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Olea europaea (Olive), Lisbon, Portugal
Scientific classification e
Kingdom: Plantae
Clade: Tracheophytes
Clade: Angiosperms
Clade: Eudicots
Clade: Asterids
Order: Lamiales
Family: Oleaceae
Tribe: Oleeae
Subtribe: Oleinae
Genus: Olea

Enaimon Raf.
Leuranthus Knobl.
Pachyderma Blume
Picricarya Dennst.
Pogenda Raf.
Steganthus Knobl.
Stereoderma Blume
Tetrapilus Lour.

Olea (/ˈliə/ OH-lee-ə[3]) is a genus of about 40 species in the family Oleaceae, native to warm temperate and tropical regions of the Middle East, southern Europe, Africa, southern Asia, and Australasia.[2] They are evergreen trees and shrubs, with small, opposite, entire leaves. The fruit is a drupe. Leaves of Olea contain trichosclereids.[4]

For humans, the most important and familiar species is by far the olive (Olea europaea), native to the Mediterranean region, Africa, southwest Asia, and the Himalayas,[5][6] which is the type species of the genus. The native olive (O. paniculata) is a larger tree, attaining a height of 15–18 m in the forests of Queensland, and yielding a hard and tough timber. The yet harder wood of the black ironwood O. capensis, an inhabitant of Natal, is important in South Africa.[citation needed]

Olea species are used as food plants by the larvae of some Lepidoptera species including double-striped pug.[citation needed]


Species accepted:[2][7][8]

  1. Olea ambrensis H.Perrier - Madagascar
  2. Olea borneensis Boerl. - Borneo, Philippines
  3. Olea brachiata (Lour.) Merr. - Guangdong, Hainan, Cambodia, Thailand, Vietnam, Peninsular Malaysia, Anambas Islands
  4. Olea capensis L. – Small Ironwood - Comoros, Madagascar; Africa from South Africa north to Ethiopia, Sudan, Zaire, Nigeria, Ivory Coast, etc
  5. Olea capitellata Ridl. - Pahang
  6. Olea caudatilimba L.C.Chia - Yunnan
  7. Olea chimanimani Kupicha - Chimanimani Mountains of Mozambique and Zimbabwe
  8. Olea cordatula H.L.Li - Vietnam
  9. Olea dioica Roxb. - India, Bangladesh, Myanmar
  10. Olea europaea L. – Olive - Mediterranean, Africa, southwestern Asia, Himalayas; naturalized many other places
  11. Olea exasperata Jacq. - South Africa
  12. Olea gagnepainii Knobl. - Thailand, Laos
  13. Olea gamblei C.B.Clarke - Sikkim
  14. Olea hainanensis H.L.Li - Vietnam, Laos, Guangdong, Hainan
  15. Olea javanica (Blume) Knobl. - Philippines, western Indonesia
  16. Olea lancea Lam. - Madagascar, Mauritius, Réunion, Rodrigues Island
  17. Olea laxiflora H.L.Li - Yunnan
  18. Olea moluccensis Kiew - Maluku
  19. Olea neriifolia H.L.Li - Hainan
  20. Olea palawanensis Kiew - Palawan
  21. Olea paniculata R.Br. - Yunnan, India, Indochina, Indonesia, Kashmir, Malaysia, Nepal, New Guinea, Pakistan, Sri Lanka, Australia, New Caledonia, Vanuatu
  22. Olea parvilimba (Merr. & Chun) B.M.Miao - Hainan, Vietnam
  23. Olea polygama Wight - India, Sri Lanka
  24. Olea puberula Ridl. - Peninsular Malaysia
  25. Olea rosea Craib - Yunnan, Thailand
  26. Olea rubrovenia (Elmer) Kiew - Borneo, Philippines
  27. Olea salicifolia Wall. ex G.Don - Assam, southern China, Indochina
  28. Olea schliebenii Knobl. - Tanzania
  29. Olea tetragonoclada L.C.Chia - Guangxi
  30. Olea tsoongii (Merr.) P.S.Green - Guangdong, Guangxi, Guizhou, Hainan, Sichuan, Yunnan
  31. Olea welwitschii (Knobl.) Gilg & G.Schellenb. - central and eastern Africa from Ethiopia to Zimbabwe
  32. Olea wightiana Wall. ex G.Don - India
  33. Olea woodiana Knobl. - South Africa, Eswatini, Kenya, Tanzania
  34. Olea yuennanensis Hand.-Mazz. - China

Formerly placed here[edit]

List source :[7]


  1. ^ a b  GRIN (April 4, 2006). "Olea information from NPGS/GRIN". Taxonomy for Plants. National Germplasm Resources Laboratory, Beltsville, Maryland: USDA, ARS, National Genetic Resources Program. Archived from the original on June 29, 2011. Retrieved May 20, 2011.
  2. ^ a b c Kew World Checklist of Selected Plant Families, genus Olea
  3. ^ Sunset Western Garden Book. 1995. pp. 606–607.
  4. ^ Flora of China v 15 p 295, 木犀榄属 mu xi lan shu, Olea Linnaeus, Sp. Pl. 1: 7. 1753.
  5. ^ Kew World Checklist of Selected Plant Families, Olea europaea L.
  6. ^ Altevista Flora Italiana, Oleastro, Olea europaea L.
  7. ^ a b GRIN. "Species in GRIN for genus Olea". Taxonomy for Plants. National Germplasm Resources Laboratory, Beltsville, Maryland: USDA, ARS, National Genetic Resources Program. Archived from the original on September 24, 2015. Retrieved May 20, 2011.
  8. ^ "Name - Olea L. subordinate taxa". Tropicos. Saint Louis, Missouri: Missouri Botanical Garden. Retrieved May 20, 2011.