Oleninsky District

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Not to be confused with Leninsky District.
Oleninsky District
Оленинский район (Russian)
Tver-oblast-Olenino.png
Location of Oleninsky District in Tver Oblast
Coordinates: 56°12′15″N 33°28′39″E / 56.20417°N 33.47750°E / 56.20417; 33.47750Coordinates: 56°12′15″N 33°28′39″E / 56.20417°N 33.47750°E / 56.20417; 33.47750
Coat of Arms of Oleninsky rayon (Tver oblast).png
Flag of Oleninsky rayon (Tver oblast).png
Coat of arms
Flag
Location
Country Russia
Federal subject Tver Oblast[1]
Administrative structure (as of 2012)
Administrative center urban-type settlement of Olenino[1]
Administrative divisions:[citation needed]
Urban settlements 1
Rural settlements 6
Inhabited localities:[citation needed]
Urban-type settlements 1
Rural localities 338
Municipal structure (as of July 2009)
Municipally incorporated as Oleninsky Municipal District[2]
Municipal divisions:[3]
Urban settlements 1
Rural settlements 6
Statistics
Area 2,675 km2 (1,033 sq mi)[4]
Population (2010 Census) 12,675 inhabitants[5]
- Urban 38.8%
- Rural 61.2%
Density 4.74/km2 (12.3/sq mi)[6]
Time zone MSK (UTC+03:00)[7]
Official website
Oleninsky District on WikiCommons

Oleninsky District (Russian: Оле́нинский райо́н) is an administrative[1] and municipal[2] district (raion), one of the thirty-six in Tver Oblast, Russia. It is located in the southwest of the oblast and borders with Selizharovsky District in the north, Rzhevsky District in the east, Sychyovsky District of Smolensk Oblast in the southeast, Belsky District in the south, and with Nelidovsky District in the west. The area of the district is 2,675 square kilometers (1,033 sq mi).[4] Its administrative center is the urban locality (an urban-type settlement) of Olenino.[1] Population: 12,675 (2010 Census);[5] 14,817 (2002 Census);[8] 18,892 (1989 Census).[9] The population of Olenino accounts for 38.8% of the district's total population.[5]

Geography[edit]

The area of the district split between the drainage basins of the Daugava River (the Atlantic) and the Volga River (the Caspian Sea). The rivers in the northern and in the western parts of the district flow into the Tudovka River, a right tributary of the Volga, and into the Osuga River, a left tributary of the Vazuza River. Both the Osuga and the Tudovka have their sources in the district. The central and the southern parts of the district drain into the Luchega River, the Beryoza River, and the Obsha River, the tributaries of the Mezha River, a tributary of the Daugava. The Luchega and the Beryoza have their source in the district, and the Obsha crosses the south of the district. About 60% of the area of Oleninsky District is forested.[10]

History[edit]

In the 12th century, the area belonged to Principality of Smolensk and subsequently to Principality of Toropets. In the beginning of the 13th century, it was included into Principality of Rzhev. From the 13th century, the area was the battlefield between Vladimir-Suzdal (later the Grand Duchy of Moscow) and the Grand Duchy of Lithuania and changed hands many times. The first locality in the current area of the district, the selo of Urdom, was mentioned in the chronicles in 1323. In the end of the 14th century, the area was finally under control of Moscow.[11]

In the course of the administrative reform carried out in 1708 by Peter the Great, the area was split between Smolensk Governorate and Ingermanlandia Governorate (since 1710 known as Saint Petersburg Governorate). In 1727 Novgorod Governorate split off from Saint Petersburg Governorate. In 1775, Tver Viceroyalty was formed from the lands which previously belonged to Moscow and Novgorod Governorates, and the northeastern part of the area was transferred to Tver Viceroyalty, which in 1796 was transformed to Tver Governorate. In 1775, Rzhevsky Uyezd was established, with the center in Rzhev.[12] The southeastern part belonged to Belsky Uyezd of Smolensk Governorate, with the exception of the brief periods between 1713 and 1726, when it belonged to Riga Governorate, and between 1775 and 1796, when Smolensk Governorate was transformed into Smolensk Viceroyalty. Olenino was founded in 1898 as a settlement serving the railway station.[11]

On 12 July 1929, governorates and uyezds were abolished, and Oleninsky District with the administrative center in the settlement of Olenino was established. It belonged to Rzhev Okrug of Western Oblast.[13][14] On August 1, 1930 the okrugs were abolished, and the districts were subordinated directly to the oblast. On 29 January, 1935 Kalinin Oblast was established, and Oleninsky District was transferred to Kalinin Oblast.[13][12] During World War II, in 1941—1943, the district was occupied by German troops. On 13 February 1963, Oleninsky District was abolished and merged into Nelidovsky District; on 4 March 1964, it was reestablished. In 1990, Kalinin Oblast was renamed Tver Oblast.[14]

On 12 July 1929 Molodotudsky District, with the center in the selo of Molodoy Tud was created as well. It was a part of Rzhev Okrug of Western Oblast. On 1 February 1932 it was abolished. On March 5, 1935 Chertolinsky District with the administrative center in the selo of Chertolino was established. It was a part of Kalinin Oblast. On 20 March 1936 Chertolino was transferred to Rzhevsky District, and Chertolinsky District was renamed Molodotudsky. The administrative center was moved to Molodoy Tud. On 22 August 1958 Molodotudsky District was abolished and split between Kirovsky, Oleninsky, and Rzhevsky Districts.[12]

Economy[edit]

Industry[edit]

There are enterprises of food and timber industries, located in Olenino.[10]

Agriculture[edit]

The main agricultural specializations of the district are cattle breeding with meat and milk production, as well as crops, flax, and potato growing.[10]

Transportation[edit]

The railway which connects Moscow and Riga via Rzhev, crosses the district from east to west. There is passenger railway traffic. Olenino is the biggest railway station in the district.

The M9 highway connecting Moscow with Riga also crosses the district, passing Olenino. There are also local roads with bus traffic originating from Olenino.

Culture and recreation[edit]

The district contains eight cultural heritage monuments of federal significance and additionally 134 objects classified as cultural and historical heritage of local significance. The federally protected monuments are the buildings of the Tatyevo Estate in the selo of Tatyevo.[15]

There are local museums in Olenino and in Tatyevo.[16]

References[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d Государственный комитет Российской Федерации по статистике. Комитет Российской Федерации по стандартизации, метрологии и сертификации. №ОК 019-95 1 января 1997 г. «Общероссийский классификатор объектов административно-территориального деления. Код 28 244», в ред. изменения №259/2014 от 12 декабря 2014 г.. (State Statistics Committee of the Russian Federation. Committee of the Russian Federation on Standardization, Metrology, and Certification. #OK 019-95 January 1, 1997 Russian Classification of Objects of Administrative Division . Code 28 244, as amended by the Amendment #259/2014 of December 12, 2014. ).
  2. ^ a b Law #4-ZO
  3. ^ Law #39-ZO
  4. ^ a b "Official website of Oleninsky District" (in Russian). Administration of Oleninsky District. Retrieved 20 June 2015. 
  5. ^ a b c Russian Federal State Statistics Service (2011). "Всероссийская перепись населения 2010 года. Том 1" [2010 All-Russian Population Census, vol. 1]. Всероссийская перепись населения 2010 года (2010 All-Russia Population Census) (in Russian). Federal State Statistics Service. Retrieved June 29, 2012. 
  6. ^ The value of density was calculated automatically by dividing the 2010 Census population by the area specified in the infobox. Please note that this value may not be accurate as the area specified in the infobox does not necessarily correspond to the area of the entity proper or is reported for the same year as the population.
  7. ^ Правительство Российской Федерации. Федеральный закон №107-ФЗ от 3 июня 2011 г. «Об исчислении времени», в ред. Федерального закона №248-ФЗ от 21 июля 2014 г. «О внесении изменений в Федеральный закон "Об исчислении времени"». Вступил в силу по истечении шестидесяти дней после дня официального опубликования (6 августа 2011 г.). Опубликован: "Российская газета", №120, 6 июня 2011 г. (Government of the Russian Federation. Federal Law #107-FZ of June 31, 2011 On Calculating Time, as amended by the Federal Law #248-FZ of July 21, 2014 On Amending Federal Law "On Calculating Time". Effective as of after sixty days following the day of the official publication.).
  8. ^ Russian Federal State Statistics Service (May 21, 2004). "Численность населения России, субъектов Российской Федерации в составе федеральных округов, районов, городских поселений, сельских населённых пунктов – районных центров и сельских населённых пунктов с населением 3 тысячи и более человек" [Population of Russia, Its Federal Districts, Federal Subjects, Districts, Urban Localities, Rural Localities—Administrative Centers, and Rural Localities with Population of Over 3,000] (XLS). Всероссийская перепись населения 2002 года [All-Russia Population Census of 2002] (in Russian). Retrieved August 9, 2014. 
  9. ^ Demoscope Weekly (1989). "Всесоюзная перепись населения 1989 г. Численность наличного населения союзных и автономных республик, автономных областей и округов, краёв, областей, районов, городских поселений и сёл-райцентров" [All Union Population Census of 1989: Present Population of Union and Autonomous Republics, Autonomous Oblasts and Okrugs, Krais, Oblasts, Districts, Urban Settlements, and Villages Serving as District Administrative Centers]. Всесоюзная перепись населения 1989 года [All-Union Population Census of 1989] (in Russian). Институт демографии Национального исследовательского университета: Высшая школа экономики [Institute of Demography at the National Research University: Higher School of Economics]. Retrieved August 9, 2014. 
  10. ^ a b c "Паспорт Оленинского района Тверской области в сфере АПК" (PDF) (in Russian). ГКУ ТО «Центр развития АПК Тверской области». Retrieved 21 June 2015. 
  11. ^ a b "История Оленинского района" (in Russian). Oleninsky District Administration. Retrieved 30 June 2015. 
  12. ^ a b c Справка об изменениях в административно-территориальном делении Тверской губернии - Калининской области (in Russian). Архивы России. Retrieved 1 March 2014. 
  13. ^ a b Воробьёв, М. В. (1993). Г. В. Туфанова, ed. Административно-территориальное деление Смоленской области (in Russian). Государственный архив Смоленской области. pp. 118–133. 
  14. ^ a b Малыгин, П. Д.; Смирнов, С. Н. (2007). История административно-территориального деления Тверской Области (PDF). Tver. p. 14-15. ISBN 5-94205-049-7. 
  15. ^ Памятники истории и культуры народов Российской Федерации (in Russian). Russian Ministry of Culture. Retrieved February 12, 2015. 
  16. ^ "Оленинский район" (in Russian). Тверская ОУНБ им. А.М. Горького. Retrieved 29 June 2015. 

Sources[edit]

  • Законодательное Собрание Тверской области. Закон №4-ЗО от 18 января 2005 г. «Об установлении границ муниципальных образований Тверской области и наделении их статусом городских округов, муниципальных районов», в ред. Закона №65-ЗО от 24 июля 2012 г. «О внесении изменения в статью 2 Закона Тверской области "Об установлении границ муниципальных образований Тверской области и наделении их статусом городских округов, муниципальных районов"». Вступил в силу через десять дней после официального опубликования. Опубликован: "Тверские ведомости", №3, 21–27 января 2005 г. (Legislative Assembly of Tver Oblast. Law #4-ZO of January 18, 2005 On Establishing the Borders of the Municipal Formations of Tver Oblast and on Granting Them the Status of Urban Okrugs, Municipal Districts, as amended by the Law #65-ZO of July 24, 2012 On Amending Article 2 of the Law of Tver Oblast "On Establishing the Borders of the Municipal Formations of Tver Oblast and on Granting Them the Status of Urban Okrugs, Municipal Districts". Effective as of the day which is ten days after the official publication.).
  • Законодательное Собрание Тверской области. Закон №39-ЗО от 28 февраля 2005 г. «Об установлении границ муниципальных образований, входящих в состав территории муниципального образования Тверской области "Оленинский район", и наделении их статусом городского, сельского поселения», в ред. Закона №61-ЗО от 13 июля 2009 г. «О внесении изменений в Закон Тверской области "Об установлении границ муниципальных образований, входящих в состав территории муниципального образования Тверской области "Оленинский район", и наделении их статусом городского, сельского поселения"». Вступил в силу со дня официального опубликования. Опубликован: "Тверские ведомости", №10, 11–17 марта 2005 г. (Legislative Assembly of Tver Oblast. Law #39-ZO of February 28, 2005 On Establishing the Borders of the Municipal Formations Comprised by the Territory of the Municipal Formation of "Oleninsky District" and on Granting Them the Status of Urban, Rural Settlements, as amended by the Law #61-ZO of July 13, 2009 On Amending the Law of Tver Oblast "On Establishing the Borders of the Municipal Formations Comprised by the Territory of the Municipal Formation of "Oleninsky District" and on Granting Them the Status of Urban, Rural Settlements". Effective as of the day of the official publication.).