Olga Desmond

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Olga Desmond (born Olga Sellin 2 November 1890 in Allenstein in East Prussia (now Olsztyn, Poland); died 2 August 1964 in Berlin) was a German dancer and actress.

Biography[edit]

Olga Desmond on a contemporary Russian postcard

Olga Desmond studied drama and earned her living as a model for artists and painters in Berlin. In 1907 she joined a group of artists and appeared as Venus during the group's nine-month tour at the London Pavilion where they put on "plastic representations." In Berlin she co-founded the Association for Ideal Culture and gave shows called "living pictures" in which she posed after the manner of ancient classical works of art. These so-called “Evenings of Beauty” (Schönheitsabende) were prohibited on more than one occasion starting from 1908, because the actors usually posed nude or wearing only bodypaint.

The "heroine of living pictures," Olga Desmond became one of the first to promote nudity on the stage in St. Petersburg, Russia, when in the summer of 1908 the German dancer arrived there with her repertoire of performance. Olga Desmond’s Evenings of Beauty quickly became the subject of a great debate in the Russian media. At least one of the representatives of official "justice" wanted to haul Desmond into court for "seduction."

Olga Desmond herself persistently defended her right to appear naked. "Call it daring or bold, or however you want to describe my appearance on the stage, but this requires art, and it (art) is my only deity, before whom I bow and for which I am prepared to make all possible sacrifices," she told the Russian press. "I decided to break the centuries-old heavy chains, created by people themselves. When I go out on stage completely naked, I am not ashamed, I am not embarrassed, because I come out before the public just as I am, loving all that is beautiful and graceful. There was never a case when my appearance before the public evoked any cynical observations or dirty ideas."

Asked whether a stage costume would interfere with her, Olga Desmond answered: "To be completely graceful in a costume or even in a tricot is unthinkable. And I decided to throw off this needless yoke." Objecting to the claims that she excites "base instincts" of the public, the dancer said: "I purposely set a high admission charge for my shows so that the street would not get in, for it has little understanding of pure art, but so that people with broader demands for it would come, people who will look on me as a servitor of art."

The authorities in St. Petersburg paid little attention to the explanations offered by the dancer from Berlin, and her first appearance in the imperial Russian capital was also her last: further shows were forbidden by the mayor. Many artists in the capital took the side of the authorities. For example, Konstantin Makovsky sharply denounced what he called the "cult of the naked body," saying that "beauty, like much else in life, must have its hidden secrets, that we don’t even have the right to expose."

Olga Desmond was no less the subject of controversy in her own country. In 1909 her appearance in the Berlin Wintergarten was the cause of such a scandal that it became a subject of discussion even in the Prussian State Assembly. But "scandalous" also meant well-known, and as a result of her renown, there were cosmetic products that carried her name. She traveled through Germany on numerous tours until 1914, when she married a Hungarian large landowner, and went off with him to his estate.

From 1916 through 1919 she appeared in various films including Seifenblasen (Soap Bubbles), Maria's Sonntagsgewand (Maria’s Sunday clothes) and Mut zur Sünde (Courage for sin). In the latter film she played opposite the later well-known German actor Hans Albers. In 1917 she separated from her husband and returned to the stage. Her first appearance took place on 15 April 1917 at the Theatre of the Royal University (Theater der Königlichen Hochschule) in Berlin. In the same year she appeared in a performance of Carmen in Cologne. She presented dance evenings and other things in Warsaw, Breslau (now Wrocław), and Kattowitz (now Katowice).

Thereafter, she made fewer public appearances and from 1922 devoted herself entirely to teaching. Among her best-known students was Hertha Feist, who later became a member of the dance group of Rudolf von Laban.

After the First World War she married her second husband, Georg Piek, a Jewish businessman with a studio for stage equipment, decorations, and special fabrics. After 1933 Piek left Germany. Olga Desmond continued to manage the business.[citation needed]

After World War II, Desmond lived in the eastern part of Berlin. When the wall was built, she was unable to leave.[citation needed] In her late years, forgotten by the public, she worked as a cleaning woman. To make a living, she also sold vintage postcards and other memorabilia from her time as a renowned dancer.[1] Olga Desmond died on 2 August 1964 in East Berlin.

Filmography[edit]

  • 1915 : Seifenblasen
  • 1915 : Nocturno
  • 1917 : Postkarten-Modell : Wanda
  • 1917 : Die Grille
  • 1918 : Leben um Leben : Aglaja
  • 1918 : Der Mut zur Sünde
  • 1918 : Der fliegende Holländer : Senta
  • 1919 : Göttin, Dirne und Weib

Publication[edit]

  • Desmond, Olga Rhythmographik. Tanznotenschrift als Grundlage zum Selbstudium des Tanzes Edited by Fritz Böhme, Leipzig, 1919

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Tagesspiegel.de

Sources[edit]

  • German edition of Wikipedia
  • Glezerov, Sergei “XX vek nachinalsya s obnazhenki” [“The 20th Century began with strippers”] in Komsomol’skaya Pravda, Sankt Peterburg: 10 January 2003.
  • Karina, Lilian and Kant, Marion, Hitler's Dancers: German Modern Dance and the Third Reich (page 340 for details of Rhythmographik), Berghahn Books, Oxford and New York, 2003

Literature[edit]

  • Ochaim, Brygida M. and Balk, Claudia Variéte-Tänzerinnen um 1900. Vom Sinnenrausch zur Tanzmoderne, Ausstellung des Deutschen Theatermuseums München 23.10.1998-17.1.1999., Stroemfeld, Frankfurt/M. 1998, ISBN 3-87877-745-0.