocacy Foundation. Retrieved 5 December 2018.
  5. ^ "World's oldest person misses millennium". BBC. 31 December 1999. Retrieved 3 January 2016.
  6. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q "Validated Living Supercentenarians". Gerontology Research Group.
  7. ^ Maier, Heiner (2010). Supercentenarians. Springer. p. 249. ISBN 3-642-11519-5.
  8. ^ "Marie-Louise Meilleur, 117; Listed as Oldest Person in World". Los Angeles Times. 18 April 1998. Retrieved 3 January 2016.
  9. ^ "Oldest person title officially achieved by 117-year-old Chiyo Miyako before her death". 26 July 2018.
  10. ^ "World's oldest woman dies at 116". BBC. 28 August 2006. Retrieved 3 January 2016.
  11. ^ "World's oldest man ever passes away aged 116". Guinness World Records. 12 June 2013. Retrieved 3 January 2016.
  12. ^ a b c d e "Table M - World's Oldest Men (WOM) Titleholders Since 1973". grg.org. 14 March 2016. Retrieved 20 June 2017.
  13. ^ Walter Breuning, world's oldest man, dies in Montana at age 114 Archived 29 April 2011 at the Wayback Machine.
  14. ^ "''World's oldest man dies aged 114'', BBC News, 29 September 2003". BBC News. 2003-09-29. Retrieved 2016-10-29.
  15. ^ "Joan Riudavets-Moll, 114; World's Oldest Man". LA Times. 8 March 2004. Retrieved 29 October 2016.
  16. ^ "''World's oldest man dies aged 113'', BBC News, 20 November 2004". BBC News. 2003-09-29. Retrieved 2016-10-29.
  17. ^ "Guinness: Holocaust survivor, 112, named world's oldest man". CBS News, 11 March 2016
  18. ^ Umpirovich, Dmitry (2 November 2017). "Золотой век бабушки Марии – Как живется старейшей жительнице Беларуси" [Grandmother Maria's golden age – How is the oldest resident of Belarus?]. Sovetskaya Belorussiya (in Russian). Retrieved 12 May 2018.
  19. ^ Mitskevich, Pavel (10 October 2018). "Октябрь в Листопадах. Посмотрите на деревню, где живет самый старый человек в Беларуси – 114 лет" [October in Falling Leaves. Discover the village where lives the oldest person in Belarus – 114 years]. Komsomolskaya Pravda, Belarus edition (in Russian). Retrieved 30 November 2018.
  20. ^ "Georgia's oldest living person turns 114". 11alive.com. 8 December 2018. Retrieved 8 December 2018.
  21. ^ "Deutschlands wohl ältester Mann 113 Jahre alt geworden". welt.de (in German). 15 October 2018. Retrieved 15 October 2018.
  22. ^ "平成30年度 長崎県の長寿者の状況について" [2018 status report on longevity in Nagasaki prefecture] (PDF) (in Japanese). 1 September 2018. Retrieved 21 November 2018.
  23. ^ Hirehalli, Devaraj B. (16 August 2018). "Siddaganga seer Shivakumara Swami sticks to his routine". The Indian Express. Retrieved 29 November 2018.
  24. ^ "Bengaluru: Walking God celebrates 111th birthday with one lakh devotees". Deccan Chronicle. 2 April 2018. Retrieved 29 November 2018.
  25. ^ "平成 30 年度百歳以上高齢者の状況等について" [About centenarians in Hiroshima Prefecture] (PDF) (in Japanese). Hiroshima Prefecture. 14 September 2018. Retrieved 24 November 2018.
  26. ^ Jongsma, Melanie (24 August 2018). "Lansing's oldest resident celebrates 111th birthday". The Lansing Journal. Retrieved 29 November 2018.
  27. ^ "110岁酒界泰斗秦含章:他用超过百年的精气神,仍然影响现在每一个中国酒业人" (in Chinese). kuaibao.qq.com. 2018-03-06. Retrieved 2018-06-20.
  28. ^ "Sveriges äldsta man fyller 110 år". 7 March 2018. Retrieved 19 August 2018
  29. ^ https://www.rundschau-online.de/region/kreis-euskirchen/bad-muenstereifel-archiv/mit-sachertorte-von-heino-gerhart-schneider-feiert-110--geburtstag-in-bad-muensteifel-29874976
  30. ^ "Table C - World's Oldest Person (WOP) Titleholders Since 1955". Revision #12. Gerontology Research Group. July 31, 2018. Retrieved November 8, 2018.
  31. ^ "Ústav pro českou literaturu", Rudé právo, Prague, p. 2, 6 May 1969
  32. ^ "Table M - World's Oldest Men (WOM) Titleholders Since 1973". Revision #8. Gerontology Research Group. April 10, 2018. Retrieved November 8, 2018.